You are on page 1of 92

Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition

By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood


2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
OBJECTIVES
After studying Chapter 4, the reader should be able to:
1. Describe the power flow through a planetary
gearset.
2. Identify the components of a multiple-disc clutch
and describe how it operates.
3. Identify a one-way clutch and describe how it
operates.
4. Identify a band and servo and describe how they
operate.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
There are several paths for power to flow through
an automatic transmission, and each path provides
a different gear ratio.
These power paths are controlled by the driving and
reaction devices, also called driving and reaction
members.
The driving devices connect the turbine shaft from
the torque converter to a member of the planetary
gear train.
The reaction devices connect a member of the
gear train to the transmission case.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 4-1 The 4L60 (THM 700) has one band, five multiple-disc clutches, and
two one-way clutches to control the power flow. The reverse input, overrun,
forward, and 34 clutches along with the forward sprag clutch are driving
members. The 24 band, low roller clutch, and low-reverse clutch are reaction
members.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
DRIVING DEVICES
The driving devices provide the input to the gearset.
The turbine shaft is normally built as part of or
splined to one or more of the driving devices.
Driving devices are usually multiple-plate disc
clutches.
In most cases, they will be at the front of the
transmission, just behind the pump.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
DRIVING DEVICES
An example of this involves the two clutches in front
of a Simpson gear train transmission.
Chrysler Corporation calls the first clutch the front
clutch;
Ford Motor Company calls it a high-reverse clutch;
General Motors Corporation and Toyota call it a direct
clutch;
Toyota uses the term direct clutch but more commonly
calls it C2.
Synchronizing Shifts
Synchronous
Nonsynchronous
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
The parts of a clutch assembly are: the drum, hub,
lined plates, unlined plates, pressure plate, apply
piston, and piston return springs.
The drum, also called a housing, has splines inside
its outer edge for the externally lugged plates,
usually the unlined plates.
The inner diameter of the drum is machined for the
apply piston and its inner and outer seals.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-2 A sectioned view (a) and exploded view (b) of a multiple-disc clutch. Note the piston to apply
the clutch and the spring(s) to release it. (b is courtesy of Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-3 A 4L60 input clutch assembly has three separate clutch packs:202 is
the overrun clutch; 607 is the forward clutch; and 228 is the 34 clutch. The input
sprag assembly is at the bottom left. (Courtesy of Slauson Transmission
Parts,www.slauson.com)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-4 The apply piston is released (left) by the coil springs. Fluid pressure
moves the piston to apply the clutch (right).
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-5 Clutch piston return springs can be a
single large spring (a), a group of small springs
(b), or a single Belleville spring (c). (Courtesy of
Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
Clutch Plates
Double- and Single-Sided Friction Plates
Clutch Operation
Wet Friction
Open Pack Drag
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-6 Any fluid left in the apply chamber of a
spinning clutch will be pushed outward by
centrifugal force. This force can cause the fluid to
push on the piston and partially apply a clutch.
FIGURE 4-7 A close-up view of the surface finish
on a steel plate. Note the small nicks and grooves
that tend to hold fluid.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-8 Friction plates often have a groove pattern
to help wipe fluid away, dissipate heat, eliminate clutch
noise, and change friction qualities during apply and
release. A smooth plate is the coolest and slowest to
apply; the waffle plate will apply the fastest, but it will
have less heat removed by the oil. (Courtesy of
Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-9 This friction plate has
directional grooves. The lugs (center
inset) are assymmetrical, so the plate
cannot be installed incorrectly.
(Courtesy of Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-10 A microscopic view of the surface of paper friction plate lining.
Friction material is formed on the lined plate to establish a crosslinked matrix.
