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NEBOSH

General Certificate

Managing - the core skills
Planning
- objectives
- priorities
- action plans
Controlling
- hazard recognition
- risk assessment
- risk management
Monitoring
- checking use
of control measures
- safe systems etc
Organising
-Responsibilities
-Systems
-- expertise
Health and Safety Management.
To manage the safety of people, we should
Create a health and safety policy
Carry out risk assessments and re-assess
Develop a safety plan
Train to ensure competence
Monitor performance
Change policy or the plan as required
Safety
Management
HS G 65
HS G 65 Step 1, Set Your Policy
Decide and develop your policy which should
Have three sections (HSW Act s2)
Statement of intent
Organisation
Arrangements
Steer direction company takes, and influences all
activities
Set standards
Becomes the centre for safety management
Defence for litigation, prosecution and insurance
claims
HS G 65 Step 2 Organise Your Staff
To make effective policy, involve staff, gain commitment
The four Cs help in developing a positive culture
Competence
Recruitment, training, advice and support
Control
Delegate responsibility, secure commitment,
provide instruction and effective supervision
Co-operation
Between individuals, groups of employers,
employees, contractors, temps etc
Communication
By written, spoken and visible actions
HS G 65 Step 3 Plan & Set Standards
Develop a plan
How to eliminate or control significant risks
How legislation is to be implemented
H & S targets with managers and supervisors
Purchase and supply policy etc
Defining tasks, processes, equipment, product design
and services
Safe systems of work
Procedures for serious and imminent danger
Co-operation with contractors / neighbours
Standards setting to measure performance by
HS G 65 Step 4 Monitor Performance
Just like finance, production or sales, you need to
monitor / measure performance to find if you are
successful, you need to know
Where you are
Where you want to be
What is the difference - and why
Two types of monitoring systems
Active
Before things go wrong
Reactive
After things have gone wrong
HS G 65 Step 5, Audit and Review
We need to learn from our experiences
Monitoring provides information to review activities, and
decide how to improve performance
Audits can tell how reliable and effective your systems
are
Reviewing policy needs to consider
Compliance with performance standards
Where standards maybe absent or inadequate
Compliance with legislation
Achievement of stated objectives within given time
scales i.e. Injury, illness and incident data
Immediate or underlying causes, trends and common
features
What gets measured, gets done

Management Tools,
to Assist in Developing
and
Maintaining a
Safe Working Environment
Safety Inspections.
A health and safety inspection is
To go to a workplace, identify the hazards, and
assess whether they are being adequately
controlled
Can be, safety adviser, manager, supervisor
safety rep, or any combination (can be a team)
Should have an inspection sheet, with actions
responsibilities and completion deadlines etc
Should have management involvement, authority
Should have a system for recording, and filing
Must be competent
Safety Tours
Short informal Inspections
Need check sheet / recording
Can be used by management and safety advisors as a
monitoring method
Managers and supervisor should implement each day
Health and Safety Audit
A health and safety audit is a comprehensive
analysis of a companies health and safety systems,
they seek to confirm :
Does the company have a health and safety
system of management ?
Is the system adequate for their needs ?
Do they use the systems in place ?
Have the objectives been achieved ?
Justification for a future strategy ?
Carried out by independent person
Considers : policy, plans, procedures
Legislation compliance, SS of W, etc
Safe System of Work?
A safe system of work is
A formal procedure which results from a systematic
examination of a task in order to identify all the
hazards
It defines safe methods to ensure that hazards are
eliminated or risks minimised
Key Elements of a Safe System
Plan in advance of the work
Not routine operator instructions
Consider the people - experience etc
Account for familiarity breeding contempt
Establish the system
Written instruction
Training
Supervision (monitoring)

Safety Analysis (JSA)

Analyse the task
Identify the hazards
Assess the risks
Plan the system


Job Safety Analysis
Syndicate
Consider a car driver with a puncture !
List all the steps you need to take to change the tyre?
Consider at each step
What the hazards are ?
The adverse effects that could occur ?
Any control method ?
Step Description Hazards Effects Control Methods
Permit to Work
A formal document controlled system applied to high risk
activities
Maintenance on machinery
Working on live electric
Entry into confined spaces
Excavation with buried services
Hot work near flammables
Work on or near overhead cranes

Permits to Work
Permits should contain
Date, start / stop time, method of work, precautions,
people, signatures to authorise work to start ,and to
confirm work is complete, also for agreement to carry
the work out in that way
Permits should ideally not go beyond 8 Hr or a Shift
If work is not complete Start a new permit
Breach of a permit should be a disciplinary offence

