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# MTH 251

Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.1 Analysis of Functions I:
Increase, Decrease,
and Concavity
Increasing Decreasing Constant
Over an Interval
Intuitively, the
left to right.
Increasing going up hill
Decreasing going down hill
Constant level
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
) f(x
2
)
Increasing Decreasing Constant
Over an Interval
Formally
If x
1
& x
2
are any
two points in an
interval and x
1
<x
2

Increasing f(x
1
) < f(x
2
)
Decreasing f(x
1
) > f(x
2
)
Constant f(x
1
) = f(x
2
)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
Increasing Decreasing Constant
At a Point
The behavior of a
function at a point
is determined by
the tangent line at
that point.
Increasing f(x) > 0
Decreasing f(x) < 0
Constant f(x) = 0
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
Example 1
Describe the behavior of the function
2 5 ) (
2
= x x x f
5 2 ) ( ' = x x f
0 5 2 < x
Decreasing
2
5
< x
0 5 2 > x
Increasing
2
5
> x
0 5 2 = x
Constant
2
5
= x
Example 2
Describe the behavior of the function
x x x x f 12 3 2 ) (
2 3
= 12 6 6 ) ( '
2
= x x x f
0 1 and 0 2
or
0 1 and 0 2
< + >
> + <
x x
x x
Decreasing Increasing Constant
) 1 )( 2 ( 6 + = x x
2 1 < < x
0 1 and 0 2
or
0 1 and 0 2
> + >
< + <
x x
x x
0 1
or
0 2
= +
=
x
x
2 or 1 > < x x 2 or 1 = = x x
Concavity
A behavior of a
functions curvature.
If f(x) is differentiable over (a,b)
and f(x) is increasing x over (a,b),
then f(x) is concave up over (a,b).
f(x) increasing
f(x) > 0
A function that is concave up will hold water.
The function is curving in a counter-clockwise rotation
and its tangents are all below the function.
Concavity
A behavior of a
functions curvature.
If f(x) is differentiable over (a,b)
and f(x) is decreasing x over (a,b),
then f(x) is concave down over (a,b).
f(x) decreasing
f(x) < 0
A function that is concave down will spill water.
The function is curving in a clockwise rotation
and its tangents are all above the function.
Inflection Points
If f(x) is continuous over an interval containing a
and the concavity of f(x) changes at a
then (a, f(a)) is an inflection point of the function.
Where can this happen?
f(x) = 0
f(x) DNE
Inflection Points in the Graph? At x = e
Example 1
Find the inflection points of the function
2 5 ) (
2
= x x x f
5 2 ) ( ' = x x f
2 ) ( ' ' = x f
No inflection points!
Example 2
Find the inflection points of the function
x x x x f 12 3 2 ) (
2 3
= 12 6 6 ) ( '
2
= x x x f
6 12 ) ( ' ' = x x f
0 6 12 = x
2
1
= x
Inflection point at
Inflection point is
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

2
13
,
2
1
Curvature
Not included in our textbook.
See: http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/calc/curve/curve.html
Measurement of the
bentness of a function.
2 3
2
2
2
1
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
k

1
=
Therefore:
Large k small very bent
Small k large almost flat

## One More Example

Describe the behavior of the function
x
xe x f = ) (
x x x
e x xe e x f ) 1 ( ) ( ' + = + =
x x x
e x e x e x f ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ' ' + = + + =
x e
x
> 0 : Note
Increasing: Concave Up:
Decreasing: Concave Down:
Inflection Point: Constant:
1 > x
1 < x
1 = x
2 > x
2 < x
( )
2
2 , 2

