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CAMPUS JOURNALISM

Objectives:

1. to develop the writing and editing
skills of campus journalists
2. to mold them into responsible
journalists by adhering to ethical
and moral standards in media
profession
News Writing

1. Involves getting facts and transmitting these
to the reader
2. Undergoes 3-part process before reaching the
reader:

1. coverage: refers to getting the news by
witnessing the event, interview, printed
material or all three



News Writing: 3-Part Process

2. Interpretation: involves explaining the news,
filling the background, forecasting, and
sometimes passing moral judgment. This is
mainly the responsibility of the editor and
columnists.
3. Play: assigning of value to the news. This is
done by the copyreader, news editor and
layout person

SCHOOL NEWS

Facts and information that has meaning to
the readers
Anything that concerns the school, its
students, the teachers, and parents
Activities inside and outside the classroom:
1. worthwhile and extraordinary acts of
students

School News
Activities inside and outside the classroom:

2. Stories of success, conflicts or suspense
3. Anything that informs, entertains or sets
students, teachers or administrators thinking
about reforms and improvements
4. School convocations and other programs
5. Interviews of visiting personages


Attributes of good news stories:

1. Timeliness: The event, idea or opinion must be
timely to make the news interesting.
Another word for timeliness is immediacy: the
more recent the event, the more interesting it
is to the community.
2. Factuality: News story must be factual based
on real events or happenings, on real ideas or
opinions, and not the fruit of ones creative
mind.


Attributes of Good News Story
3. Proximity: refers to the nearness of event to
the readers. Readers would be
more interested in events near
them .
4. Prominence: refers to both places and people.
For example, Boracay is
prominent because of its white
beaches and being a top tourist
attraction in the Philippines.

Prominence can also be exemplified by being:
1. elected to a public office
2. accomplishing something extraordinary,
like topping the board exam, winning the
lottery
3. wealthy or respectable in the community
4. witness to an event, a crime or an accident
5. troublesome, controversial, stubborn, defiant
to rules like not wearing the uniform as sign
of protest


Attributes of Good News Story

5. Significance: refers to an event, idea, opinion
that are important and
interesting to people in the
community or campus
For example the K-12 Curriculum as an
educational reform. Will this improve the
quality of Filipino students as a whole? Will the
government be able to improve quality teaching
and learning?
Attributes of a Good News Story

6. Oddity: refers to events that deviates from
the normal course events.
For example, a woman gives birth
to a Siamese twin or gives birth to
a baby with tails instead of feet.
NEWS GATHERING
1. Actual coverage of an event or happening
being in the scene
taking down notes
observing behavior
2 . Interview for opinions, reactions, plans,
programs
3. Writing from documents like speeches,
statements, research reports and other
written materials (armchair journalists)
The News Structure

Hard news or straight news deals with concrete
and fast breaking events. Hard news is
objective, direct and factual.

Soft news is featurized, subjective, and
sometimes interpretative.
CONSTRUCTION OF HARD NEWS

Lead paragraph: primary or more important
facts
Succeeding paragraphs: facts become less
important
Closing paragraph: least important facts that
can be deleted without ruining the story

CONSTRUCTION OF SOFT NEWS

Lead paragraph: least important facts

Succeeding paragraphs: facts become more
interesting

Closing paragraph: primary or most important
facts

THE INVERTED PYRAMID
Straight news are written in the inverted
pyramid structure.
Important facts are placed in the opening
paragraphs, referred to as lead.
Details and background are placed in the
succeeding paragraphs in descending
importance.
Traditionally, straight news answers the 5
Ws and one H

Four Components of the Inverted Pyramid

1. Primary or main lead: a single paragraph
which may contain a maximum of five lines
and which may answer the four Ws, what,
where, when, who
2. Secondary of support lead: may consist two
paragraphs that explain or compliment the
primary lead
Four Components of the Inverted Pyramid

3. Details or particulars: All available facts are
presented, particularly those that would
answer the other W (why) and one H
(how).
4. Background: Relevant events are recounted and
incorporated in the background. Like a flashback,
the readers are given insight into the events
preceding the one that is being reported. When
deleted from the story, the news story can still
stand.

