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NANOTECHNOLOGY

Presented by-
Praveen Singh Rana
Rahul Shah
Introduction
• NanoHistory
• NanoTechnology
• NanoMaterial
• NanoBiology
• NanoElectronic
• “NanoComputational Science”
• “NanoFunding”
History of NANO
• Tools 2,000,000 B.C.
• Metallurgy 3600 B.C.
• Steam power 1764
• Mass production 1908
• Automation 1946
• Sixth industrial revolution NOW
– Moving from micrometer scale to nanometer
scale devices
Milestone

• 1959 R. Feynman Delivers “ Plenty of Room at the


Bottom”
• 1974 First Molecular Electronic Device Patented
• 1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM)
• 1986 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented
• 1987 First single-electron transistor created
• 1991 Carbon Nanotubes Discovered
• 2000 US Launches National Nanotechnology Initiative
• 2002. 01 ITRI Nano Research Center Established
What is Nanomaterial?
• Materials with an average grain size less
than 100 nanometers.

• One billion nanometers = one meter


Comparisons

The average width of a human hair is on


the order of 100,000 nanometers

A single particle of smoke is in the order


of 1,000 nanometers.
Why Nanotech?
A small science with a huge potential
Why Nanotech?
• Nanotechnology exploits benefits of
ultra small size, enabling the use of
particles to deliver a range of important
benefits…
– Small particles are ‘invisible’ :
• Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable
– Small particles are very weight efficient:
• Surfaces can be modified with minimal
material.
Components
Weight efficient and Uniform
coverage
• Large spherical
particles do not cover
much surface area
• Nanoparticles Equal
mass of small platelet
particles provides
thorough coverage (1
x 106 times more)
Nanotechnology
• Nanotechnology: The creation of functional
materials, devices and systems through control of
matter on the nanometer(1~100nm) length scale
and the exploitation of novel properties and
phenomena developed at that scale.

• Why nano length scale ?


- By patterning matter on the nano scale,
it is possible to vary fundamental properties of
materials without changing the chemical
composition
Approaches
• Top-down – Breaking down matter into
more basic building blocks. Frequently
uses chemical or thermal methods.

• Bottoms-up – Building complex systems


by combining simple atomic-level
components.
Different types of Nanomaterial
• Nanopowder
– Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter)
for more complex nanostructures.
• Nanotube
– Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite
sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in
diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers
(microns) long.
– The Strongest Material
Nanopowders
• Advanced nanophase materials
synthesized from nanopowders have
improved properties.
• Such as increased stronger and less
breakable ceramics. They may conduct
electrons, ions, heat, or light more readily
then conventional materials.
• Exhibit improved magnetic and catalytic
properties.
Advantages of Nanopowders
• Continuous connections between large
numbers of grains make the material more
stretchable and ductile so it doesn't easily
crack.
• Made of tight clusters of very small
particles, resulting in overlapping electron
clouds that induce quantum effects.
Possibly resulting in more efficient
conduction of light or electricity.
Nanopowder Applications
• Useful in manufacturing
inhalable drugs.
• Particles in the micrometer
scale are deposited in the
alveoli of the lung, often
leading to clumping
problems.
• Could use smaller
nanoparticles to prevent
clumping by forcing
spacing.
Pictures
Nanotube
• Carbon Nanotube(CNT)
- Originally, discovered as
by products of fullerenes
and now are considered to
be the building blocks of
future nanoscale electronic
and mechanical devices.
Nanotube
• Discovery of CNT
(1) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube(MWNT)
- Sumio Ijyma(Nature,1991)
(2) Single-Walled carbon Nanotube(SWNT)
- Ijyma,Bethune,et al. (1993)
(3) Single Crystals of SWNT
- R.R.Schlittler,et al. (Science, May.2001)
Structure of Nanotube
• SWNT atom structures

- Basically,sheets of graphite
rolled up
into a tube as shown figure.