e
| |
2 3
2 2
) 1 ( 1
) 2 (
x
x
e x
e x
+ +
+
= k
Curvature:
Quote from the beginning of the chapter
The rate of increase of inflation is going down.
President Nixon
Fall of 1972
This was the first time a sitting president used
the third derivative to advance his case for
reelection.
Hugo Rossi
) ( Function Price t P =
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
Inflation > = t P
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
increasing is Inflation
2
2
> = t P
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
decreasing is inflation in increase of Rate
3
3
< = t P
P
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.2 Analysis of Functions II:
Relative Extrema;
Graphing Polynomials
Extrema (plural of extremum or extreme)
Intuitively:
The points where a function is at the top
of a peak or the bottom of a valley.
Relative Maximum
If x
0
e (a,b) and f(x
0
) f(x) for all x e (a,b),
then the function has a relative maximum
at x
0
[the relative maximum is f(x
0
)].
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Relative Minimum
If x
0
e (a,b) and f(x
0
) f(x) for all x e (a,b),
then the function has a relative minimum
at x
0
[the relative minimum is f(x
0
)].
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Relative Extremum
If f(x) has a relative maximum or relative
minimum at x
0
, then f(x) has a relative
extremum at x
0
.
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Where can relative extrema occur?
1. At points where f(x) = 0.
Stationary Point
2. At points where f(x) is defined but not differentiable.
Singular Point
3. At endpoints of the functions domain.
The first two cases are called critical points.
Warning:
A critical point may
not be an extremum!
a
f(a)=0
Stationary but Not Extremum.
a
f(a) DNE
Singular but Not Extremum.
Example: Find the Critical Points
3 8 3 2
) ( x x x f =
3 5 3 1
3
8
3
2
) ( ' x x x f =

| |
2 3 1
4 1
3
2
x x =

( )
3 1
2
3
4 1 2
x
x
=
Critical Points:
Stationary @ x=1/2
Singular @ x=0
Note: Graph this function on a calculator using the standard window.
Problem
How can you determine whether a critical point is ...
a relative maximum, or
a relative minimum, or
neither
Two tests
1
st
Derivative Test
2
nd
Derivative Test
The 1
st
Derivative Test
Assume that f(x) is continuous at a critical
point x
0
and differentiable on an open
interval containing x
0
(except possibly at x
0
).
If f(x) > 0 for x < x
0
(i.e. increasing on the left) and
f(x) < 0 for x > x
0
(i.e. decreasing on the right), then
f(x) has a relative maximum at x
0
.
If f(x) < 0 for x < x
0
(i.e. decreasing on the left) and
f(x) > 0 for x > x
0
(i.e. increasing on the right), then
f(x) has a relative minimum at x
0
.

Example 1: Analyze the Critical Points
3 8 3 2
) ( x x x f =
( )
3 1
2
3
4 1 2
) ( '
x
x
x f

=
Critical Points:
Stationary @ x=
Singular @ x=0
x < -
f(-1) = 2 > 0
increasing
- < x < 0
f(-1/8) = -5/4 < 0
decreasing
0 < x <
f(1/8) = 5/4 > 0
increasing
x >
f(1) = -2 < 0
decreasing
So, f(x) has relative maxima at and a relative minimum at 0.
Example 2: Analyze the Critical Points
3 4 5
40 5 4 ) ( x x x x f =
( )( ) 2 3 20 ) ( '
2
+ = x x x x f
Critical Points At:
x=-2
x=0
x=3
x < -2
f(-3) = 1080 > 0
increasing
-2 < x < 0
f(-1) = -80 < 0
decreasing
0 < x < 3
f(1) = -120 < 0
decreasing
x > 3
f(4) = 1920 > 0
increasing
So, f(x) has a relative maximum at -2 and a relative minimum at 3.
The 2
st
Derivative Test
Assume that f(x) is twice differentiable at x
0

and f(x
0
) = 0 (i.e. a stationary critical point).
If f(x
0
) < 0 (i.e. concave down), then f(x) has a
relative maximum at x
0
.
If f(x) > 0 (i.e. concave up), then f(x) has a relative
minimum at x
0
.
If f(x) = 0, then the test fails (i.e. you know nothing).

