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Training Session - Lunch and Learn

Understanding Safety Integrity Level (SIL)


Dinesh Vijay Bhurke
13
th
March 2014



Why Safety ?
Basic Concepts, Definitions, Acronyms
SIL concept
Standards IEC, ISA
Layer of Protection concept
Risk Management
SIL Assignment /Assessment (Risk Reduction)
Hazard Matrix method
Risk Graph method
LOPA method

Content
2 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Why Safety ?
3 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Chernobyl, Nuclear Power Plant,
April 1986
Piper Alpha Platform, July 1986
Bhopal Gas Leak disaster
WORLDs WORST
INDUSTRIAL DISTASTERS
Why Safety ?
4 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
WORLDs WORST INDUSTRIAL DISTASTERS
Source: Emersons PlantWeb University, SIS 103 - Safety Standards.
ott. 14
Pres..bozza.. 5
Introduction
Freedom from unacceptable risk.





Per Year Per Year
Occupation Staying at home
Chemical Industry 5 in 1,00,000 Electrocution 1.2 in 10,00,000
Mining(Coal) 2 in 10,000
Travel
Involuntary Air(Scheduled) 2 in 10,00,000
Lightining 1 in 100,00,000 Train 3 in 10,00,000
Fire 2 in 1,00,000 Car 2 in 10,000
Run over 6 in 1,00,000 Motor Cycle 2 in 100
Fatality Rates
What is Risk?
Frequency of occurrence of harm X Severity of that harm.
Risk without any Protection
Tolerable Risk
CONSEQUENCES
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y
Reduction
Why Safety?
What is Safety ?





6


People Outside
Plant
People Inside
Plant
Environment
Assets
Corporate
Image
Off-Spec
Production
Safety Vs. Availability
SIL: Safety Integrity Level
SIF: Safety Instrumented Function
SIS: Safety Instrumented System (ESD)
SFF: Safe Failure Fraction = (s+ dd)/ (s+ dd+ du)
SRS: Safety Requirements Specification
STR: Spurious Trip Rate
RRF: Risk Reduction Factor
PFD: Probability of Failure on Demand
PFD
avg, SIF
: Probability that the SIF fails to respond to a Process Demand
(PFD
avg, SIF
= PFD
sensor
+ PFD
logic solver
+ PFD
FE
+ PFD
power supply
)

MTTF: Mean Time To Failure (e.g. 76 yrs)
MTTR: Mean Time To Repair (e.g. 1 month)
MTBF: Mean Time Between Failure (= MTTF + MTTR)
ALARP: As Low As Reasonably Practicable
IPL: Independent Protection Layer
FMEA: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
FTA: Fault Tree Analysis
LOPA: Layer of Protection Analysis
HAZOP: Hazard and Operability Analysis


Acronyms
7 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Understanding Safety Integrity Level
(SIL)
What does SIL mean?
Safety Integrity Level
A measure of probability to fail on demand(PFD) of the SIS.
It is statistical representation of the integrity of the SIS when a
process demand occurs.
A demand occurs whenever the process reaches the trip
condition and causes the SIS to take action.
There are 4 SIL levels. SIL Levels are measures of how we
achieve function safety.
Applies to the complete safety function/loop
Higher SIL means
Stricter requirements.
Safety Function fails less and thus plant protection is available more.



8 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Understanding Safety Integrity Level
(SIL)
SIL is how we measure the performance of safety functions
carried out by safety instrumented systems
SIL must be viewed from 3 perspectives
Process Owners
Which Safety function do I need and how much do I need?
Engg. Companies, System Integrators, Product Developers
How do I Build SIL compliant safety devices, function or systems?
Plant Operators
How do I operate, maintain and repair safety functions and systems to
maintain identified SIL levels?

9 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
SIL STANDARDS
10 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
IEC-61508
(1998 & 2010)
IEC-61511
(2003)
ISO 26262

ISA S84
(1996 & 2004)
IEC 62279
EN 50128
Generic Used By Vendors
Industry Specific-Used by
Designers & End users.
Process Industry
Automotive Railways
Calls Safety system as
E/E/PES
Calls Safety system as
SIS
IEC-61513

Nuclear
IEC 62061

Machinery
ESD/HIPPS/BMS/FGS
SIL Classification


SIL Probability Category
1 1 in 10 to 1 in 100
2 1 in 100 to 1 in 1,000
3 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 10,000
4 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 100,000
1 in 10 means, the function will fail once in a total of 10 process demands
1 in 1000 means, the function will fail once in a total of 1000 process demands
11 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
SIL Classification


SIL
Level Risk Reduction Factor
SIL 4 >=10
-5
to <10
-4
>=0.00001 to <0.0001 100000 to 10000
SIL 3 >=10
-4
to <10
-3
>=0.0001 to <0.001 10000 to 1000
SIL 2 >=10
-3
to <10
-2
>=0.001 to <0.01 1000 to 100
SIL 1 >=10
-2
to <10
-1
>=0.01 to <0.1 100 to 10
Probability of failure on demand
(Demand Mode of Operation)
Safety Integrity Levels
12 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Concept of Layers of Protection
13 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Concept of Layers of Protection
14 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Concept of Layers of Protection
15 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Multiple Initiators tripping one
Final Element
Initiators
Final
Element
SIF-1
SIF-2
SIF-3
Logic Solver
16 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
One Initiator tripping multiple
Final Elements
Logic Solver
Initiator
Final
Elements
SIF-1
SIF-2
SIF-3
17 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
1
A
B 2
Sensors
Final Control
Elements
Logic
Solver
SIF 1
C 3
SIF 2
D 4
SIF 3
5
E
F
6
SIF 4
Overall Safety Instrumented
System showing SIFs
18 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Risk Management
19 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Three important steps
Identify Hazards / Hazardous events
Analyze /Assess the Hazards/Hazardous events
Reduce risk where necessary



Assigning the SIL with Hazard Matrix
20 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Assigning the SIL Risk Reduction
21 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Assigning the SIL Risk Reduction
22 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Assigning the SIL Risk Reduction
23 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
24
Assigning the SIL Risk Reduction
25
Assigning the SIL with Risk Graph
Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Risk reduction with LOPA
26 Training: Lunch & Learn Session
27
Risk reduction with LOPA
Training: Lunch & Learn Session
Thank You
28
Suggestions / Feedback
29

There could be a next session
1. Introduction to Functional Safety.
2. Hardware Design.
3. SIL Verification methods.

Strictly on popular demand
Suggestions / Feedback