Primary Lead

Secondary /Support Lead

Details of Particulars

Background
Example of straight news using the inverted
pyramid structure

Facts: The president of the Mindanao
Association of Private Schools
appeals for financial subsidy
from the government for the full
implementation of K-to- 12.
Primary lead or main lead

The president of the Mindanao Association of
Private Schools appeals for financial subsidy
from the government for the implementation
of K-to- 12. There is a great need of financial
subsidy for teachers training and scholarship
for students who cannot go to college.
Suggested primary or main lead:

In a symposium dated June 30, 2012, the
president of the Mindanao Association of
Private School Presidents propose to seek
for financial subsidy from the government to
guarantee full implementation of K-to- 12.
Primary or main lead
Answers for the following Ws

Who: president of the Mindanao Association
of Teachers
Where: symposium
When: June 30, 2012
What: appeal for financial subsidy

Suggested Support Lead

The president of the Mindanao Association of
Private School Presidents , Mr. Abelardo
Reyes, presented his proposal to seek for
government financial subsidy , during a one-
hour symposium at the CB Conference Hall
attended by presidents of private schools and
the Secretary of Education.
Suggested Support Lead

Mr. Reyes talked about all presidents of private
schools in Mindanao should put their acts
together to get financial assistance from the
government for its educational reform,
specifically K-to-12.
Suggested details or particulars:

According to Mr. Reyes, there is need for this
financial subsidy to be able to fully implement
the K-to-12 program through intensive training
of teachers and scholarship program for
students who cannot afford to college.

Why : 1. to fully implement the educational
reform, specifically K-to- 12 program

2. to finance teachers training and
scholarships of students who cannot
afford to go to college

How : all private schools put their acts
together and propose government
financial subsidy

Suggested Background
1. Government through the department of
education is going to implement K-to-12 starting
school year 2012-2013 for kindergarten and
Senior HS in 2016-2018
2. This educational reform of the government
seeks the help of private schools by supporting
the K-to-12 Program.
3. Private schools anticipates great financial loss
when the full implementation takes place in
2016.
Advantages of the traditional inverted pyramid

1. Facilitates reading
A busy reader needs to know the news at
once.

2. Facilitates makeup or layout, design page
Layout artist should get immediately the
more important facts of the story as
consideration for the page design. Artist
would also know what to strike out if the
space is limited.

Advantages of inverted pyramid

3. Facilitates headline writing
Just by reading the first few paragraphs, the
editor can easily prepare the headline of the
story.
Tips in Writing a Good lead paragraph

1. Use short simple declarative sentences.
2. Dont try to say everything in one sentence,
only the most important facts. Break up long
sentences.
Remember that one paragraph usually
consists only of one complete sentence.
3. Never use an important or unusual word
twice in the same sentence.
4. Avoid repetition of phrases, clauses and similar
grammatical constructions.
5. Be able to answer at least the four WS.
Types of Lead

1. Who lead or name feature
RAMON S. ANG yesterday took full
control of conglomerate San Miguel
Corp. (SMC) after its chair , Eduardo
Cojouangco Jr. , sold a huge chunk of
his stake in the diversified firm to his
hard-charging protg.
Types of Lead

2. What or event feature
PUBLIC education it seems will always
be shackled with dire lack of
resources, from manpower to logistics
and infrastructures.

Types of Lead

3. How Lead (often used for unusual
happenings and action stories)

Left to starve in a shanty that served as
his prison, an 8-year-old Burmese boy was
kidnapped in Laguna province on Friday was
found abandoned yesterday morning in Taytay,
Rizal province, by agents of the National Bureau
of Investigation.




Types of Lead

4. Why Lead
To provide land to millions of landless
peasants, President Corazon Aquino signed
a sweeping and controversial land reform program.
5. When Lead (used if an event takes place at an
unconventional hour, or in making an announcement
where the time is important to the reader)
Tomorrow, July 30, is the last day for cash
card application from Pagibig.

Types of Lead

6. Where Lead: Used if an event takes
place

Convalescent homes in Solano have
been sites for beauty contests to choose
representatives to the fifth annual My Fair
Lady Pageant. Contestants are mostly in
their 70s, 80s and 90s.

What questions will readers ask with these leads?
1. The school play Way Back Home will
be presented tomorrow twice.
2. The final meeting of the Homemakers
Club will be held today, activity period
in room 210.
3. The Music Guild boasts a grand
champion winner in last weeks
regional contest in Davao City.
4. The greatly anticipated event graduation to
which the seniors have been looking forward
for so long, is just around the corner.
5. Two new drama groups have been organized this
school year.
Possible Questions for the Weak Leads

1. When? At what hour? Where?
2. What is planned? Who planned it?
3. Who is the champion?
What honor did he win?
4. Where is it?
How will it be carried out?
Who will participate?
How many seniors will be there?
5. What are they?
Why were they formed?