Example 2 (again):
Analyze the Singular Critical Points
3 4 5
40 5 4 ) ( x x x x f =
( )( ) 2 3 20 ) ( '
2
+ = x x x x f
Critical Points At:
x = -2, 0, 3
x x x x f 240 60 80 ) ( ' '
2 3
=
f(-2) = -400 < 0
concave down
relative max @ -2
f(0) = 0
???
f(3) = 900 > 0
concave up
relative min @ 3
Strategy: Finding Relative Extrema
1. Find the 1
st
& 2
nd
Derivatives.
2. Determine the critical points.
3. Use the 2
nd
Derivative test to analyze
the stationary critical points.
4. Use the 1
st
Derivative test to analyze
the remaining critical points (i.e.
singular and step 3 failures).
Also, dont forget to check the domain endpoints.
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.4 Absolute Maxima and Minima
A local max or
min is the value
of the function at
the critical point
or endpoint.
e.g. f(a) is a local
max.
a
f(a)
Extrema
The values of the function at points where the function
is at the top of a peak or the bottom of a valley.
critical points (f(x) = 0 or DNE)
domain endpoints
NOTE: a is not the local max, the local max occurs at a.
Absolute Extrema
f(x
0
) is the absolute maximum if f(x
0
) f(x)
for all x in the domain or interval of interest.
f(x
0
) is the absolute minimum if f(x
0
) f(x) for
all x in the domain or interval of interest.
Will there always be an
absolute minimum and
an absolute maximum?
No! Why?
Can there be more than one abs. max/min?
No, but they can occur more than once!
Extreme-Value Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], then f(x) has
an absolute maximum and an absolute
minimum on [a,b].
Why is it necessary for the
function to be continuous? Can
it still have an abs. max/min if
it is not continuous?
Why is it necessary for the
interval to be closed? Can it still
have an abs. max/min if it is
not closed?
Therefore, these are sufficient but not necessary conditions
to guarantee the existence of absolute extrema.
Finding Absolute Extrema: Closed Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
endpoints
3. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum
smallest is the absolute minimum
Example:
] 4 , 0 [ , 3 2 ) (
2
e = x x x x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Open Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
3. Evaluate the limits at the endpoints.
[right and left hand limits only]
4. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum if the limits
smallest is the absolute minimum if the limits

Example:
) 4 , 0 ( ,
4
7
) (
2
e

= x
x x
x
x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Infinite Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
3. Evaluate the limits as x .
4. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum if the limits
smallest is the absolute minimum if the limits

Example:
) , ( , 2 3 ) (
4 3
+ e = x x x x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Other Intervals
(a,b]
[a,b)
(-,b]
(-,b)
[a,+)
(a,+)
Likewise
Two more examples
Example 1
) , 0 ( , 2
) 1 ln(
sin 3
) ( + e +
+
= x
x
x
x f
5 ) ( lim
0
=

x f
x
LHpitals Rule
2 ) ( lim =

x f
x
Squeeze Theorem
) 1 ( ln ) 1 (
sin 3 cos ) 1 ln( ) 1 ( 3
) ( '
2
+ +
+ +
=
x x
x x x x
x f
Critical Points @ x ~ 0.8696, 4.6093,
f(0.8696) = 5.6637
ABS Max
f(4.6093) = 0.2695
ABS Min
5
20
2
Example 2
) 4 , 0 [ , ) (
2
e = x x x f
0 ) 0 ( = f
16 ) ( lim
4
=

x f
x
x x f 2 ) ( ' =
Critical Point @ x =0
f(0) = 0
ABS Min
ABS Max DNE!
4
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.5 Applied Maximum and
Minimum Problems
Optimization Problems
Note: Although the function may be
defined over a larger domain, the
interval for the problem may be
restricted due to the conditions of the
application.
Problems that lead to finding the
maximum or minimum value of a
function over an interval.
Example
A box with a top is to be made out of a 20 by
30 rectangular piece of cardboard by cutting
out six squares (see diagram). How large
should the cutout squares be to obtain a box
with the largest possible volume?
Bottom Top
20
30
x V = x [20 2x] [(30 3x)/2]
= 3x
3
60x
2
+ 300x
x e(0, 10)
V = 9x
2
120x

+ 300
= 3 (x 10) (3x 10)
0 lim
0
=
+

V
x
0 lim
10
=

V
x
( ) 4 . 444 3 10 = V
x = 3 1/3 in
V = 444 4/9 in
3

Example (revised)
A box with a top is to be made out of a 20 by
30 rectangular piece of cardboard by cutting
out six squares (see diagram). How large
should the cutout squares be to obtain a box
with the largest possible volume, if the box
can be no more than 3 tall?
Bottom Top
20
30
x V = x [20 2x] [(30 3x)/2]
= 3x
3
60x
2
+ 300x
x e(0, 3]
V = 9x
2
120x

