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Trainer Objectives

Describe the requirements for secure storage of

Explain the requirements for operating powered
industrial trucks.
Indicate the requirements for operation of
overhead and gantry cranes.
Subpart N - Materials Handling &
Storage (1910.176 - 184)
Powered Industrial Trucks Operator training
Secure storage
Powered Industrial Trucks Safe operating condition


Powered Industrial Trucks Operator certification
Powered Industrial Trucks Examination
*Average number of Federal OSHA citations issued
between 2000 and 2003
1910.176(a) Use of mechanical
Where mechanical handling equipment is used,
sufficient safe clearances shall be allowed for
aisles, at loading docks, through doorways and
wherever turns or passage must be made
Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear and
in good repair, with no obstruction across or in
aisles that could create a hazard

Permanent aisles and passageways shall be
appropriately marked
Stored material
creating a hazard
across the aisle
1910.176(a) Use of mechanical
1910.176(b) Secure storage
Storage of material shall not create a hazard
Bags, containers, etc.., stacked, blocked,
interlocked and limited in height so that they are
stable and secure against sliding or collapse
Material is not stable
1910.176(c) Housekeeping
Storage areas shall be kept
free from accumulation of
materials that constitute
hazards from tripping, fire,
explosion, or pest harborage
(e) Clearance limits:
Signs to warn of clearance limits
shall be provided
1910.176 (g) Guards
Covers and/or guard- rails shall be provided to
protect personnel from the hazards of open pits,
tanks, vats, ditches, etc..
1910.177 Servicing multi-piece
and single piece rim wheels
(a)(1) Applies to the servicing of multi-piece and
single piece rim wheels used on large vehicles
such as trucks, tractors, trailers, buses and off-
road machines
1910.177(c) Training
(1)(i) The employer shall assure that no
employee services any rim wheel unless the
employee has been trained and instructed in
Correct procedures of servicing the type of wheel
being serviced, and
In the safe operating procedures described in
paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section
Standard Interpretations
02/27/1997 - Evaluation of an employee's
ability to perform servicing of multi-piece
or single piece rim wheels
The 1910.177 standard does not specify the
details of the training program, but simply
requires the development and maintenance of
employee proficiency in given elements of
servicing. See paragraph 1910.177(c)(2).
A mechanic's level of proficiency must be
established by demonstration of his or her
familiarity with and ability to use the 1910.177
standard and the charts and rim manual.
Standard Interpretations
02/27/1997 - Evaluation of an employee's
ability to perform servicing of multi-piece
or single piece rim wheels
The training provisions of the standard are
stated in performance language, allowing the
employer flexibility in complying with the
requirement for training.
The responsibility of providing adequate training
and evaluating the employee's proficiency rests
with the employer.

1910.178 (a) Powered industrial
General Requirements
(1) Contains safety requirements relating to:
Fire protection,
Maintenance, and
Use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks,
motorized hand trucks, and other specialized
industrial trucks powered by electric motors or
internal combustion engines
1910.178 (a) Powered industrial
(2) Meet the design and construction
requirements for powered industrial trucks
established in the "American National Standard
for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI

(3) Approved trucks shall bear a label or some
other identifying mark indicating approval by a
nationally recognized testing laboratory
1910.178 (a) Powered industrial
(4) Modifications and additions which affect
capacity and safe operation shall not be
performed by the customer or user without
manufacturers prior written approval

(6) All nameplates and markings are in place
and are maintained in a legible condition

1910.178 (a) Powered industrial
1910.178 (e) Powered industrial
Safety Guards
(1) High Lift Rider trucks shall be fitted with an
overhead guardunless operations do not

(2) If the type of load presents a hazard, the
user shall equip fork trucks with a vertical load
backrest extension
1910.178(f) Fuel Handling and
(1)The storage and handling of liquid fuels such
as gasoline and diesel fuel shall be in
accordance with NFPA Flammable and
Combustible Liquids Code (NFPA No. 30-1969)
(2)The storage and handling of liquefied
petroleum gas fuel shall be in accordance with
NFPA Storage and Handling of Liquefied
Petroleum Gases
(NFPA No. 58-1969)
1910.178(g) Changing and
charging storage batteries
(1)Battery charging installations shall be located
in areas designated for that purpose
(2)Facilities provided for
Flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte,
For fire protection,
For protecting charging apparatus from damage by
trucks, and
For adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes from
gassing batteries
Must LP cylinders used for internal combustion forklifts
be stored outside only, or is it permissible to store
them inside a warehouse or industrial building?
: 1910.178(f)(2) addresses the storage and handling
of liquified petroleum by incorporating by reference the
National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA
58-1969, Storage and Handling of Liquified
Petroleum Gases.
This document lists the requirements for storage of LP
cylinders in areas such as within buildings frequented
by the public, buildings not frequented by the public,
special buildings or rooms, and outside of buildings.
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT requirements
covering: LP-gas storage, and eye wash stations.
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT requirements
covering: LP-gas storage, and eye wash stations.
What regulations state how close eyewash
station must be to a battery
changing/charging station?
Because 1910.178 does not have a specific
requirement for eyewash facilities, the general
standard at 1910.151 applies. When
necessary, facilities for drenching or flushing
the eyes shall be provided within the work
area for immediate emergency use.
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT requirements
covering: LP-gas storage, and eye wash
In applying these general terms, OSHA would
consider the guidelines set by such sources as
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Z358.1-1998, Emergency Eyewash and
Shower Equipment, which states, at section
7.4.4, that eyewash facilities are to be
located to require no more than 10 seconds
to reach but that where a strong acid or
caustic is used, the unit should be
immediately adjacent to the hazard.
1910.178(g) Changing and
charging storage batteries
(4)A conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent
material handling equipment shall be provided
for handling batteries