Note the large cavities between the paper fibers that can store relatively large
amounts of fluid. (Courtesy of Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-11 In this clutch assembly, clutch stack clearance is adjusted
using either the large or small flange (backing plate). Other clutches may
use a selective snap ring. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-12 The ZPAK is a single-sided clutch design (a). Both sides of the two
different plates show a lined and unlined side (b). The clutch pack requires proper
placement of the end plates (c). (Courtesy of Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-13 When this transmission is
in first gear, the sun gear and unlined
plates of the front clutch rotate
counterclockwise while the hub and lined
plates of this clutch rotate clockwise. Any
drag will produce heat that can cause
clutch burnout.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-14 If you push against a
stationary book, you will notice the static
friction that resists motion. Pushing against
the same book while it is sliding is easier
because the dynamic friction is somewhat
less.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-15 A comparison of the dynamic and static coefficients of friction with
motor oil and three types of ATF. (Courtesy of Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-16 The clutch apply curves of five different clutches. The dynamic
friction is the rate of torque increase, whereas the static friction is the amount of
torque at the left. (Courtesy of AFM)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-17 The four slots in
this steel plate, called a
turbulator plate, promote a fluid
layer on each side of the
stationary plate. (Courtesy of
Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
Two styles of one-way clutches are used in
automatic transmissions:
Roller clutches
Sprag clutches
Mechanical Diode
Clutch Operation
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-18 This overrunning clutch assembly is a roller clutch with the clutch cam secured to the
transmission case (a). It uses a set of springloaded rollers in the retainer (b). (Courtesy of Chrysler
Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-19 If this inner race tries to turn counterclockwise, the rollers will
wedge at the narrow part of the cams and lock the clutch. Movement of the inner
race in a clockwise direction will move the rollers to the wide part of the cams,
where they will roll freely. (Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-20 Each sprag has a major and minor diameter. The
major diameter is greater than the distance between the two races
(right); the minor diameter is smaller (left). (Courtesy of Toyota
Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-21 A mechanical diode. The
struts can move out of the pocket plate
to engage the notch plate, and this will
lock the pocket plate. The pocket plate
can overrun in the opposite direction.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY DRIVING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-22 This clutch hub and sprag clutch should rotate
freely in a clockwise direction but should lock up in the opposite
direction. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HOLDING/REACTION DEVICES
A holding member acts as a brake to hold a
planetary gearset member in reaction.
Three types of holding devices are used:
Multiple-disc clutches
Bands
One-way clutches
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC HOLDING CLUTCHES
A multiple-disc holding clutch is quite similar to a
driving clutch.
The difference is the transmission case is the drum,
and the clutch plates splined to it do not rotate.
Some manufacturers call these clutches a brake.
The lugs on the outside of the unlined plates fit into
slots built into the case.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC HOLDING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-23 The 41TE transaxle low/reverse clutch is a
holding clutch. Note the splines in the case for the clutch
plates. (Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
MULTIPLE-DISC HOLDING CLUTCHES
FIGURE 4-24 The plates of the O/D brake are splined to the transaxle O/D case.
The first and reverse brake and the second brake are multiple-disc clutches that
are splined to the transaxle case. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
ONE-WAY HOLDING CLUTCHES
One-way clutches are commonly used as reaction
devices.
The outer race is often secured directly to the
transmission case so it cannot rotate.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
A band is a circular strip of metal that has lining
bonded to the inner surface.
It wraps around the smooth surface of a drum.
There are three types:
Single thick, heavy band
Single thin, light band
Split, double-wrap, heavy band
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-25 A flex band (a) and a rigid band
(b). Note the flex band has circumferential
grooves for improved conformity, fluid flow, and
performance. Note that this is a double-wrap
rigid band. Single-wrap rigid bands are also
used. (Courtesy of Raybestos)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-26 This band uses an
adjustable anchor that allows the
clearance to be easily adjusted.
(Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-27 A band is normally anchored at the trailing end so its rotation will pull
the band tighter. Note that this servo is applied by fluid pressure and released by a
spring. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-28 Fluid pressure acting on the piston forces the piston and piston rod
inward to apply the band. The band is released by the outer spring pushing
outward on the piston. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-29 This band apply lever
increases servo force by about two and a
half times. The apply speed will be
decreased the same amount because
the servo must travel a greater distance.
(Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-30 Air pressure can be used to apply the band while the length of the
piston stroke is measured. Piston stroke is used to determine the correct piston rod
and adjust band clearance. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
Band Operation
When fluid pressure enters the servo, the servo piston
strokes to tighten the band around the drum.
The amount of torque that a band can absorb before
slipping is determined by the band-to-drum contact area,
type of band, drum diameter, fluid type, and the force
squeezing the band onto the drum.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
BANDS
FIGURE 4-31 This band is applied when 1
2 shift valve pressure pushes upward on the
servo piston. It will release when 23 shift
valve pressure pushes the piston
downward. Note the larger area above the
piston.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SHIFT QUALITY
As a power shift occurs, there must be a smooth
transition from one apply device to the next.
The smoothness of the shift is referred to as shift
quality or shift feel.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SHIFT QUALITY
FIGURE 4-32 In second gear, the sun gear and front clutch drum are held stationary by the band (a). In third
gear, the clutch is applied so drum and sun gear are rotating at engine speed (b). The driver feels this
change as shift quality. (Courtesy of Nissan North America, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SHIFT QUALITY
FIGURE 4-33 Two cushion plates: the
Belleville plate has a coned shape. The
wave plate has a wavy shape. Both of
them will flatten slightly as the clutch is
applied.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SHIFT QUALITY
Shifts Involving One-Way
Clutches
Deceleration with One-
Way Clutches
FIGURE 4-34 This one-way clutch allows the shaft to
overrun in a clockwise direction. (Courtesy of Toyota
Motor Sales USA, Inc.)