Communications
Legal Requirements
HSW ACT
Employers Duties
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regs
Information for employees
Safety Reps and Committees Regs
Consultation with Employees Regs
Safety Signs Regs
CHIP
PUWER, COSHHetc
Cycle of
Communication
Presenter + Aim
Language
Format i.e.
written, said
Understanding of
receiver
Interpretation
depending on
experience,
attitudes etc
Feedback i.e.
Action
or not !
barriers
Remember
communication
involves listening
as well as talking
!!
Group Work
What methods do you use to communicate health and
safety in your company ?
What could prevent good communication (barriers)
How could you overcome those barriers
Barriers to Communication
Sender and Receiver
Sender
Unclear
Irrelevant detail
Too much little info
Poor quality info
Inaccuracy
Vague, ambiguous
terms used
Wrong style
Wrong language,
jargon
Complexity of the
message
Receiver
Physical defect-
hearing / speech
Language difficulties
Lack of knowledge
Lack of training
Lack of experience
Illiteracy
Lack of feed back
Attitude
Barriers to Communication
The Place
Size
Equipment
Facilities
Lighting
Glare from sun etc
Noise
Comfort of seating
Temperature
Distractions
Methods of Communication
Formal
Safety policy
Reports
Inspectors letter /
notice
Registered / official
forms
Safety meeting reports
Notices on notice
board
Statistics, signs
Memos, training
Informal
Verbal
Telephone
Rumour / grapevine
Custom and practice
Body language

People Remember
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they see and hear
70% of what they say in conversation
90% of what they say as they do a thing
Choosing The Medium
We have to consider
Personal or impersonal
Cost
Is feedback necessary (person or action)
Will the message get through
Accuracy and speed
Permanent record required
Credibility of source
Internal / External Sources of Health
and Safety Information
Internal
Risk assessments
Committees /
representatives
Accident records
Inspections
Audits
Policies
Inspectors reports
External
HSE
HMSO
IOSH / ROSPA
Local safety groups
Suppliers /
manufacturers
Libraries / data banks
Standards
Internet
Group Work
Why may verbal instructions not be clearly understood ?
Or
Why employees may fail to comply with safety
instructions ?
Misunderstanding and Non-
Compliance
Could Be Because
Unrealistic or ill conceived procedures or instructions
Mental / physical capabilities not taken account
Poor safety culture / complacency / lack of motivation
Peer pressure / other priorities / pressures
Risks not perceived
Environment ie. Noise
Fatigue and stress
Lack of consultation or commitment
Communications Questions
Outline the sources of information that could be
consulted when developing a Safe System of Work (8)
Outline the various methods of communicating health
and safety information to the workforce (8)
Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal instruction
being clearly understood by an employee (8)
Outline the various ways in which a Safety Policy
Document could be communicated to the workforce (8)
Training
Essential Elements of Training
The Trainer
Experience
Knowledge
Knowledge of limitations i.e. knowing what you dont
know
Training method
Venue
Date
Duration
Cost
Induction Training
First day
Fire precautions, first aid
Workplace, colleagues
Canteen, toilets etc
First week
Hazards, risks & precautions
Emergency procedures, limitations
Key people
First 6 months and onwards
Detailed safe systems of work
Changes, refresher
Training Needs Analysis
Stage 1
Analyse the job content by JSA
Stage 2
Identify the knowledge, skills and experience required
Stage 3
Assess individual competence

Stage 2 & 3 = training need
Forms of Training
Interactive
Computer based
Visual
a picture paints a thousand words
Practical
On site where possible
Tailored to the organisations systems
Tailored case studies, audit results etc
Use team leaders / safety representatives to train

Aims and Objectives
Aim - journey's end
e.g. Aim to train employees in the correct use of
hearing protection
Objective what delegates should be able to achieve
Understand how the ear can be damaged by noise
Explain why hearing protection is necessary
Recognise the areas where hearing protection must
be worn
Use proper procedure for obtaining hearing protection
Inspect ear muffs for damage
Maintain the equipment
Group Work
Outline factors to be considered when planning and
preparing a health and safety training session
Planning
Preparation
Practice
Planning
Topic
Make it interesting ?
Keep to the point ?
Ensure it can be clearly understood ?
Tailor it to the audience ?
Ensure it be presented in the time available ?
Ensure it will achieve what you set out to achieve ?
People
Place
Time
Planning
Preparation
Practice
Preparation
Preparation
Training material
Venue