1910.178(g) Changing and
charging storage batteries
(5)Reinstalled batteries
shall be properly
positioned and secured
in the truck
1910.178(g) Changing and
charging storage batteries
(7)When charging batteries, acid poured into
water; not water poured into acid
(8)Trucks properly positioned and brake applied
before attempting to change or charge batteries
(9)Care taken to assure that vent caps are

1910.178(g) Changing and
charging storage batteries
(10)Smoking shall be prohibited in the
charging area
(11)Precautions shall be taken to prevent
open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in
battery charging areas

No smoking
sparks or
open flames
(12) Tools and metallic
objects shall be kept away
from the tops of batteries
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT requirements
covering: smoking.
Are there any regulations that prohibit
smoking on powered industrial trucks of
any classification or fuel designation?
1910.178 does not address smoking except to
prohibit smoking in the battery charging areas
There are other OSHA standards which may
apply, however, such as these dealing with the
presence of flammable liquids or atmospheres
or other regulated substances.
1910.178(h) Lighting for
operating areas
Where general lighting
is less than 2 lumens
per square foot,
auxiliary directional
lighting shall be
provided on the truck

1910.178(k) Trucks and
railroad cars
The brakes of highway trucks set and wheel
chocks placed under the rear wheels to prevent
the trucks from rolling while they are boarded
with powered industrial trucks

Wheel stops or other recognized positive
protection shall be provided to prevent railroad
cars from moving during loading or unloading
1910.178(l) Operator training
(1)Ensure that each powered industrial truck
operator is competent to operate a powered
industrial truck safely
Prior to permitting an employee to operate a
powered industrial truck (except for training
purposes), the employer shall ensure that each
operator has successfully completed the
training required
Practical training
(2)(i)Trainees may operate a powered industrial
truck only:
(A)Under the direct supervision of persons who
have the knowledge, training, and experience to
train operators and evaluate their competence;
(B)Where such operation does not endanger
the trainee or other employees.

1910.178(l) Operator training
1910.178(l) Operator training
(2)(ii)Training shall consist of a combination of:
Formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion,
interactive computer learning, video tape, written
Practical training (demonstrations performed by
the trainer and practical exercises performed by the
trainee), and
Evaluation of the operator's performance in the
1910.178(l) Operator training
(2)(iii) All operator training and evaluation shall
be conducted by persons who have the
knowledge, training, and experience to train
powered industrial truck operators and evaluate
their competence.

1910.178(l) Operator training
(3)Training topics:
Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions;
Differences between the truck and the automobile;
Truck controls and instrumentation:
where they are located,
what they do, and
how they work;
Engine or motor operation;
Steering and maneuvering;
Fork and attachment adaptation;
1910.178(l) Operator training
Training topics (contd.):
Vehicle capacity;
Vehicle stability;
Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the
operator will be required to perform;
Refueling and/or charging and recharging of
Operating limitations;
operating instructions, warnings, or precautions
listed in the operator's manual
Workplace-related topics:
Surface conditions where the vehicle will be
Composition of loads to be carried and load
Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking;
Pedestrian traffic in areas
where the vehicle will be
Ramps and other sloped
surfaces that could affect
the vehicle's stability;
1910.178(l) Certification
(6)The certification shall include:
The name of the operator;
The date of the training;
The date of the evaluation, and;
The identity of the person(s)
performing the training or evaluation

1910.178(m) Truck operations
(1)Trucks never driven up to anyone standing in
front of a bench or other fixed object
(2)No one allowed to stand or pass under the
elevated portion of any truck,
whether loaded or empty

(3)Unauthorized personnel not permitted to ride
on powered industrial trucks
A safe place to ride provided where riding of
trucks is authorized
1910.178(m) Truck operations
(4)Prohibit arms or legs from being placed
between the uprights of the mast or outside the
running lines of the truck
(5)(i)Truck left unattended, load engaging
means fully lowered, controls neutralized,
power shall be shut off, and brakes set*