Activity
1.Write a news story using the inverted
pyramid structure with any of these topics:
a. Inauguration of the new Event Center
b. Celebration of School Foundation Day
c. Promotion of Green Environment in School
d. Visit of Jessica Sanchez in the University
2. Identify sources of 10 news items of your
school paper
Straight News: Hard News
Concerned with timely or important events

Feature Story : Soft News
Concerned with human interest
Immediacy of event is secondary - human
interest, mood, atmosphere, emotion, irony, or
humor are more valuable.
Good feature aims to give pleasure and
entertainment in addition to information.
Straight news appeals to the physical; feature
story appeals to the soul or the emotion.



For example: Streetchildren lay down on the
rough pavement with stone
pillows against their young heads
one dark Christmas evening,
December 24, 2012.

In his desire to save his friends who
were carried away by the strong and
sudden flash floods, Angelo almost
drowned to death yesterday at the peak
of typhoon Sendong.
10 Tips on Feature Writing

1. Choose carefully the topic you wish to write.
2. Be sure that your feature story is credible.
It must deal with facts and reality.
3. Enliven your feature with anecdotes or
dialogs.
4. In a personal experience write-up, use the
first person or second person point of view.
Tips
5. Use quotations of famous persons. They
add credibility and elegance to your writing.
6. Use imagery or figures of speech that
readers will understand.
7. Use sophisticated language may be
allowed, but only when it can communicate
properly.

10 Tips in Feature Writing

8. Keep you paragraphs short and snappy.
9. Include human interest aspects in your
informative or news features.
10. The opening and closing paragraphs in
a feature story are important parts so
put a linkage between the two and
dramatize it.

A good feature writer should :
1. Be inquisitive and eager to learn
2. Be sympathetic toward other peoples
feelings
3. Have an eye for human interest angle
4. Capable of seeing beneath the surface
of ordinary events
5. Have a wide vocabulary
6. Have some literary inclinations

Types of Features
1. Personality Profile or Personality Sketch
an essay about a persons character and
traits; done through research and actual
interview with the person
2. Human Interest Stories
a human interest story showing the
subjects oddity, or its practical, emotional,
or entertainment value
Types of Features

3. Trend Stories: Examine people, things, or
organizations that are having impact on
society. (on latest fads)
4. In-depth Stories: Stories written from extensive
research and interviews.
5. Backgrounders: Analysis piece that adds
meaning to current issues in the news. These
articles explain why a tragedy happens, who are to
be blamed and what are the repercussions or the
after effects.
Types of Features

6. Newsfeature: story based on a recent event
but written in a more relaxed
style, using literary devices.
7. Humorous Feature: entertaining with wit and
humor
8. Personal Experience: an unusual experience
written in the first person
Types of Feature
9. How-to-feature article: explain a process or
method accompanied with illustration or
photos
10. Analytical Essay: essays written in various
journalistic styles
witty,
funny, account of
anything
from mundane to
serious


STYLEBOOK
Consistency
Well-edited campus newspaper should have a
style-book containing the rules that staff
members must observe.
Basic Instructions
1.Ensure accuracy of all stories. Verify your
facts before reporting.
2. Verify the spelling of all names.
3. Verify all dates and numbers.

Stylebook: Basic Instructions

4. Gather all facts of a story. Omission of one
important fact will ruin a good story. Do not
hesitate to return to the source of
information for additional facts.

5. In reporting about a meeting, concentrate on
the actions and decisions during the meeting
in the first paragraph. Information about the
meeting as to when and where it was held or
the group that held the meeting can be placed
at the details or particulars portion of the story.
Stylebook: Basic Instructions

6. Be definite and specific.
7. Use the active voice instead of the passive
voice, except when the person or thing acted
upon is more important than the agent of
action.