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SUMMARY
1. The power flow through a gearset is controlled by driving
and reaction devices.
2. The driving and reaction devices are multiple-disc clutches,
one-way clutches, and bands.
3. Multiple-disc clutches are the primary driving devices and
are also used to hold planetary members in reaction.
4. One-way clutches primarily are used to hold planetary
members in reaction, but can be used with a multipledisc
clutch to be a driving device.
5. Bands are used to hold a planetary member in reaction.
6. The timing of the apply and release of the apply devices
has a direct effect on shift quality.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The power flow through an automatic transmission is
controlled by the _________ and _________ devices.
2. The most common driving member is the _________
_________ _________; a(n) _________ _________ is also
used as a driving member.
3. List the seven major parts of a clutch assembly.
4. Usually the lined plates of a driving multiple-disc clutch are
splined to the clutch _________, and the unlined plates are
splined to the clutch _________.
5. List the four types of return springs used in a multiple-disc
clutch are.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. Piston travel or clutch plate clearance can be adjusted by
replacing the _________ or _________.
7. The multiple-disc clutch torque capacity can be increased
by increasing the _________ area, number of _________,
_________ size, or by increasing the _________ pressure.
8. Shift quality is a term used to describe the _________ of a
shift.
9. The two types of one-way clutches used in an automatic
transmission are the _________ and _________.
10. One-way clutches _________ when turned in one direction
and _________ when rotated in the other direction.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
11. One-way clutches can be used as a _________ or
a _________ apply device.
12. List the three types of apply devices that can be
used to hold a planetary member.
13. A one-way clutch that is holding is referred to as
being _________.
14. A multiple-disc clutch that is used in reaction has
the steel plates splined to the _________.
15. Bands are applied by _________ pressure and
released by _________ or _________ pressure.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
16. A _________ shift sequence is a shift where the apply and
release of the apply devices must be carefully timed.
17. A shift sequence that does not need to be timed is known
as a _________ or _________ shift.
18. One-way clutches are only used in the _________ gear
ranges.
19. The disadvantage of one-way clutches is that they do not
provide _________ on deceleration.
20. Manual gear ranges use an additional _________ or
_________ to provide more holding power when pulling a
heavy load.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Student A says that in order for a planetary
gearset to change the ratio and transmit torque,
there must be an input and a reaction member.
Student B says that the turbine shaft is the primary
input to the transmission. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Student A says that in order for a planetary
gearset to change the ratio and transmit torque,
there must be an input and a reaction member.
Student B says that the turbine shaft is the primary
input to the transmission. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
2. Student A says that neutral in a planetary gearset
can be obtained by releasing all of the driving
clutches. Student B says that neutral in a planetary
gearset can be obtained by not applying any
reaction members. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
2. Student A says that neutral in a planetary gearset
can be obtained by releasing all of the driving
clutches. Student B says that neutral in a planetary
gearset can be obtained by not applying any
reaction members. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
3. The apply device that is most commonly used as a
driving member is a
a) cone clutch.
b) multiple-disc clutch.
c) one-way clutch.
d) band.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
3. The apply device that is most commonly used as a
driving member is a
a) cone clutch.
b) multiple-disc clutch.
c) one-way clutch.
d) band.
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
4. Student A says that some of the plates used in a
multiple-disc clutch are lined with paper friction
material. Student B says that some of the plates
used in a multiple-disc clutch are unlined steel
plates. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
4. Student A says that some of the plates used in a
multiple-disc clutch are lined with paper friction
material. Student B says that some of the plates
used in a multiple-disc clutch are unlined steel
plates. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
5. The ideal unlined steel plates _________.
a) are perfectly flat
b) have many very small nicks in their surface
c) are not extremely smooth
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
5. The ideal unlined steel plates _________.
a) are perfectly flat
b) have many very small nicks in their surface
c) are not extremely smooth
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
6. The most common material that the friction plate
lining is made from is _________.
a) Paper
b) Asbestos
c) inorganic fibers
d) Any of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
6. The most common material that the friction plate
lining is made from is _________.
a) Paper
b) Asbestos
c) inorganic fibers
d) Any of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
7. A multiple-disc clutch is applied by _________.
a) one or more coil springs
b) a piston and air pressure
c) hydraulic pressure pushing against a piston
d) None of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
7. A multiple-disc clutch is applied by _________.
a) one or more coil springs
b) a piston and air pressure
c) hydraulic pressure pushing against a piston
d) None of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
8. The grooves in the surface of a lined clutch plate
_________.
a) help cool the friction material
b) allow oil to flow between the plates more easily
c) are cut using different patterns depending on the clutch
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
8. The grooves in the surface of a lined clutch plate
_________.
a) help cool the friction material
b) allow oil to flow between the plates more easily
c) are cut using different patterns depending on the clutch
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
9. The torque-carrying capacity of a clutch is
determined by the _________.
