Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

CONJUNCTIONS

Definition:
is a word or word groups used to connect
sentence parts .

E.g.
1. Either apples or bananas are his liking.
2. Jogging along the neighborhood and playing
badminton are his usual daily habits.
3. She reviewed a lot because she wanted to
pass the test.

Kinds:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
conjunctions used to join parts that are of
equal importance

1. FOR- means because (cause-effect).
She had a lot of friends for she was a
friendly girl.
2. AND- adds information.
Jim can boil eggs and Sally can make toast.
3. NOR removes alternatives.
I dont want to argue with you nor do I
want to give in.

4. BUT- offers contrast
I had a cute puppy but I lost him.
5. OR- offers a choice.
We can go to Disneyland or we can go to
Sea World.
6. YET- expresses a stronger contrast than
but.
Susan ate an entire cake, yet she was still
hungry.
7. SO- means as a result.
He studied for the test so he got a good
grade.


Directions: Supply the appropriate conjunction

1. My dad _______ Ted are going fishing this afternoon.
2. The old man doesnt have much money _____ he
always seems to have nice things.
3. Either we are going to win ______ they are going to
win.
4. I dont have much time _____ hurry up!
5. He wasnt a popular king _____ all of his countrymen
hated him.
6. I want to get there early ____ we should leave soon.
7. It doesnt matter whether they get the job ___ not.
8. We dont like red ____ do I like blue.
9. I ran after the cat _____ could not catch her.
10. We played very well ____ we still lost the game.
I. *the always SINGULAR*
a) The number

The number of enrolees has decreased.
The number of participating schools
increases.
The number of criminal cases has dropped
gradually.
The number of people that we need to
hire is thirteen.
*the always SINGULAR*
b. Indefinite pronouns like each, either,
neither, every one, no one, one

Each of the students is given a chance.
Either of the options is possible.
Neither of the two stores is open.
Every one of the participants is given due
recognition.
One of the best ways is to keep a journal.
No one was able to pass the exam.


*the always SINGULAR*
c. Indefinite pronouns ending in one,
-thing, & -body

Everybody attends the class.
Nothing is impossible.
Someone has stolen my money.
Everyone is on a diet.
Nobody wants to lose the game.

*the always SINGULAR*
d. Recognized PAIRS

A bow and an arrow makes a good weapon.
Bacon and egg is my favorite breakfast.
Drinking and driving is a major course of
accidents.
Thunder and lightning always scares my
dog.
but,
*Spaghetti and burger are very yummy.
(doesnt make up a pair at all!)

*the always SINGULAR*
e. Book titles, movies, branches of
studies, discipline, sports

The Alchemist is a fantastic movie.
Insidious 2 is very shocking.
Acoustics is the study of sounds.
Communication is life itself.
Mathematics isnt as easy as one thinks.

*the always SINGULAR*
f. Sums of money or Periods of
time

One million dollars is a lot of money.
Ten years is a long wait
Five days is short time.
Five hundred pesos is my daily
allowance.

g. Bodily diseases and illnesses

Measles is a contagious disease.
AIDS, a deadly disease, is gotten through
sexual contact.
SARS comes from cold, western
countries.
Arthritis results from lack of exercise.



*the always SINGULAR*
II. *the always PLURAL*
a. A number

A number of students were absent.
A number of votes were cast.
A number of parents were on a
demonstration.

*the always PLURAL*
b. AND

My cats and dogs live peacefully.
Infatuation and love are two different
things.
Sleeping and eating are human needs.
The engineer and the crew are talking.