Practice
Practice !!
Welcome and Introduction
Talk
Timing
Ending

Typical Training Questions
Outline the main h & s topics to be included in an
induction training programme for new employees (8)
Outline how health and safety training needs can be
identified (8)
Outline the events that may create a need for additional
health and safety training within an organisation (8)
Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and
presenting a health and safety training session (8)
Explain why induction training is important in the
prevention of accidents (8)
Outline the issues that should be included in a training
programme for employees on the emergency action to
take in the event of a fire (8)
Consultation
Safety Representatives and
Safety Committees
Regulations 1977

Appointed by a recognised trade
union
2 years service or experience in
similar employment
Name of the representative and
group represented notified to the
employer in writing
Appointment ceases on notification
by the union or when employment
ceases
Safety Representatives and Safety
Committees Regulations 1977
The Duties of Safety Representatives
Take reasonable practicable steps to keep themselves
informed of
Health and safety legislation
Their workplace hazards and precautions
Safety policy and arrangements
Encourage co-operation between their employer /
employees in promoting and developing improvements
in health and safety
Report to their employer the effectiveness of health and
safety measures and any unsafe or unhealthy working
practices
The 'duties' do not imply legal responsibility

Representatives Are Entitled To:
Inspect the workplace for hazards
Investigate complaints about health / safety
Make representation to their employer
Consult with and receive information from HSE
inspectors (or other enforcing authority)
Inspect documents / be provided with information
Attend meetings of safety committees
Undertake training
Reasonable facilities
2 or more can ask (in writing) for a safety committee
Safety
Committees
Aims of a Safety Committee
To
Keep under review the measures taken to ensure the
health and safety at work of employees
Consultation
Communication
Recommending options to the company


Objectives / Terms of Reference
of a Safety Committee
Committees should identify their own objectives and
terms of reference, these might include
Review accident / disease statistics
Examine safety inspection / audit reports
Consider special reports
Assist in developing procedures etc
Monitor the extent of safety content in employee
training
Monitor and improve safety communication and
publicity
Provide a link with enforcing authority
What Makes a Committee Effective?
Right number and mix of members
Adequate authority to consider recommendations
Knowledge and expertise
Good communications
Management / committee
Committee / employees
Suitable level formality, agenda, minutes, chairman
Access to specialist advice
Commitment
Frequency
Health and Safety
(Consultation with
Employees )
Regulations
Health and Safety (Consultation With
Employees ) Regulations
Employers are required to consult with employees on
matters that affect their health and safety
The Regulations describe
What you must consult employees about
How you chose to consult employees
Directly, or
Through elected representatives
Guidance about how to carry out elections etc
Consultation with Employees Regs
Information
Functions
Report to their employer the effectiveness of health
and safety measures and any unsafe or unhealthy
working practices
Represent employees in consultation with the HSE /
EHO
Training, time off and facilities
Civil liability
What Must Employees Be Consulted
About ?
Introduction of any measure
Arrangements for appointments of competent persons
Any health and safety information required
Planning and organising H&S training
New technologies
Information & Consultation
Information Consultation
Preventative and protective
measures to ensure safety
Identity of competent
person
Risks from risk assessment
Procedures in event of
emergency
Risks from another
employers undertaking
Introduction of any measure
Arrangements for
appointment of competent
person
Health and safety
information required
Planning and organising
H&S training
New technologies
Knowing What - MH&SWR Planning How- H&SCER
H&S
Safety Representatives and Representatives
of Employees Safety
Definition safety representative representative of
employee safety
Appointment by recognised trade union by group of employees
Functions to be consulted, and to make representation on
potential hazards and dangerous occurrences and
general H&S matters & consultations with H&S
inspectors
- investigate hazards, - no additional
accidents & complaints functions
- to carry out inspections
- receive information from
inspectors
- to attend appropriate
safety committees
Typical Safety Reps and Safety
Committees Questions
a) Explain the circumstances under which an employer
must form a Health and Safety committee (2)
b) Give reasons why a Health and Safety Committee
may be ineffective (6)
Outline the functions of a safety representative as stated
in the Safety Committees Regulations 1977 (8)
With regards to the Safety Representatives and Safety
Committee Regulations 1977
Explain the occasions when a safety representative is
legally entitled to inspect the workplace (6)
Describe the facilities that an employer may need to
provide to safety representatives (2)