Stylebook: Basic Instructions

8. Do not open the story with a listing of
names.
9. Avoid beginning sentences with :It is (was),
There was (were), There. The first
sentence of a news story must contain the
important elements.
Basic Instructions

10. Do not editorialize. Write only facts and/or
quote the opinion of other.
11. Write short paragraphs. Long paragraphs
make a page dull and uninteresting.
12. Write stories neatly. Rewrite the story
rather than submit one with numerous
corrections.
Basic Instructions: Use of Titles

1. Use Miss with name of unmarried woman
unless another title is more appropriate. In
the first reference, use the womans first and
last name. Subsequently, use the last name.
Example: Ms. Josie Lim; Ms. Lim
2. Some newspapers do use Ms in reference to
mature woman, whether married or single. This
is safe especially if you are not sure of the
marital status of the woman referred to.
Basic Instruction: Use of Titles

3. In first reference to mature men, use Mr.
with the first name and last name, unless
another title is more appropriate. In further
reference, use the appropriate title and the
last name.
4. Avoid using long and cumbersome titles
before a name. Do not write Chief of Police Luis
T. Santos. Instead write, Luis Santos, chief of
police.
Basic Instruction: Use of Titles

5. Always capitalize a title when it precedes a
name: Superintendent Martinez. Do not
capitalize titles that follow the name: L.M.
Martinez, superintendent of schools.
6. Upon the first mention of a person in a story,
unless that persons position in the community is
well known, it is best to follow the name with a
short description or title to identify him/her.
Example: Maria Lourdes Lopez, director of
Logistical Services

Basic Instruction: Use of Titles

7. Avoid using a single initial. Use both initials or
the first name. Write A.B. Reyes or Amelia
Reyes. Do not write A. Reyes.
8. Titles are abbreviated when used before a
persons full name or before his/her first
names initial and his surname. Titles are
spelled out when only the surname follow. Titles
are spelled out when only the surname follows.
Example: Prof. Lyndon Devero
Professor Devero

Basic Instruction: Use of Titles

9. The titles Dr., Mr., and Mrs. are always
abbreviated.
The following titles are never abbreviated:
president, secretary, treasurer, director,
governor, attorney, general, ambassador,
consul-general, minister, vice mayor,
councilor
10. Congressman is used with a persons surname,
as in Congressman Garcia. When the full name is
given, use the abbreviated title: Rep. Manuel Ruiz.

Basic Instructions: Spelling

1. Avoid all abbreviations except a few standard
ones that are understood by the average
reader of your paper.
2. Always spell out the days of the week.
3. In giving an exact date, spell out the names of the
months that have less than five letters; abbreviate
the names of months with five letters or more. Ex.
June 15, Nov. 19.
When the name of the month stands alone
without a day, spell it out. Ex. The war broke out in
December, not in Dec., 1941.)

Basic Instructions: Spelling
4. Spell out fort, port and mount: Fort
Santiago, Port Pilar, Mount Apo
5. Spell out names of provinces and cities.
6. Spell out names.
7. Spell out street, avenue, when used with
the name of the street: Ninth Street, Rizal
Avenue
8. Avoid British spellings.
Basic Instructions: Spelling

9. Some papers prefer employe to employees;
cigaret to cigarette; traveled to travelled.
10. Hyphens should be dropped in nominative
forms particularly in verb-preposition
combinations such as cleanup, getaway,
kickoff, etc, However, there are exceptions
like cast-off, cave-in, head-on, stand-in.
11. If in doubt, consult the dictionary.
Basic Instructions: Use of Numbers

1. Never begin a sentence with the figure, but
when the number is the most important
element in the sentence, begin the sentence
with the number and spell it out.

Example: Ninety-three students were
awarded scholarship grants.
During the anniversary, 93 persons
students were awarded scholarships.
Basic Instructions: Use of Numbers

2. Spell out numbers less than ten except:
a) the hour of the day: Write 8 oclock or 8
p.m., 7:30 a.m. Do not write: Eight
oclock
(except the beginning of a sentence)
Never use ciphers when giving an exact
hour. Do not write 8.00 oclock. Instead,
write 8 oclock or 8 p.m.


Basic Instructions: Use of Numbers

2. b. In the statement of a definite sum of
money: Write P5. Do not write five peso
except at the beginning of a sentence.
Do not use ciphers to show an even
amount of pesos with no centavos; omit
the ciphers: P6
Editing and Headline Writing

The Newsroom
The editorial department, collectively
called the Desk. It is where news materials,
stories from the beat, wire reports, press
releases, photos and illustrations are gathered.
The Copy Editor
Copy editor :
cleans a reporters story, called copy
slotman, deskman, or sub-editor
improves other persons work or does copy
fixing
keeps the substance of the story as s/he makes
the story better or better organized
Works as a member of the editorial team
headed by the editor-in-chief; supervised by the
managing editor or executive editor

Other types of news stories

Interpretive news: news that appeals to the
emotion and attempts to
gain a response from the
reader
News Feature or news article: informative
discussion of news events or technical subjects
in expository form. It is halfway between a
news story and an editorial.

