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What is..?

Automatic gear box that can


change gear ratios automatically
as the vehicle moves
Freeing the driver from having
to shift gears manually
So there is no clutch pedal in an
automatic transmission car
The main components
Planetary gear sets that provide the various
forward gear ratios as well as reverse
Hydraulic system which uses a special
transmission fluid sent under pressure by an
Oil pump through the Valve body to control
the Clutches and the Bands in order to control
the planetary gear sets
Torque converter which acts like a clutch to
allow the vehicle to come to a stop in gear
while the engine is still running
Governor and Modulator or Throttle valve
that monitor speed and throttle position in
order to determine when to shift

Planetary gear set
Planetary gear set in
Auto Transmission
Planetary gear set in
Auto Transmission contd..
If both the clutch pack and the band were
released, the system would be in neutral. Turning
the input shaft turns the planet gears against the
sun gear, but since nothing is holding the sun
gear, it will just spin free and have no effect on
the output shaft
The clutch pack is used, in this instance, to lock
the planet carrier with the sun gear forcing both
to turn at the same speed
To place the unit in first gear, the band is applied
to hold the sun gear from moving
To shift from first to high gear, the band is
released and the clutch is applied causing the
output shaft to turn at the same speed as the
input shaft
Hydraulic system - Clutches
Consists of alternating discs that
fit inside a clutch drum
Half of the discs are steel and
have splines that fit into groves
on the inside of the drum
The other half have a friction
material bonded to their surface
and have splines on the inside
edge that fit groves on the outer
surface of the adjoining hub
A piston inside the drum that is
activated by oil pressure at the
appropriate time to squeeze the
clutch pack together so that the
two components become locked
and turn as one
Hydraulic system - Bands
Is a steel strap with
friction material bonded
to the inside surface
One end of the band is
anchored against the
transmission case while
the other end is
connected to a servo
At the appropriate time
hydraulic oil is sent to the
servo under pressure to
tighten the band around
the drum to stop the
drum from turning
Torque Converter - Principle
Torque Converter
Torque Converter contd..
Governor and Modulator or
Throttle valve
The Governor is connected to the output shaft and regulates
hydraulic pressure based on vehicle speed. It accomplishes this
using centrifugal force
The more load you place on the engine, the longer the transmission
will hold a gear before shifting to the next one
The Throttle Cable simply monitors the position of the gas pedal
through a cable that runs from the gas pedal to the throttle valve in
the valve body
The Vacuum Modulator monitors engine vacuum by a rubber
vacuum hose which is connected to the engine. High vacuum is
produced when the engine is under light load and diminishing down
to zero when the engine is under a heavy load.
When an engine is under a light load, high vacuum acts on the
modulator which moves the throttle valve in one direction to allow
the transmission to shift early and soft. As the engine load
increases, vacuum is diminished which moves the valve in the other
direction causing the transmission to shift later and more firmly.
Semi-automatic or clutchless
manual transmission
uses electronic sensors, processors
and actuators to do gear shifts on the
drivers command
This removes the need for a clutch
pedal ,since the clutch itself is
actuated by electronic equipment
which can synchronise the timing and
torque required to make gear shifts
quick and smooth
Semi-automatic transmission

contd.. The gear lever moves forward and backward to shift into
higher and lower gears
Hall effect sensors sense the direction of requested shift,
and this input, together with a sensor in the gear box
which senses the current speed and gear selected, feeds
into a CPU. This determines the optimal timing and
torque required for a smooth clutch engagement
CPU powers a hydro-mechanical unit to either engage or
disengage the clutch, which is kept in close
synchronization with the gear-shifting action the driver
has started
The system lies can react much faster and more precisely
than a human, and takes advantage of the precision of
electronic signals to allow a complete clutch operation
without the intervention of the driver