+ 300
= 3 (x 10) (3x 10)
0 lim
0
=
+

V
x
( ) 441 3 = V
( ) 4 . 444 3 10 = V
x = 3 in
V = 441 in
3

( ) 0 10 = V
Strategy for Optimization Problems
1. Draw & Label a Diagram
2. Find a formula that involves the variable to be
optimized (must include one other variable).
3. Determine the domain for the other variable.
4. Solve the resulting absolute max/min problem.
Differentiate the formula
Domain endpoints
Critical points
More examples? Pages 318 322.
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.7 Rolles Theorem;
Mean-Value Theorem
Rolles Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
a b c
c
3
c
2

Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
a b
Case 1: f(x) = 0 xe(a,b)
f(x) = 0 xe(a,b)
c is any point in (a,b).
a b
Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
Case 2: f(x
0
) > 0 for some x
0
e(a,b)
f(x) has an abs. max.
Extreme Value Theorem
abs. max. is not at a or b
f(x
0
) > 0, f(a) = f(b) = 0
abs. max. at some value c e (a,b)
stationary critical point at x=c
f(x) is differentiable
f(c) = 0
c x
0

a b
Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
Case 3: f(x
0
) < 0 for some x
0
e(a,b)
f(x) has an abs. min.
Extreme Value Theorem
abs. min. is not at a or b
f(x
0
) < 0, f(a) = f(b) = 0
abs. min. at some value c e (a,b)
stationary critical point at x=c
f(x) is differentiable
f(c) = 0
c
x
0

X-Intercepts
Rolles Theorem - Example
4 3
3 4 ) ( x x x f =
0 3 4
4 3
= x x
( ) 0 3 4
3
= x x
0 ) 3 4 ( ) 0 ( = = f f
( ) x x
x x x f
=
=
1 12
12 12 ) ( '
2
3 2
1 & 0 at 0 ) ( ' = = x x f
Note that 0 < 1 < 4/3
Mean-Value Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
c a b
) ( ' c f
is the slope of
the tangent line
a b
a f b f

) ( ) (
is the slope of
the secant line
That is, there is a tangent line between a & b [instantaneous change]
with the same slope as the secant line [average change].
Mean-Value Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
a c b
Let v(x) = distance from f(x) to
the secent line.
v(x)
Secant Line:
( ) a x
a b
a f b f
a f y

+ =
) ( ) (
) (
( )
(

+ = a x
a b
a f b f
a f x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
Note that v(a) = v(b) = 0
(i.e. v(x) satisifies Rolles Theorem)
Part I
Mean-Value Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
a c b
v(x)
v(x) satisifies Rolles Theorem [i.e. - c e (a,b) v(c) = 0]
(

=
a b
a f b f
x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ' ) ( '
0
) ( ) (
) ( ' ) ( ' =
(

=
a b
a f b f
c f c v
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
Part II
( )
(

+ = a x
a b
a f b f
a f x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
MVT Theorem Example 1
] 1 , 1 [ 1, 3 4 ) (
3
e + = x x x x f
57735 . 0
3
3
~ = x
0 ) 1 ( = f
2 ) 1 ( = f
1
) 1 ( 1
0 2 ) ( ) (
=

a b
a f b f
3 12 ) ( '
2
= x x f
1 =
Note that: 1
3
3
1 < <
In this case, both solutions satisfy the MVT (only one solution is guaranteed).
MVT Theorem Example 1
] 1 , 1 [ 1, 3 4 ) (
3
e + = x x x x f
57735 . 0
3
3
~ = x
0 ) 1 ( = f
2 ) 1 ( = f
1
) 1 ( 1
0 2 ) ( ) (
=

a b
a f b f
3 12 ) ( '
2
= x x f
1 =
Note that: 1
3
3
1 < <
In this case, both solutions satisfy the MVT (only one solution is guaranteed).
MVT Theorem Example 2
While driving down the freeway at 9:53 am, a state
police officer clocks you at 62 mph. At 10:05 and 15
miles down the road, a second state police officer
clocks you at 64 mph, pulls you over, and gives you a
ticket for driving 72 mph. Are you guilty?
mph 75
minutes 12
miles 15
=
Since your speed is a continuous function, the MVT
implies that at some point you were driving 75 mph.
He gave you a break!

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