Like the news story, it is based entirely on
fact.
Unlike the news story (based on current
events), the news feature is based on facts
of general interest obtained partly from
printed sources.
Like the editorial, the news article is
expository in form.

Side-Bar Story
A brief news item on some lighter aspects of
an event run side by side a significant news
item.
Example: An article about celebrities who
distributed food stuffs and clothes
to flood victims, serving like
workers and errand person
Special Types of News Stories
1. News Brief: a news round up; a news item
that is composed of no more than 2
paragraphs
2. Bulletin: important but last minute news in a
running story. It is printed on the first page in
boldfaced typed and may be boxed.
3. Flash: It present the basic facts of a fresh
story that comes too late to be run as a full
blown news item.
Special Types of News Stories

4. The Classroom Story: an interpretative news
on the academic front. This is most of the
time neglected by most school papers. This
provides balance and present a true picture
of the school.
5. The Meeting Story: It includes purpose, time
and place, name of organization, participants,
background, information about speakers, kind
of meeting, feature angle, what happened

Special Types of News Stories

6. The speech story: It includes the speaker
and his background, theme of the speech,
occasion, time and place, quotations
description of audience, including unusual
reaction.
Special Types of News Stories
7. Box Story: A news story enclosed in a box
(printed material in black lines, usually
rectangular). Types of copy suitable to be
enclosed in a box:
a. Short important news item
b. Summaries of large news items
c. Lists of related events in connection with
the news story
Special Types of News Stories
d. Short feature stories, often connected
with a news article
e. special announcements
f. Game schedules or records of previous
contests
g. reports on fund raising

Box story is used to emphasize, add variety and
attractiveness in make-up. It must present a
strong, single idea in clear and simple language
Sources of News
1. Beats: backbone of news coverage.
Beats in school paper include: school
and class organization,(presidents,
advisers and PROs),offices (guidance,
administration)department heads,
athletic coaches, sponsors of activities,
parents association and others.
2. Tips from teachers and students
3. Publicity and press releases
Sources of News

4. Printed material: school calendar (yearly,
monthly), daily bulletin, students handbook,
athletic schedule, honors, subjects to be
offered, financial statements
5. A record of all coming activities usually
prepared by news editor and managing
editor

Academic Coverage

1. Visitors or speakers in the classroom
2. Unusual goings-on
3. Experiments
4. Panel discussions or special programs
5. Special projects
6. Field trips
Tips for the Reporter
1. Understand the story before covering it.
a. know the background by reading, talking
to people, taking notes
b. Get the possible news sources. Get the
full names and their correct spelling
c. Know the kind of story required.
d. Know the type of write-up expected
straight, interpretive, feature
Tips for the Reporter

2. Make appointments in advance of deadlines.
3. Know how to conduct an interview, either in
person or by telephone.
a. Be tactful and courteous.
b. Try to make a good impression and be
sincere.
c. Plan what to say. Explain at once that you
are a reported for the school paper.
d. You are not to argue, but get facts and opinions of
the interviewee.
Sports News
Sports page gives thrill to school life as it covers rivalry
between schools and between intramural teams.
Managing Sports News
1. Contribute to good sportsmanship no alibi,
no boasting.
2. Encourage feature treatment to give known
facts reader interest.
3. Have a variety of material. Include interviews,
features, column, features, items about
graduates who are involved in athletics in larger
groups.


Sports News

4. Play advance news.
5. Use cartoons, illustrations, photographs.
6. Play it up in the front page.
7. While playing up major sports, do not
overlook minor sports stories.
Kinds of Sports Articles
1. Advance Story: furnishes the reader plenty of
data line ups, strong and weak points of
contenders, performance records of
individuals or teams, betting odds, tradition
and history, systems of play, other angles.

Advance story may involve more than one
game. It may combine future and past games
or it may report on a game after deadline but
before publication.

