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# Thermodynamic Analysis of Internal

Combustion Engines
P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Work on A Blue Print Before You Ride on an Actual Engine.
Development of Mathematical Templates
Modeling of IC engine process can be carried out in many
ways.
Multidimensional, Transient Flow and heat transfer Model.
Thermodynamic Transient Model USUF.
Fuel-air Thermodynamic Model.
Air standard Thermodynamic Model.

First Law for CV:Uniform State Uniform Flow
Conservation of mass:
out in
CV
in out
CV
m m
dt
dm
m m
dt
dm
= = + 0
Conservation of energy:
W
dt
dE
Q
out
CV
in

+ O + = O +
Properties of CV are variant:
Continuous Accumulation or/and depletion of mass of a CV.
Continual Addition or removal of energy for a CV.
Salient Features of CV @USUF Process
Rate of mass inflow = Rate mass outflow.
The state of the mass crossing each of the areas of flow on the
control surface is
constant with time although the mass flow rates may be time
varying.
Rate of Work done is variant.
Rate of Heat transfer is variant.
Temporal Change of state or process is both for the CV and
Flows!
The incoming fluid changes its state from inlet(at one time t
0
) to
exit (at time t
0
+At) condition.
A CV with USUF process is approximates as a homogeneous but
variant device.
The importance of time is very high!
CV following A USUF Process for time At
A change of state occurs in a CV with USUF due to
change in time.
A total change in a CV over time At can be calculated
using:
( )
} }
A + A +
=
|
.
|

\
|
t t
t
out in
t t
t
CV
dt m m dt
dt
dm
0
0
0
0

( ) ( )
}
A +
= A +
t t
t
out in CV CV
dt m m t m t t m
0
0
) (
0 0

Total change in mass of A CV during a time interval Dt
Total change in energy of A CV during a time interval At
dt W dt dt
dt
dE
dt dt Q
t t
t
t t
t
out
t t
t
CV
t t
t
in
t t
t
} } } } }
A + A + A + A + A +
+ O + = O +
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

in
in in
gz
V
h m
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = O
2
2

out
out out
gz
V
h m
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = O
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = gz
V
u m E
CV CV
2
2
All parameters mentioned above are homogeneous and variant.
Let us now integrate this equation over time At, during which time we have
dt Q Q
t t
t
CV
}
A +
=
0
0

dt W W
t t
t
CV
}
A +
=
0
0

dt
t t
t
in in
}
A +
O = O
0
0

dt
t t
t
out out
}
A +
O O
0
0

+ +
(

+ + =
}
A +
1
2
1
1 1 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
0
0
gZ
V
u m gZ
V
u m dt
dt
dE
t t
t
CV
First Law for A CV executing USUF for finite cycle time
First Law Analysis: USUF
Intake Process:
A
I
R
FUEL
A
I
R
SI Engine CI Engine
SI Engine
0 ) ( ) ( =
|
.
|

\
|
- -
t m t m
dt
dm
fuel air
CV
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
t W t Q t h m t h m
dt
me d
CV
CV
fuel air CV
- - - -
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
CI Engine
0 ) ( =
|
.
|

\
|
-
t m
dt
dm
air
CV
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
t W t Q t h m
dt
me d
CV
CV
air CV
- - -
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

p
t A C t m
D
air
A
=
-
) ( ) (
Ideal Gas Equation for Intake Process
CV CV CV CV
RT m V p =

p
t A C t m
D
air
A
=
-
) ( ) (
First Law Analysis
Compression Process : USNF Transient Control Mass
Fuel/Air
Mixture
Air
SI Engine CI Engine
out in
CV
in out
CV
m m
dt
dm
m m
dt
dm
= = + 0
W
dt
dE
Q
out
CV
in

+ O + = O +
Compression Process
) ( ) (
) (
) (
t W t Q
dt
me d
dt
me d
CV
CV
CV
fuel
air
- -
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
)
`

=
-
dt
t dV
t p t W
CV
) (
) ( ) (
( )
atm cyl CV
T T t UA t Q =
-
) ( ) (
First Law Analysis: USUF
Combustion Process
Fuel injected
at 15
o
bTC
SI Engine CI Engine
Combustion Process
SI Engine
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( 1
t W t Q
dt
me d
dt
me d
dt
me d
CV
CV
CV
j
n
j
fuel
air
- -
=
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

CI Engine
0
) (
) (
) ( 1
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
-
=

fuel
CV
j
n
j
fuel
air
m
dt
m d
dt
m d
dt
m d
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( 1
t W t Q h m
dt
me d
dt
me d
dt
me d
CV
CV
fuel
CV
j
n
j
fuel
air
- - -
=
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

First Law Analysis: USUF
Power Stroke:
Power
Stroke
) ( ) (
) (
1
t W t Q
dt
e m d
CV
CV
CV
n
j
j j
- -
=
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

Exhaust Stroke:
0 ) (
1
1
= +
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
-
=
t m
dt
m d
n
j
j
CV
n
j
j
) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
t W t Q h t m
dt
e m d
CV
CV j
n
j
j
CV
n
j
j j
- -
=
-
=
= +
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

) ( ) (
) (
1
t W t Q
dt
e m d
CV
CV
CV
n
j
j j
- -
=
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

) ( ) (
) (
) (
t W t Q
dt
me d
dt
me d
CV
CV
CV
fuel
air
- -
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( 1
t W t Q
dt
me d
dt
me d
dt
me d
CV
CV
CV
j
n
j
fuel
air
- -
=
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +