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RELATIVE CLAUSES

Relative clauses are used to give additional


information about something without starting
another sentence.

By combining sentences with a relative clause, the
text becomes more fluent and repeating certain
words can be avoided.

Gives essential information about the noun or noun
phrase it modifies, without which the sentence
wouldn't make sense as the listener or reader would
not be able to identify the noun in the sentence.
Defining relative clauses are not put in commas
EXAMPLE:
The woman who lives next door works in a bank.

WHO tells which noun we are talking about (the
woman).
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Gives extra information about a noun or noun phrase and has
commas at both ends.
This information is not needed to understand the sentence.
EXAMPLE:
My sister, who lives in France, is coming to stay with me next
week.

'who lives in France' is extra information, it is not essential for
understanding the phrase.

The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the
clause.
EXAMPLE:
We stopped at the museum, which we'd never been into.


NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Non-defining clauses can be introduced by
expressions like all of, many of + relative pronoun.

Examples:
There were a lot of people at the party, many of
whom I had known for years.

He was carrying his belongings, all of which were
broken.

A relative pronoun is used to start a description for a
noun. (This description is called a relative clause).


RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Defining Relative clauses are introduced usually by
these relative pronouns: who, which, that. But when
and where are also possible.
EXAMPLES:

I want to live in a place where there is lots to do.
Yesterday was a day when everything went wrong!

Non-defining relative clauses can use most relative
pronouns (which, whose etc,) but they CANT use
that.
EXAMPLE:
INCORRECT: The film, that stars Tom Carter, is released
on Friday.

CORRECT: The film, which stars Tom Carter, is released
on Friday.
Look out! Theres the dog that bit my brother.
The film which we saw last week was awful.
Shes the woman who cuts my hair.
The boy whom you met is in my class.
I won't eat in a restaurant whose cooks smoke.
MORE EXAMPLES
Defining Relative Clauses

My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.
My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is
falling apart.
Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New
York.
Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't
like now.



MORE EXAMPLES
Non-Defining Relative Clauses