Kinds of Sports Article

2. The report of the event
3. Analytical Story: accompanies the straight
report and carries a review of the game the
strategies, the key player, the outstanding
performer
4. The off court story involves conflicts among
sportsmen, officials and side-lights
Kinds of Sports Article

5. The follow-up sports story is a summary of
the activities of a team during the week or
season. It is brief in a school paper and
includes only details about outstanding plays
and players.
6. Sports article: It gives summaries about past
records and performances of a team, new
rules, athletic tradition, career of a prominent
player
Kinds of Sports Article

7. Sports Feature: Personality sketch of an
athlete
8. Sports Column: miscellaneous facts about
prominent athletes; sports gossip is written
and signed by the sports editor or a staff
member who is well-acquainted with the
athletes

The Editorial Page
The soul of the newspaper
Contains the masthead, editorial column,
readers views, editorial cartoon
Forum for students opinion
Masthead
Contains a permanent typographical
character
Contains the frequency, place, staff
members, emblem

Editorial Platform
Contains one or two brief statements of
purpose and ideals
Editorial Policy
Determined by traditions, practices and
policies of the school, the students voice
expressed through the editors, the student
government and other recognized student
leaders. The editorial always conforms to the
editorial policy.
The Editorial

The newspapers means of advising the
reader of the significance of events. It
informs, interprets, convinces, persuades or
entertains the readers.
The writer of the editorial expresses group
opinion rather than individual opinion. This
explains why the editorial is unsigned.
Writing the Editorial
1. It must not go against policy of the paper.
2. Topic is of interest to the reader. Prefer current
topics, especially controversial ones. However,
do not manufacture issues.
4. Limit article to only one aspect of the chosen
topic.
5. Have a purpose well in mind.
6. Obtain sufficient data.
7. Take a stand on controversial issues.
8. Use sound reasoning . Make each step lead
logically to the conclusion.
Writing the Editorial
1. Be brief (rarely more than 300 words). Longer
sentences and paragraphs than in the news
story may be used.
2. Write simply and directly. Use more formal
language and wider vocabulary than in news
writing.
3. Be impersonal. Use the third person or the
impersonal we. Never use I except in
direct quotations.
4. Be sincere rather than smart.
Writing the Editorial
5. Write clearly and vigorously.
6. Present facts, rather than mere opinion.
7. Be authoritative, but dont preach.
8. Use various devices to catch and keep the
readers interest like a striking title, good
lead, illustration in the form of a brief
narrative, analogy, comparison and contrast.
9. End the editorial appropriately.
10. Relate the editorial to the lives of the readers.
Writing the Editorial

Editorial Leads
1. A simple statement of the situation, problem,
or news events to be written about
2. A question challenging attention
3. A striking statement arousing readers
interest
4. A narration or a vital question
Writing the Editorial

Increasing Student Reader Interest
1. Limit the editorial page.
2. Use cartoons and illustrations.
3. Use an occasional guest editorial.
4. Put the masthead at the bottom to
make room for the editorial.
5. Write more and shorter editorials.
6. Use wider columns, such as double
column for the editorial; one and a half
columns for the editorial columns
Designing the Paper

An excellent paper is judged on the type
and placement of type and photos in the
news page. Other elements include good
news coverage, news selection, editing
and headline writing.
Designing the Paper

A typical newspaper page is made up of
the following display elements:

1. Body text
2. Headlines, kickers, subheads
3. photos
4. illustrations and graphics
5. white spaces
6. rule or column lines
Designing the Paper

Make up refers to the arrangement of the
display elements on a newspaper.

Layout is the arrangement of these
elements in an advertising copy or a
magazine type.
Designing the Paper

Functions of Newspaper Makeup
1. provide attractive appearance and
pleasing harmony or contrast
2. show relative importance of news
and feature materials through their
positioning in the pages
3. facilitate reading by avoiding
monotony and disharmony
Designing the Paper

3 Types of Layout

1. the balanced makeup:
achieved through symmetry.
A page is divided into two. Everything on
the left is balanced by something on the
right and vice versa. It is confidence
inspiring , but too formal.
Types of Layout

2. a. Contrast and Balance: Balance is
achieved by contrast.
Example: Pictures on one side are
balanced by headlines on another or
black spots by white spots.
b. Right Brace: identified by heavy
concentration of pictures and headlines
on the upper left hand corner.
Types of Layout

2. Brace
b. Left brace: identified by a heavy
concentration of pictures and
headlines on the upper left hand
corner
Brace is a good substitute for
streamers ( the use of the full spread
for the headlines)
3. Circus Makeup: columns are broken up
into various lengths.

Guidelines in Layouting

1. Avoid tombstoning
Placing of two or more heads in the
same face type at approximately the
same level in adjacent columns
2. Know the relative value of each part of
the front page. Order of importance
follows the S pattern like: B A
C D




Guidelines in Layouting

3. Build from the top down.
4. Distribute headlines. Put on the front
page only what is important. A cluttered
page is not necessarily a newsy page.
5.Have plenty of white space as
breathing space. This can be achieved
by the use of sub-heads, shorter
paragraphs, shorter stories.


