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Prepared By-

M.B.A. II sem Students:

Ayushi Jain (13187)
Diksha Singh (13197)
Glory Stephen (13211)
Harsha Batra (13214)
Komal Rana (13241)
What is Research?
The systematic investigation into and study of materials and
sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

Research is what we do when we have a question or a problem we
want to resolve.

First priority is to formulate your question.

Then figure out how you are going to answer it.
How have others answered it?
How does your proposal fit in with what others have done?

Then you can present your answer.

Purpose Of Research
To develop an initial, rough understanding of a phenomenon.

Precise measurement and reporting of the characteristics of the
population or phenomenon.

To help plan and gather information on a certain topic.

To help monitor something before carrying it out.

To help discover new things by gathering and looking out for what
others would have done.

To gather and explore more into a certain topic which helps to
backup your opinions with the findings.

Process Of Research Design
Process of Research Design
Step 1: Identify the Problem
The first step in the process is to identify a problem
or develop a research question. This should be very precise
and specific in nature.

Step 2: Review the Literature
Now that the problem has been identified, the
researcher must learn more about the topic under
investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the
literature related to the research problem. The review of
literature also educates the researcher about what studies
have been conducted in the past, how these studies were
conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area.

Step 3 : Formulation Of Hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a assumption made about the
relationship between two or more than two variables.
The hypothesis can be developed through discussions
with his guide or colleagues and through similar studies
carried out earlier.

Step 4: Formulation of Research Design
A research design is a conceptual framework
which answers what, why, when, how, who, about the
research. It specifies how the data will be collected,
analyzed, executed. It should be flexible in order to
absorb changes brought about research during the

Step 5: Collection of Data
The collection of data is a critical step in providing
the information needed to answer the research question.
Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey,
with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the

Step 6: Analysis the Data
All the time, effort, and resources of the research
process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally
has data to analyze so that the research question can be
answered. The results of this analysis are then reviewed
and summarized in a manner directly related to the
research questions.

Step 7: Interpretation of Report
Findings are presented often by research objective
in a clear and concise way. The need for a good report
cannot be overlased. It is the report, & for its presentation,
that properly communicates the result to the client.
A Statement of Objectives
Data inputs required on the basis of which the
research problem has to be solved
Method of Analysis
Simply a Blueprint!
We must have one strong evidence to say that there
exist a strong association between an action (causal
variable) and ultimate outcome (effect variable)
Action (causal variable) must precede outcome
(effect variable)
There must be no other possible factor (causal
factor) which could have resulted in the observed
Provides info to enable a more precise problem definition
or hypothesis formulation
Establishing research priorities
Gives researched a feel of the problem
Good start

1. Methods Used
a) Survey of literature
b) Survey of experienced individuals
c) Analysis of selected case situations

Most commonly used
Combination of qualitative and quantitative
More formal as compared to Exploratory

a) Panel Discussion
b) Focus Groups
c) Cross Sectional Designs
R = Random
X = Experimental Treatment
O = Observation

Also called one-shot case study
Test unit not selected at random
Single group is exposed to treatment and then measurement is
Eg: Effect of training on sales force
No meaningful
oNo prior observation available for comparison
oThe level of O could be result of other factors in addition
of the effect of X

O1 X O2
Eg: Before training how did the sales perform in
comparison to after training
Limitation as does not consider:
Selection Bias: not randomly selected
History: Economic conditions may have improved
Maturation: Sales force may have gained more experience
Testing: The pre-test measurement might have affected the
Instrumentation: Prices may have changed during that period
Mortality: Some test units may have left during the period of

Use of two groups
Group 1 exposed to treatment and Group 2 is not
Group 1 (experimental Group): X1 O1
Group 2 (Control Group): X2 O2
Note X2 is regular routine or program
Experiment result is obtained by O1 O2
Limitation: Groups not sleeted on random and
some test units may have left during the period of

Extension of one group pre-test and post-test design
Periodic measurement are taken for the same unit
Ex: Advertising campaigns effect on Market Share

After-only with One Control Group
Before-After with One Control Group
Four Group Design