- The hexagonal two


dimensional lattice of graphite
is mapped on a cylinder of
radius R with various helicities
characterized by the rolling
vectors (n,m).
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Nanotube applications
 Structural elements in bridges, buildings, towers, and
cables
 Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains
 Heavy-duty shock absorbers
 Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular
injection
 Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors, and
diodes
 Microelectronic heat-sinks and insulation due to high
thermal conductivity
 Nanoscale gears and mechanical components
 Electron guns for flat-panel displays
 Nanotube-buckyball encapsulation coupling for
molecular computing with high RAM capacity
Research from IBM
• The IBM scientists used nanotubes to make a
"voltage inverter" circuit, also known as a "NOT"
gate . They encoded the entire inverter logic
function along the length of a single carbon
nanotube, forming the world's first intra-
molecular -- or single-molecule -- logic circuit.
• Carbon nanotube transistors transformed into
logic-performing integrated circuits; major step
toward molecular computers
• Aug 28 2001-breakthrough development of
transistor technology
Spinach Proteins and Carbon
Nanotubes
• Spinach contains a chlorophyll-containing
protein called Photosystem I (PSI, pronounced
PS One) that upon receiving a photon of light,
exhibits an electrical current that flows through it
in one direction in 10 to 30 picoseconds — 100
times faster than in a silicon photodiode.
• Applications in photo battery or solar electric
cell. Next generation opto-electronics might be
spinach based rather than silicon.
Nanodevices in the Treatment
of Cancer
Nanostructures in Biological
Systems
• Two major concerns

1. To be large enough they don’t just pass


through the body.

2. Need to be small enough they don’t


accumulate in vital organs and create
toxicity problems.
Biological Nanodevices
• Bottom-up approach frequently used when
constructing nanomaterials for use in
medicine
• Most animal cells are 10 to 20 thousand
nanometers in diameter.
• Nanodevices smaller than 100
nanometers would be able to enter the
cells and organelles where they could
interact with DNA and proteins.
Biological Nanodevices (cont)
• This could assist with
the detection of
disease in very small
cell or tissue samples.
• Could also allow less
invasive examination
of living cells within
the body.
Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
• Currently done by physical examination or
imaging techniques
• Early molecular changes not detected by
these methods.
• Need to detect changes in small
percentage of cells, need very sensitive
technology, “enter” nanostructures.
Improvements in Diagnostics
• Nanodevices could exam tissue or cell
samples without physically altering them.
• Improving miniaturization will allow
nanodevices to contain the tools to
perform multiple tests simultaneously.
• Leading to faster, more efficient, and less
sample consuming diagnostic tests.
Cantilevers
• Tiny levers that bind to molecules
associated with cancerous tissue. (such
as altered DNA sequences or proteins)
• Surface tension changes lead to bonded
cantilevers bending, which can be used to
detect the presence of these molecules.
• May allow detection of earlier stages of
cancer.
Nanopores
• Helps researchers detect errors in the genetic
cause that may lead to cancer.
• Funnels DNA through, one strand at a time,
resulting in more efficient DNA sequencing.
• Monitor shape and electrical properties of each
base as they pass through the nanopore.
• Properties, which are unique to the bases, allow
the nanopore to help decipher information
encoded in the DNA.
Nanotubes
• Carbon rods approximately half the
diameter of a DNA molecule.

• Used to detect the presence, and exact


location, of altered genes.

• Bulky molecules designed to “tag” specific


DNA mutations.
Nanotubes (cont)
• Nanotubes trace the
physical shape of the
DNA, outlining the
mutated regions.

• Important because
location of mutations
influence the effects
they have on the cell.
Quantum Dots
• Tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated
by ultraviolet light.
• Color of glow dependent on size.
• Create latex beads designed to bind to specific
DNA sequences. Quantum dots within the
beads can be used to identify specific regions of
DNA.
• Diversity allows creation of many unique “dot
labels” for DNA sequences.
• Useful because cancer often results from
accumulation of many different changes in cells.
Cancer Treatment
• Nanotechnology may allow treatments that
target cancer cells without harming nearby
healthy cells.

• May allow creation of therapeutic agents


that have a controlled, time-release
strategy for delivering toxins.
Nanoshells
• Upon absorbing infrared light, release a
lethal dose of intense heat.

• Linking nanoshells to antibodies that


recognize cancer cells has successfully
allowed researchers to kill cancer cells
without harming neighboring non-
cancerous tissue. (in a laboratory)
Dendrimers
• Man-made molecule comparable in size to
average protein.

• Has a branching shape, allowing the attachment of


therapeutic devices and biologically active
molecules.