Guidelines in Layouting

7. Use photos not bad, obscene, small
or firing squads
8. Use of caps and lower case is better
than all caps.
9. Avoid too many brinks or peripheries
(secondary heads).
10. Use the ears, left or right hand corner
of the front page for announcements,
ads, etc.



Guidelines in Layouting

11. Headlines should not have letters that
impinge on one another as in fat
heads.
12. There should be not lot of white space
between letters as in thin heads.
Guidelines in Layouting

13. Avoid jumping stories if at all possible.
14. Avoid separating related stories and
pictures.
15. Avoid breaking stories to the tops of
the columns. The top of every column
should have headline or cut. This can
be avoided by setting part of a long story
in two columns - running the remaining
part into the 2
nd
column under the
head which is set in two columns.
Guidelines in Layouting

16. Avoid placing a small head on a rather
long story.
17. Avoid excessive leading.
18. Avoid having gray areas. Break them
up with the use of subheads, indented
bold face, paragraphs, use of small
stories with small headlines.
Guidelines in Layouting

19. Keep long columns of six-point type
and tabular material to a minimum,
especially on the front page.
20. Avoid placing cuts or boxes where
they will be surrounded by body type.
They should be attached on the top or
bottom of the pages or display that is
firmly positioned.

Guidelines in Layouting

21. Avoid having the top of the page too
heavy. A spread beneath the fold will
help prevent this.

Qualities of a Good Makeup

1. Contrast
A bold headline next to the column of
gray body text creates a pleasing
contrast
2. Balance
Achieved by arranging heavy and dark
elements to offset one another
Example: A three-column picture on the
upper left-hand corner can be
balanced with three-decked, three
column head on the right side





Guidelines in Layouting

3. Symmetry
Each page should have focus of
attention, a headline, a picture, or a
combination of both ensure that the
readers eyes fall first on that spot.
4. Unity
The page should be attractive as a whole,
with all its parts fitting harmoniously together.





Nameplate or logo

This is printed across the top of the front
page.
Stationary nameplates stay on the same
space on every issue.
Roving nameplate is moved from time to
time.
Use of Subhead
A single line of the same type as the body
text set in bold or italics that gives gist of a
part of the story that follows.

It is a clause or a complete sentence.
It serves as title of the succeeding portion
of the story.

Another purpose of subhead is to break a
series of gray lines.
Use of Photos

Photos improve makeup and convey
message.
Use of photos and illustrations help the art
of communicating.
The art of communicating using
photographs and illustrations is called
iconography.

Functions of illustration
Attract attention
Illustrate a point in the story
Tell a story itself through the help of caption
Give visual relief to the makeup of the story

Qualities of a good photo

1. Prominence: pictures of prominent
personalities attract interest of readers.
2. Action: Readers are attracted by
action. Firing squad photo may just
end up in the editors trash can.
3. Human interest: Pictures showing
emotions that one can relate to are
interesting.
Qualities of a good photo

4. Drama: pictures of fires, accidents or
victims of an earthquake or typhoon
belong to this category.

5. Timeliness. Immediacy enhances the
value of a picture.
Improving photographs

1. Cropping: cutting away of portions of
pictures that are not needed. Editor
marks with red pencil undesired parts.
2. Retouching: elimination of undesirable
background to emphasize the center
of interest.
3. Bleeding: a device done by printing
picture so that it extends across the
margin of off the edge of the paper or
magazine page.
Writing the Caption

1. It should be brief, not to exceed five
lines if it is for two column photos:
three lines if the photo occupies five
columns
2. It should be in the present tense to
stress the timeliness of the event.
3. It should tell the gist of the story that
accompanies the photo.
4. Dont include in the caption what is already
obvious in the photo for example a person
laughing in the photo, dont say the person is
laughing.
Procedures for Dummying

Preliminary Steps
1. Copyread and adjust the length
according to the first dummy. Some
staffs make a small and rough sketch
instead of actual size dummy.
2. Mark for the printer indicating the
column width (usually 2 inches ) the
size and style of body type. Much of the
material is set in standard roman type,
usually 8-10 points.

Procedures for Dummying
Specify larger fonts or bold face for
important news and announcements;
smaller type for long lists, programs, minor
stories, some features.