*A powered industrial truck is unattended when the operator
is 25 ft. or more away from the vehicle which remains in his
view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not
in his view
1910.178(m) Truck operations
(6)A safe distance shall be maintained from the
edge of ramps or platforms while on any
elevated dock, or platform or freight car.
Trucks shall not be used for opening or closing
freight doors.
(7)Brakes shall be set and wheel blocks shall
be in place to prevent movement of trucks,
trailers, or railroad cars while loading or
(7)The flooring of trucks, trailers, and railroad
cars shall be checked for breaks and weakness
before they are driven onto.
1910.178(m) Truck operations
(9)An overhead guard shall be used as
protection against falling objects.

It should be noted that an overhead guard is
intended to offer protection from the impact of
small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc.,
representative of the job application, but not to
withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.
1910.178(m) Truck operations
(12)(i)Use of a
safety platform
firmly secured to
the lifting carriage
and/or forks
(ii)Means shall be
provided whereby
personnel on the
platform can shut
off power to the
Safety platform detail
Safety platform detail
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT
requirements covering: fall protection and
safety platforms
Are safety platforms attached to the forks of a
forklift considered aerial lifts?
No, Aerial devices (aerial lifts) are covered
under 1910.67, Vehicle-mounted Elevating
and Rotating Work Platforms. An aerial
device is any vehicle-mounted device that
telescopes, articulates or both, which is used to
position personnel. A platform attached to the
forks of a forklift would not be considered an
aerial lift.
Standard Interpretations
03/08/2002 - Clarification of PIT
requirements covering: fall protection and
safety platforms
Are workers required to wear fall protection
(full body harness and lanyard) when they
are up in a safety platform that has a
standard guardrail, mid-rail and toe plate?
No, personal fall protection equipment would
not be required when a guardrail system is
installed along the open sides of the safety
1910.178(n) Traveling
(1)All traffic regulations shall be observed,
including authorized plant speed limits;
A safe distance shall be maintained
approximately three truck lengths from the
truck ahead, and;

The truck shall be kept under control at all times
Three truck lengths
1910.178(n) Traveling
(3)Other trucks traveling in the
same direction at intersections,
blind spots, or other dangerous
locations shall not be passed
(4)Driver required to slow down
and sound horn at cross aisles
and other locations where vision
is obstructed
(4)If the load being carried
obstructs forward view, driver
shall travel with the load trailing
1910.178(n) Traveling
(7)(i)Ascending or
descending grades in
excess of 10 percent,
loaded trucks driven with
the load upgrade
(7)(iii)On all grades the load
and load engaging means
tilted back if applicable, and
raised only as far as
necessary to clear the road
1910.178(n) Traveling
(11)Dockboard or bridgeplates, shall be
properly secured before they are driven over.
(11)Dockboard or bridgeplates shall be driven
over carefully and slowly and their rated
capacity never exceeded.

Dockboard not secured
1910.179(b) Overhead and
gantry cranes
General requirements:
(1)Applies to overhead and gantry cranes,
cantilever gantry,
wall cranes,
storage bridge cranes,
and others having the same fundamental
These cranes are grouped because they all
have trolleys and similar travel characteristics
Standard Interpretations
03/04/1991 - Clarification of OSHA
standard on Overhead and Gantry Cranes
Does this standard apply to underhung
cranes, hoists, and monorails?
This standard does not apply to underhung
cranes, overhead hoists, or monorails.
Underhung cranes and monorails are covered
in ANSI B30.11-1980, a National Consensus
Standard. Under 1910.179 a hoist is defined as
an apparatus which may be a part of an
applicable crane, exerting a force for lifting or
lowering. Requirements for hoisting equipment
can be found in 1910.179(h)(1).

1910.179 (b) Overhead and
gantry cranes
(2)All new overhead and gantry cranes
constructed and installed on or after August
31, 1971, shall meet the design specifications
of the American National Standard Safety
Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, ANSI
1910.179 (b) Overhead and
gantry cranes
(5)The rated load of the crane
plainly marked on each side of
the crane, and if the crane has
more than one hoisting unit,
each hoist shall have its rated
load marked on it or its load
block and this marking clearly
legible from the floor
1910.179 (b) Overhead and
gantry cranes
(8)Only designated personnel shall be
permitted to operate a crane

Standard Interpretations
11/08/1999 - Training for travel lift (mobile
gantry crane) operators
Please be advised that 29 CFR 1910.179(b)(8)
requires that only designated personnel be permitted
to operate a crane. OSHA defines designated at
1910.179(a)(35) as:
Selected or assigned by the employer or the
employer's representative as being qualified to
perform specific duties [emphasis added].
Because the term "qualified" is not itself defined,
OSHA would interpret "qualified" in light of operator-
qualifications provisions of industry standards such as
ANSI B30.2.