• May be used to detect and treat cancer while


reporting on the results of its attempts.
Timetables (according to the NCI)
• Quantum dots, nanopores, and other
detection and diagnosis devices may be
available for clinical use in 5 to 15 years.
• Therapeutic agents have a similar
timeframe.
• Integrated devices may be available
clinically in about 15 to 20 years.
Nanotechnology in
Electronic Applications
Moore’s Law
• Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in
1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor
chips would double roughly every 18 months.
• It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device
physicists and process engineers can achieve
Moore's Law Holding!
Ambitious Predictions
• Moore's Law will have run its course around
2019. By that time, transistor features will be just
a few atoms in width. But new computer
architectures will continue the exponential
growth of computing.

• For example, computing cubes are already


being designed that will provide thousands of
layers of circuits.
Facts
• Nanotechnology’s ability to continually increase
the amount of data that fits on a microchip
provided the industry with escalating computing
speed and power, which led to even-more-
powerful products and a strong motive for
customers to upgrade.

• However, at some point, that miniaturization


process collides with the physical limits of
silicon.
Back In the Days
Transistors
• The transistor,
invented by three
scientists at the Bell
Laboratories in 1947,
rapidly replaced the
vacuum tube as an
electronic signal
regulator.
Transistors
• A transistor regulates current or voltage
flow and acts as a switch or gate for
electronic signals.

• Transistors are the basic elements in


integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of
very large numbers of transistors
interconnected with circuitry and baked
into a single silicon microchip or "chip."
Silicon
• Silicon is a chemical element present in sand
(source is readily available). It is one of the
best known semiconductor material in
electronic components.

• Silicon conducts electricity to an extent that


depends on the extent to which impurities are
added
Molecular Devices
• Molecular Scale Electronic Devices
– Molecular Computers are constructed from Molecular
Scale Electronic Devices which are electronic devices
that consist of only a few atoms and are constructed
and interconnected by chemical means.

• Major Benefits
– The major benefits of molecular electronics are a
dramatic reduction in size and power consumption.
Computational Science in NM
• Computational Science comes in to
develop tools for modeling and designing
nanoscale systems.
• The development of a range of
computational tools, integrated with each
other, easily used and widely available to
industry, is the goal of the Nanomaterials
researchers
Why Computational?

Modeling and simulation provides an


opportunity to be smarter, quicker!

Whilst experimental programs are vital, modeling ensures


that more value is obtained from experiments
Examples

• In electronics -dealing with electrons,


the density functional methods and the
Monte Carlo modeling are employed in
Molecular dynamics to make predictions
concerning nanoparticles (e.g defect
electronic properties, wetting properties),
or macromolecules.
Tools / software
• NanoCad in Java A freeware nanotech design
system
• NanoDesign: Concepts and software for
nanotechnology based on functionalized
fullerenes
• AccuModel Accurate 3-D models using the
MM3 force field
• Amoeba A simulator for nanotechnology
• etc
Funding – in the US

As a measure of the interest and commitment by


the U.S. government,
- For fiscal year 2001 the U.S. government
allocated $422M
- For fiscal year 2002 the U.S. government will
allocate $485M
-On March 9th 2003, Congress approved $849
million for nanotechnology R&D for the fiscal year
2003
Funding – Individual States

Individual States are also investing to ensure that they


can share in the prosperity and employment that this
will bring,

California has invested $100M to prime the


creation of a $300M California Nanosystems Institute.
Funding - elsewhere
Similarly, in Japan the importance of nanoscience to
their economy is exemplified by the spending of
$410M in the last fiscal year and the setting up of 30
university centers with expertise in nanoscale
science and technology.
In the EU
In terms of research funding, the most important
programs are: Improving the Quality of Life (QoL);
Information Society Technologies (IST); and
Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH)
Reference
http://www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/rev32_3/brave.htm
http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0210/0210187.pdf
http://www.mpg.de/doku/wb_materials/wb_materials_166_176.pdf
http://www.anl.gov/OPA/logos19-1/nanotech02.htm
http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/alliance/partners/ApplicationTechnologies/Na
http://www.matmod.com/FAQ.html
http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/ressearch_units/research_section/nanotech/na
http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/nanotech/nano03.htm
http://www.nanotechfoundation.org/what.html
http://www.riken.go.jp/labwww/library/publication/review/pdf/No_45/45_00
http://www.ul.ie/~childsp/CinA/Issue58/TOC12_Nanomaterial.htm
http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/growth/gcc/projects/in-action-nanotech