Preparing the Final Dummy
1. Draw up a dummy sheet or use one
furnished by the printer with margins
and columns indicated.
Preparing the Dummy

2. Number the galley proofs to be cut and
pasted on the dummy
3. Clip all printed materials that will go on a
given page. Include news stories with
their headlines and all illustrations. In
clipping, allow a margin of 1/16 of an
inch all around, to avoid cutting the type.
Preparing the Dummy

4. Decide what pictures are to go on the
page. Crop them, and determine and
mark their size and give them labels
such as I-A, 1-B, & 1-C. Mark their
places on the page.
5. Have the cutlines for the pictures set
into type.
6. Arrange the material in the page space
according to the principles of good
newspaper makeup.
7. Paste the materials in place.

Preparing the Dummy

8. Indicate the guideline of the story in the
proper column/s.
9. Mark all portions to be deleted on the
galley proof.
10. Mark the places for cuts with X.
11. Indicate the headlines on the spaces
they will occupy.
12. Do not dummy too tightly.
Getting Started

Choosing the Staff
1. Staff can be chosen from a writing
class.
2. Schools may offer journalism
workshops.
3. It is advisable to choose the next
years staff before the end of the
school year.
However, flexibility must permit transferees,
freshmen and other desirable members to
become members of the school paper.

The Staff Members

1. News reporters: the key persons of the
school paper
2. Editor: organizer, leader, super-
reporter, looks into each page of each
issue and gets the paper printed
3. Managing Editor: having the
qualifications of an editor
4. Associate Editor: carries on the job when
the editor is absent
Getting Started
4. Candidates may fill up application forms
citing their experiences, qualifications,
recommendations and position preferred.
5. Candidates may be given examination
covering news writing and editorial
writing, sports writing, and others
depending upon the position the
candidate wants.
6. Qualified applicants undergo training.
Getting Started

7. Feature writer/editor: usually who has
talent for writing original stories
8. Sports writer/editor : must understand
sports; able to express ordinary facts in
interesting way

Duties of School Paper Staff
Code of Ethics ( see printed copies)
Activities: Write a 3-paragraph report on a recent radio or TV newscast
Parts and Section of the School Paper
News Section

Front Page
1. Name plate: the line of type on the
front page designating the name of the
publication. It may reappear in reduced
size elsewhere, as on the editorial
page.
2. Ears: a design placed at the right or left of
a name plate
3. Streamer (banner) : a headline extending across the
top of the page. If located at the nameplate, it is
called skyline or umbrella head.
Parts and Section of the School Paper

Front page
4. Headline (head) : a general term for all
titles of news stories
5. Deck: (a bank, readout) subordinate
headline immediately below its mother
head line
6. Lead: intro to a straight, or formal,
usually the first paragraph
7. Column: a vertical section of printed
material
8. Column rules: the printed line used to
separate columns
9. News story: any item of news
Parts and Section of the School Paper

Front Page
9. Fold: the point at which the newspaper
is folded in half
10. Byline: the name of the writer placed at
the top or at the bottom of the story
11. Box: any printed matter surrounded or
partly enclosed by a special border line
12. Cutline (caption): text accompanying
photos and other art
13. Teaser (kicker): one line of several words
in small type run above the headline
14. Credit line: a line of type crediting the source of an
item, a photo or a cartoon

Parts and Section of the School Paper

Inside News Page
1. Running Head a line of type at the top
of all newspaper pages, except the first,
giving the name of paper and date of
issue
2. Folio page number, found at the top
of each page of the paper, except the
first, alongside the running head.
Parts and Section of the School Paper

Editorial Page
1. Flag (masthead)
2. Editorial: a journalistic writing designed
to interpret news
3. Editorial Column: a timely and regular
presentation of various kinds of editorial
writer by same writer; sometimes a
guest columnist
4. Cartoon
5. Letter to the Editor
6. Folio
7. Running head




Parts and Section of the School Paper

Sports Page
1. Columns : similar to editorial columns
2. Sports News
3. Features
4. Cuts
5. Folio
6. Running head
Features Page
1. Feature Story (English and Filipino)
2. Regular Features
3. Special Features
4. Cuts
5. Folio
6. Running head
Activities:

1. Make a dummy of the:
a. front page of the school
paper, indicating the parts
and contents.
b. editorial page, indicating the parts
and contents.
2. Go over the front page of the
newspaper and with a red pen,
number a sample of each of the
following:
a. local news e. ad i. news feature
b. foreign news f. lead story j. headline with a
c. Weather news g. ear deck
d. dateline h. Byline k. teaser