a) number of plates
b) amount of lining area on the plates
c) amount of pressure squeezing the plates together
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
9. The torque-carrying capacity of a clutch is
determined by the _________.
a) number of plates
b) amount of lining area on the plates
c) amount of pressure squeezing the plates together
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
10. Commonly used holding or reaction members are
_________.
a) Bands
b) one-way clutches
c) multiple-disc clutches
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
10. Commonly used holding or reaction members are
_________.
a) Bands
b) one-way clutches
c) multiple-disc clutches
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
11. Student A says that a band is applied by a
hydraulic servo and released by a spring or
hydraulic pressure. Student B says that a clutch is
applied by hydraulic pressure and released by a
spring or hydraulic pressure. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
11. Student A says that a band is applied by a
hydraulic servo and released by a spring or
hydraulic pressure. Student B says that a clutch is
applied by hydraulic pressure and released by a
spring or hydraulic pressure. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
12. When a multiple-disc clutch is used as a holding
member, the lugs of the unlined plates are splined
into _________.
a) a very large drum
b) the reaction carrier
c) the transmission case
d) the output shaft
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
12. When a multiple-disc clutch is used as a holding
member, the lugs of the unlined plates are splined
into _________.
a) a very large drum
b) the reaction carrier
c) the transmission case
d) the output shaft
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
13. The strongest of the band designs is the
_________.
a) single wrap
b) heavy band
c) double wrap
d) flexible
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
13. The strongest of the band designs is the
_________.
a) single wrap
b) heavy band
c) double wrap
d) flexible
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
14. Band clearance can be adjusted using a
_________.
a) threaded adjuster at the band anchor
b) threaded adjuster at the servo lever
c) selective sized servo piston rod
d) Any of these, depending on the transmission
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
14. Band clearance can be adjusted using a
_________.
a) threaded adjuster at the band anchor
b) threaded adjuster at the servo lever
c) selective sized servo piston rod
d) Any of these, depending on the transmission
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
15. Student A says that the inner and outer races of a
sprag clutch are perfectly round and smooth.
Student B says that one of the races of a roller
clutch is perfectly round and smooth while the
other one has a series of ramps in it. Who is
correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
15. Student A says that the inner and outer races of a
sprag clutch are perfectly round and smooth.
Student B says that one of the races of a roller
clutch is perfectly round and smooth while the
other one has a series of ramps in it. Who is
correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
16. When a sprag clutch locks, the sprags _________.
a) try to rotate but wedge between the two races
b) roll down the ramps and wedge into place
c) rotate into a position that unlocks them
d) rotate with the free or rotating race
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
16. When a sprag clutch locks, the sprags _________.
a) try to rotate but wedge between the two races
b) roll down the ramps and wedge into place
c) rotate into a position that unlocks them
d) rotate with the free or rotating race
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
17. When a roller clutch unlocks, the rollers
_________.
a) are wedged between the two races
b) rotate between the two races like a series of bearing
rollers
c) rotate to a position where they allow both inner and
outer races to rotate
d) None of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
17. When a roller clutch unlocks, the rollers
_________.
a) are wedged between the two races
b) rotate between the two races like a series of bearing
rollers
c) rotate to a position where they allow both inner and
outer races to rotate
d) None of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
18. A one-way clutch in a reverse direction
_________.
a) is applied by hydraulic pressure
b) is released by a group of springs
c) self-applies whenever one of the races tries to rotate in a
reverse direction
d) Any of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
18. A one-way clutch in a reverse direction
_________.
a) is applied by hydraulic pressure
b) is released by a group of springs
c) self-applies whenever one of the races tries to rotate in a
reverse direction
d) Any of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
19. The term used to describe when the apply devices
do not need to be timed when shifting gears is
_________.
a) shift feel
b) Asynchronous
c) shift quality
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
19. The term used to describe when the apply devices
do not need to be timed when shifting gears is
_________.
a) shift feel
b) Asynchronous
c) shift quality
d) All of these
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
20. The term used to describe the condition when the
engine is used to slow the vehicle is _________.
a) compression braking
b) compression gear
c) low gear
d) forced braking
Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, Fourth Edition
By Tom Birch and Chuck Rockwood
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
20. The term used to describe the condition when the
engine is used to slow the vehicle is _________.
a) compression braking
b) compression gear
c) low gear
d) forced braking