Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Malinda Richards

Pioneer For Nurse Education First American Trained Nurse

Presented By:

Kristen McWilliams & John Schurer

Malinda Richards

July 27, 1841 – April 16, 1930

Malinda Richards July 27, 1841 – April 16, 1930


Born July 27, 1841 in West Potsdam, NY

Parents Sanford Richards & Betsy Sinclair Richards

Christened as Malinda Ann Judson Richards

Moved to WI at age 4 but returned to Newbury, VT shortly thereafter

Nurse training began under family doctor Doc Currier who cared for her mother

Enrolled at St. Johnsbury Academy at age 15 for teacher training

Timeline Cont’d

Met and became engaged to George Poole in 1860

1869- moved to Boston to work at Boston City Hospital

1870- signed up for nurse-training program at the New England Hospital for Women & Children

Linda was the first student to enroll and first student to graduate from nursing program

After graduating she became night supervisor at Bellevue Hospital in NYC

Created first written reporting system for charting and recording patient records

Timeline Cont’d

1874- took over Boston School of Training – made it the best program

1877- traveled to England for seven months of intensive study

1878- returned to Boston and established a nurse training school

1886- established the first nurse-training program in Japan

Additional nurse training programs established in Philadelphia, Massachusetts and Michigan

First American Training School for Nurses

Dr. Susan Dimock took charge to reform training of American nurses

New England Hospital for Women & Children

First class consisted of five students including Linda Richards

Work was very different then from what it is now

Days started at 5:30AM and ended at 9:00PM

Beds were in little rooms between wards

First American Training School for Nurses Cont’d

Program was one year long

Training in medical, surgical and obstetrical nursing

Instruction very limited – only 12 lectures given by visiting staff physicians

Bedside or practical instruction performed by interns

Names of medications given were not known

No text-books, entrance or final examinations

First American Training School for Nurses Cont’d

Diplomas were quietly handed out to graduates

Student nurses were not treated with respect nor highly thought of

With all the knowledge available from physicians, very little training provided during this program

Japan (1885-1890)

Japan (1885-1890)
Japan (1885-1890)

Japan (1885-1890)

In February 1885, a colleague suggest she joins an effort by the American Board of Missions to establish a nursing school in Japan.

She accepted in August 1885, and was departed for Japan in December


First memories and great impression on her- Mt. Fuji and Rikshaw

Japan (1885-1890)

First few months in Japan she spent learning Japanese

Gains notoriety for her efforts during a cholera outbreak, great reward for little work.

Japan (1885-1890)-School Establishment

School Teaching Staff

John C. Berry, MD

Sara Buckley, MD

Japanese Physicians (PRN)

Malinda Richards, America's First Trained Nurse

Japan (1885-1890)-School Establishment

Challenges to Instruction

Medical textbooks were American books

Anatomy & Physiology books were Cutler's Physiology books translated into Japanese

Nurse lectures carried out with assistance of interpreter

Richards found dietetics challenging due to cultural and food preferences of the Japanese

Much of teaching occurred in house shared by students and instructor

Japan (1885-1890)

Practical Experience

Hospital ward care- Richards noted that eye infections were especially prevalent

Outpatient care- The most valuable training component

Nursing patients in homes

Japan (1885-1890)

Social changes for Japanese women

Richards noted Japanese women possess natural qualifications for nursing


Cheerful and Courteous

Able to “win their way where they cannot enforce it”

Japan (1885-1890)

Social changes for Japanese women

Richards also saw the need to be more assertive

Drug Compliance

Lack of identity?

Japan (1885-1890)

Things get better

The Japanese people are appreciative of nursing efforts, plans commence to expand hospital facilities

Other schools built

All of Richards graduating students offered positions as superintendents at newly established nursing schools

All graduating students demonstrate what they have learned in practical exercises at graduation ceremony

Japan (1885-1890)

Time goes on

The next two nursing classes total 20 students

Richards credits Mission Organizations for the growth of nursing in Japan

Expands to teaching Bible School to when not teaching nursing

Leaves Japan in 1890, citing health and climate as reason for change

From October 1980 to March 1891, she relaxed with a sightseeing trip to France

Later Years-Mental Health

Heads the Philadelphia Visiting Nurses Society from April-November


December 1891-April 1892 Kirkbride's Hospital for the Insane

April 1892-December 1892 Methodist Episcopal Hospital of Philadelphia

Later Years- Mental Health

Richards‘ findings of working in hospitals for the insane

Schools connected to private hospitals performed better for the insane

Careful instruction needed to deal with insane

Average student lacked the patience/tact necessary to deal with the insane

Sweetness of disposition needed

Final Years

Retired at the age of 70 in 1911

Wrote her autobiography, “Reminiscences of Linda Richards”

Suffered a severe stroke in 1923

Lived the remainder of her life in New England Hospital for Women and Children

Died April 16, 1930 in Boston at the age of 88

Inducted into National Women’s Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, NY

Disclosure of Resources

Reminiscences of Linda Richards, America's First Trained Nurse. Linda Richards; Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows,1911

Outlines of nursing history by Minnie Goodnow; W. B. Saunders Co.,


Linda Richards: America’s First Trained Nurse by St. Lawrence County, NY Branch of the American Association of University Women, http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/richards.htm.

Misison Work in Africa; The Rev. F. W. Bates Tells the American Board of Its Labor; Dr. Berry in Japan. The New York Times, October 17, 1895

Medical Instruction in Japan. The New York Times, June 13, 1884