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Lowi & Wilson Policy

Typologies
PUB/POS 340
11/06/07
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Lowis Policy Typology
as updated by Ripley and Franklin
Distributive

Protective Regulatory

Competitive Regulatory

Redistributive
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Distributive
Generally individualized decisions

Low levels of conflict
Lots of logrolling

Hard to find actual losers
Example: water projects

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Distributive Policies
Classic Logrolling Example

Smooth Hawley Tariff Act 1930

Ideology or Logrolling?

Background for Smoot Hawley
Pastor / Callahan et al argued
ideology
Irwin and Krozner found logrolling






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Distributive
Group A support
for more benefits
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Distributive
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
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Distributive
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
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Distributive
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
Logrolling
Activity
+
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Distributive
Benefits to
interest group A
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
Logrolling
Activity
+
+
9
Distributive
Benefits to
interest group A
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
Benefits to other
groups
Logrolling
Activity
+
+
+
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Distributive
Benefits to
interest group A
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
Benefits to other
groups
Other group
support for
more benefits
Logrolling
Activity
+
+
+
+
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Distributive
Benefits to
interest group A
Group A support
for more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
more benefits to
group A
+
+
+
willingness to support
other groups to get what
you want
Benefits to other
groups
Other group
support for
more benefits
Pressure on
representatives for
"other" benefits
Logrolling
Activity
+
+
+
+
+
+
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Distributive
Can you think of other examples?

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Protective Regulatory
Conflict between groups or coalitions of
groups

Tends to be rather more open

Visible winners and losers

Example: consumer protection law
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Protective Regulatory
activity that
harms people
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
activity that
harms people
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
+
activity that
harms people
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
+
+
activity that
harms people
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
Regulation
on business
practices
-
+
+
+
activity that
harms people
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
Regulation
on business
practices
-
+
+
+
+
activity that
harms people
+
harm to
business
profits
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
Regulation
on business
practices
Businesses harmed
by regulation
-
+
+
+
+
activity that
harms people
+
harm to
business
profits
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
Regulation
on business
practices
Businesses harmed
by regulation
Mobilization of
business interest
coalitions
-
+
+
+
+
+
activity that
harms people
+
harm to
business
profits
+
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Protective Regulatory
Groups harmed by
business practices
mobilization of a
coalition for
regulation
pressure to
regulate
Regulation
on business
practices
Businesses harmed
by regulation
Mobilization of
business interest
coalitions
pressure to
deregulate the
industry
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
activity that
harms people
+
harm to
business
profits
+
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Protective Regulatory
Can you think of any examples?
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Competitive Regulatory

Protection of particular trades or
professions

Usually at state level

Example: Licensing

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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
+
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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
Perceived Monopoly
by group A
+
+
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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
Perceived Monopoly
by group A
Pressure to
regulate industry
-
+
+
+
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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
Perceived Monopoly
by group A
Pressure to
regulate industry
Advantages to "other"
businesses or groups
+
-
+
+
+
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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
Perceived Monopoly
by group A
Pressure to
regulate industry
Advantages to "other"
businesses or groups
Market share of
other groups
+
+
-
+
+
+
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Competitive Regulatory
Competitive
Advantage of
Business or Group A
Market Share
occupied by Group A
Perceived Monopoly
by group A
Pressure to
regulate industry
Advantages to "other"
businesses or groups
Market share of
other groups
Perception of a
competitive market
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
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Redistributive

Shifts in wealth, property, income, or rights

Examples: welfare, civil rights acts

Difficult to pass because it requires that
the less powerful prevail over the powerful.

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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
problems reaching the
national agenda
+
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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
problems reaching the
national agenda
+
pressure to "do something"
to help the less powerful
group
+
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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
problems reaching the
national agenda
+
pressure to "do something"
to help the less powerful
group
+
Status quo power to
prevent policy change
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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
problems reaching the
national agenda
+
pressure to "do something"
to help the less powerful
group
+
Policy change to help
the less powerful group
+
Status quo power to
prevent policy change
-
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Redistributive
problems
accumulating for
the less powerful
group
problems reaching the
national agenda
+
pressure to "do something"
to help the less powerful
group
+
Policy change to help
the less powerful group
+
-
Status quo power to
prevent policy change
-
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FAA Rules to Regulate Drinking
and Flying: 14CFR Part 91.17
Steroids and Sports:
Could Rulemaking Go Too Far?
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