*the always PLURAL*
c. ADJECTIVES

The rich are powerful.
The good are always persecuted.
The poor are oppressed.
The beautiful are always favored.
The powerful are those in the government.
*the always PLURAL*
d. PLURAL WORDS

Their headquarters lie at the end of this
street.
Her clothes are fashionable.
His whereabouts are hard to find.
More species are getting discovered as
days pass.



scissors
shears
tongs
binoculars
spectacles
trousers
measles,
*the always PLURAL*


suds
series
oats
species
thanks
clothes
outskirts

belongings
whereabouts
premises
victuals
pyjamas



scissors
shears
tongs
binoculars
spectacles
trousers

*the always PLURAL*
e. FEW, SEVERAL, MANY,
BOTH

Many are called but only few are chosen.
Both of my dogs have collars.
Several of my friends are sick.
Many of us are young.

III. Can be SINGULAR/PLURAL
a. MOST, ANY, ALL, SOME,
NONE

All of the dogs in the neighborhood are
barking.
Most of the athletes are young.
Some of the competitors are fast.
None of it is understood completely.
*Can be SINGULAR/PLURAL*

b. OR

Jack or they know the answer.
Friend or enemies are animals.
My sister or I am going with them.
Can be SINGULAR/PLURAL
c. NEITHERNOR, EITHEROR,
NOT ONLY.BUT ALSO

Neither the cat nor the dogs are going outside.
Neither the dogs nor the cat is going outside.
Either the books or the pen is hers.
Either the book or the pens are hers.
Not only the boss but also the employees
want to go home early.
Can be SINGULAR/PLURAL
d. FRACTIONS, PARTS,
PERCENTAGE, PORTION,
REMAINDER, MAJORITY

Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared.
Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.
One-third of the city is unemployed.
One-third of the people are unemployed.

Rule: if the noun in the of-phrase is uncountable,
use a singular verb and a plural verb if countable.
Can be SINGULAR/PLURAL
e. COLLECTIVE NOUNS

The family prays together.
The jury has arrived to a decision.
The team wins the championship
but,
The family members were excited for the trip.
The jury have different opinions.
The team remove their uniforms.
IV. WATCH-OUTS
a. Prepositional phrases

The teachers in the classroom are very
experienced.
The boxes of cake are on the shelf.
The books under the table are missing.
The cake on the table has been eaten.

WATCH-OUTS
Preposition

above in
among of
at on
below over
beneath to
under along

Object of the
Preposition

the trees the lab
the flowers the school
the movies the bridge
the trees the store
the trees the table

WATCH-OUTS
b. INTERVENING EXPRESSIONS

My house, like all other houses, is built on
stone.
My parents, together with my brother, go to
church.
Jaycee, among all other contestants, brings
home the bacon.

WATCH-OUTS

Including As well as
Along with Together with
In addition to Especially


WATCH-OUTS
c. EXPLETIVES

Here are the apples.
There is a huge storm.
There is an answer.
Here is the newspaper.

WATCH-OUTS
d. INVERTED SENTENCES

Under the tree are several flowers.
There is nothing impossible.
Was music developed before writing?
Has she seen the photo?

Exercise: Underline the conjunctions
1. I've studied both French and Spanish in school.
2. Sally will be late for the party because she must work
until nine.
3. Jim is not only class president, but he is also captain of
the football team.
4. It has turned cool, although it's still very sunny.
5. Please tell me if you will be late for dinner.
6. Either Laura or Sue will have the lead in the play.
7. We played tennis until it was too dark to see the ball.
8. Since Mr. Hays has just moved into the state, he can't
vote in the election today.
9. Neither radio nor television offered any good programs
last night.
10. After we went to the movie, we stopped for some pizza.
11. Please help us whenever you have the time.
12. I like to play bridge, but I can't keep score.
13. Helen looks as if she's seen a ghost.
14. Dan likes to play tennis and golf.
15. Though he didn't learn to play golf until he was
forty, he became a good player.
16. While the teacher passed out the exam questions,
Martha gazed out the window.
17. Let us know where you spend the first night of your
vacation.
18. Mr. Clark walks as though he is exhausted.
19. Unless they put that coat on sale, I can't afford to
buy it.
20. Let's start early in the day before it gets too hot.