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A PRESENTATION

ON
CATHODIC PROTECTION


By Kaushik Ray
History
1761 Humphrey Davy discovered that the corrosion
reaction forces can be controlled by changing the electrical
state of the material.
1821 Application of CP in British Navy by Davy .

1834 Michael Faraday formulated the principles of CP.

1890 Tomas Alva Edison introduced Impressed current
CP.

1906 Herbert Geppert used it first for the industrial
application.
Corrosion Economics
Economic Effects of Metallic Corrosion in US : A
1995 Update By Battelle Institute ,1996
Corrosion of metals and alloys Costs US
Companies . and their consumers a total of approx.
$300 billion /year.

BI & NIST scientists estimated that approx.
33% of total loss can be reduced by using current
best available corrosion prevention technique and
materials.
What causes corrosion ?
What is CP and how does it work?
Galvanic vs. impressed current
Electrolytes (or where can I use CP)
Condition assessments
Agenda

Metals require energy to process them from
their native state to a usable material.Nature wants
to reverse this.
What is Corrosion?
It is the degradation of a material due to a
reaction with its environment.

Forms of corrosion
Galvanic
Crevice
Pitting
Stress corrosion
Hydrogen Enhanced Corrosion
Intergranular Corrosion
Dealloying

Galvanic Corrosion
It occurs When two dissimilar materials
are in contact.
More anodic material corrodes faster
Galvanic series determines which will corrode faster
Less anodic (noble) material corrodes slower
Crevice
Crevice corrosion occurs at shielded areas
that contains a small volume of aqueous
solution. Presence of chlorides enhance
crevice corrosion.
Pitting corrosion
on free surface
Crevice
corrosion
under washers
Pitting
Local break down of protective passive films.

Accelerate very fast
Difficult to detect and lead to unexpected failure
Always involves presence of chloride ions

O
2
O
2

Cr
3+
Cr
3+

e
e
Cl
-

Cl
-

How does corrosion Occur ?
Cathodic Reaction :

2H
+
+ 2e
_

2
(

in PH < 6.5)
H
2
O +
1
/
2
O
2
+ 2e 2
-
(

in

Ph >6.5 8.5)
Corrosion Electrochemistry
Anodic Reaction : Fe Fe
++
+ 2e
-

Fe
++
+ 2OH
-


Fe(OH)2
;
Fe(OH)
2
+H
2
O +
1
/
2
O
2
Fe(OH)
3

N - Pole
S - Pole
Accelerated Low Water Corrosion

Tiny sulfate reducing micro-organisms (SRBs)
grow in colonies.

Bacteria reduces sulfate, common in saline water, to
create H
2
S which reacts with the steel to create
iron sulfide.

Iron sulfide is much more Cathodic than the steel
structure creating a strong corrosion cell.
SRBs create H
2
S which reacts with steel to form Iron Sulfide
a gray black sludge which is very cathodic .
ALWC cntd..
Control
Remove environmental harmful factors
Oxygen
Chlorides
Temperature
Humidity
Techniques
Cathodic Protection
Coating
Corrosion Inhibitor
Oxygen Scavengers
Deaeration
Materials Selection
Choosing the right materials for the environment

Coatings
Shielding the structure from the environment

Cathodic protection
Preventing corrosion by the application of a
current on to the protected structure

Corrosion Engineering
Eliminate any one of the above four (4) elements,
and you stop the corrosion reaction with no
further corrosion.
Corrosion Cell Elements

Anode
Cathode
Metallic path
Electrolyte

Cathodic Protection
Cathodic Protection is an electrochemical process
in which a DC current is applied to a metal to
mitigate or off-set corrosion currents.
structure
-ve
+ve
Types of CP Systems

Galvanic (or sacrificial)

Passive system relying on the natural potential
differential between two metals to generate current .
Impressed current

uses a power source to provide the electrical
potential difference to generate current .
Galvanic Anode or
sacrificial anode CP system
Current is obtained from metal of higher
energy state.
Galvanic anode material
Magnesium :
It has the highest driving voltage and lowest
efficiencies of the available galvanic anode
materials.

Consumption rate 7.94Kg/AY

Application : are best suited for higher resistance
soils and fresh water


Galvanic anode material
Zinc (10.73Kg/A-y) : Has a lower driving voltage but higher
efficiency than magnesium.
May struggle to produce sufficient current.
Best suited for low Resistivity soils.

Aluminum (3.17- 9.87Kg/A-y) : Same driving
voltage as zinc, lower consumption constant.
Normally limited to salt water applications.
Purity and heat treating greatly effects
. performance

More noble anodes with lower consumption
rates and longer life.

Rectifier units provide voltage differential to
generate protective current.

Impressed current systems can protect virtually
any underground or submerged structure
regardless of electrical isolation or coating
quality.

Requires regular monitoring and annual testing

Impressed Current System
Impressed Current System
Shallow anode Bed
Deep well anode Bed
Mixed oxide Magnesium
Anode (MMO)
Monitoring of CP system
Measurement of pipe to soil (PSP) potential
NACE Cathodic Protection Criteria

-850mV or more negative with current applied.
-850mV Instant Off.
-100mV shift between instant off and Native.
Characteristics
Thank you !












Back
More
Noble
Less
Noble
Back
When coupled together the less noble material
will sacrifice itself for the more noble material .


Thus magnesium, aluminum and zinc are the
most common sacrificial anode protecting steel
and Iron structures.