1910.179 (c) Cabs
(2) Access to crane. Access to the cab and/or
bridge walkway shall be by a conveniently
placed fixed ladder, stairs, or platform requiring
no step over any gap exceeding 12 inches.
(2)Fixed ladders shall be in conformance with
the American National Standard Safety Code
for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956, which is
incorporated by reference as specified in Sec.
1910.179 (e)(1) Trolley Stops
(i)Stops shall be provided at the limits of travel
of the trolley.
(iii)Minimum height of the trolley stop at least
1/2 the diameter of the trolley wheel
Trolley stop
Min. 1/2 diameter
of trolley wheel
1910.179 (e)(4) Rail Sweeps
Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps
which extend below the top of the rail and
project in front of the truck wheels

1910.179 (e)(6) Guards for
moving parts
(i)Exposed moving parts shall be guarded; such
Set screws,
Projecting keys,
Chains & chain sprockets, and
Reciprocating components which might constitute a
hazard under normal operating conditions
1910.179 (g) Electric equipment
(3)(vi)For floor-operated
cranes, the controller or
controllers if rope
operated, shall
automatically return to the
"off" position when
released by the operator
(5)Power supply to runway
conductors capable of
being locked out

1910.179 (h) Hoisting Equipment
(1)(i)Sheave grooves shall be smooth and
free from surface defects which could
cause rope damage.
1910.179(j) Inspections
(1)(i)Initial inspection. Prior to initial use all new and
altered cranes shall be inspected to insure compliance
with the provisions of this section.
(1)(ii)(a)Frequent inspection - Daily to monthly
including observation during operation
(1)(ii)(b)Periodic inspection - 1 to 12-month intervals
(2)(i)All functional operating mechanisms for
maladjustment interfering with proper operation. Daily.
(2)(ii)Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks, valves,
drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic
systems. Daily.
1910.179(j) Inspections
(2)(iii)Hooks with deformation or
Visual inspection daily;
Monthly inspection with a certification
record which includes the:
Date of inspection,
The signature of the person who
performed the inspection and
The serial number, or other identifier, of
the hook inspected
1910.179(j) Inspections
(2)(vi)All functional operating mechanisms for
excessive wear of components
(2)(vii)Rope reeving for noncompliance with
manufacturer's recommendations
1910.179(j) Inspections
(3)Periodic inspections:
Deformed, cracked, or corroded members
Loose bolts or rivets
Cracked or worn sheaves and drums
Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins,
bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and
clamping devices
Excessive wear on brake system parts
1910.179(n) Handling the load
(1)The crane shall not be
loaded beyond its rated load
(3)(i)The load shall be well
secured and properly balanced
in the sling or lifting device
before it is lifted
(3)(ii)(a)Hoist rope shall not be
(3)(iii)(a)No sudden acceleration
or deceleration of the moving
(3)(iv)Cranes not be used for
side pulls unless authorized
1910.179(n)(4) Limit switches
At the beginning of each operator's shift, the
upper limit switch of each hoist shall be tried out
under no load
Extreme care shall be exercised; the block shall
be "inched" into the limit or run in at slow speed
If the switch does not operate properly, the
appointed person shall be immediately notified
1910.184 Slings
(c)Safe operating practices for all slings:
(1)Damaged or defective slings shall not be used
(2)Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts
(3)Sling legs shall not be kinked
(4)Not be loaded in excess of their rated capacities
(5)Used in a basket hitch shall have the loads
balanced to prevent slippage
(6)Securely attached to their loads

1910.184 Slings
(c)Safe operating practices for all
(7)Slings shall be padded or protected
from the sharp edges of their loads
(8)Suspended loads shall be kept clear
of all obstructions
(9)All employees shall be kept clear of
loads about to be lifted and of
suspended loads
(10)Hands or fingers shall not be placed
between the sling and its load while the
sling is being tightened around the load
Each day before being used, the
sling and all fastenings and
attachments inspected for damage
or defects by a competent person
designated by the employer
Additional inspections performed
during sling use, where service
conditions warrant
Damaged or defective slings shall
be immediately removed from
1910.184(d) Inspections
1910.184(f) Wire rope slings
Wire rope slings shall be immediately removed
from service if any of the following conditions
are present:
Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope
lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one rope
Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter
of outside individual wires
Kinking, crushing, bird caging or
any other damage resulting in
distortion of the wire rope structure
Evidence of heat damage
1910.184(f) Wire rope slings
Wire rope slings shall be immediately
removed from service if any of the
following conditions are present:
End attachments that are cracked,
deformed or worn
Hooks that have been opened more
than 15 percent of the normal throat
opening measured at the narrowest
point or twisted more than 10 degrees
from the plane of the unbent hook
10 max

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