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Submitted By:

Abhimanyu Bhardwaj
Landscaping refers to any activity that consists of
decorating and modifying the outdoor spaces.

A good landscaper should understand the relationship
between technology and nature.

With the help of good landscaping we should feel at
home both inside and outside.

1. Organic:
a. Plant Material
b. Water Body
c. Earth form

2. Inorganic:
a. Stones
b. Brick
c. Lighting
d. Timber
e. Metal
f. Plastics
g. Glass
h. Composite materials


a. Plant Material
b. Water Body
c. Earth form

Plants are the product of biological processes.
They are the starter of eco system.

Plant materials are classified into 4 types :


Trees are generally defined as:
woody plants that attain heights of more
than 20 feet (6 meters) and
have both a dominant stem, or trunk, and
a definite crown shape .

o TREES are basically divided into two types:

EVERGREEN -which stay green through out the
DECIDUOUS -which shed there leaves at least
once in a year

o Some popular trees are Gulmohar, Jacaranda,
Amaltas, Bottlebrush, Kachnar, Bombax Ceiba

They have a very weak stem. Hence they
use various means to climb a support

Thorns roots.

They help in proper anchorage with the
support .They are used to hide areas for
cooling effect ,to cover the pergolas .

They ascend by clinging to other objects
for support.

Shrubs are :

Perennials ,
Smaller than trees ,
Multistemed ,where branching starts at the base or
very near from the ground.
They have woody stems,
Fragrance ,foliage ,or flowers are there main
They maintain a good ecobalance.
Most shrubs are green during the growing stage .
Fragrant flowers are very popular in places where
people sit.

Used extensively to provide soft areas,
sitting areas, lawns etc .
They help to absorb the harsh sun rays
and maintain a cool environment.
They are very helpful in preventing soil
erosion by holding the soil together
with there roots.

For Example: Mexican grass , Kolkata
grass ,Hybrids.

A water body is any significant accumulation of water,
usually covering the Earth.

The term water body most often refers to large
accumulations of water, such as oceans, seas, and lakes,
but it may also include smaller pools of water such as
ponds, puddles or wetlands.

Some bodies of water are man-made (artificial), such as
reservoirs or harbors, but most are naturally occurring
geographical features.

Some bodies of water collect and move water, such as
rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such
as lakes and oceans.

Two Types of Water available:

1. Surface Water
2. Ground Water

There are many types of water uses as
landscape element :

1. Fountains
2. Pools
3. Ponds
4. Spouts
5. Artificial waterfalls.etc.

Surface Water
o Surface water is water collecting on the ground or in a
stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean.

o It is related to water collecting as groundwater or
atmospheric water.

o Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation
and naturally lost through discharge to evaporation
and sub-surface seepage into the ground.

o They are available in the form of glaciers, rivers, canals,
wells, lakes etc.

Groundwater is water located beneath the ground
surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock

A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called
an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of

The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and
voids in rock become completely saturated with
water is called the water table.

Groundwater is recharged fromthe surface naturally;
natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps,
and can form wetlands.
The movement of water on the earth's surface and through the atmosphere is known as the hydrologic cycle.

Water is taken up by the atmosphere from the earth's surface in vapour form through evaporation. It may then be
moved from place to place by the wind until it is condensed back to its liquid phase to form clouds.

Water then returns to the surface of the earth in the form of either liquid (rain) or solid (snow, sleet, etc.) precipitation.
Water transport can also take place on or below the earth's surface by flow.

Water is stored in the following reservoirs: atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, soils,
snowfields, and groundwater.

It moves from one reservoir to another by processes like: evaporation, condensation, precipitation,
deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, and groundwater flow.

Ponds generally have irregular
shapes and their size varies from
small to medium.
They generally have an
underground source of water
Ponds encourage the growth of a
large variety of aquatic plants inside
and around themselves.
They offer a tranquil atmosphere for
the people and encourage thinking
and relaxation activities.
Rocks can be arranged around
ponds so that they can resemble the
natural ones.

A stream is a body of water with a current,
confined within a bed and stream banks.
Streams help in conserving biodiversity.
They help in climate control and provide
moisture to the soil and make it fertile.
Streams can be either recurring or perennial.
Recurring (intermittent) streams have water
in the channel for at least part of the year.
Streams typically derive most of their water
from precipitation in the form of rain and
Most of this water re-enters the atmosphere
by evaporation from soil and water bodies,
or by the evapotranspiration of plants.

A fountain or jet forces water out of a small
opening with great pressure into the air either
for decorative or dramatic effect.
Fountains are used today to decorate city
parks and squares; to honor individuals or
events; for recreation and for entertainment.
A Splash pad or spray pool allows city
residents to enter, get wet and cool off in
The musical fountain combines moving jets
of water, colored lights and recorded music,
controlled by a computer, for dramatic
Drinking fountains provide clean drinking
water in public buildings, parks and public

A river collects water from a broad area around it called a watershed.

Some rainwater evaporates back into the atmosphere. Some sinks into the
ground and travels underground to a river. But a large proportion of the
rainwater flows over the Earth's surface.

A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either
permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on characteristics
that distinguish it as a distinct ecosystem.

The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands is the
characteristic vegetation that is adapted to its unique soil
conditions: Wetlands are made up primarily of hydric soil, which
supports aquatic plants.

The water found in wetlands can be saltwater, freshwater, or

Subsets of wetlands include swamps, marshes, and bogs, among

Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally
water purification, flood control, and shoreline stability.
Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all
ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal

Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica.

They can also be constructed artificially as a water management
When water overflows from a height and forms
a screen it is called a smooth sheet flow.
When water flows in steps it is
called as cascade.
Two types of structures which helps in
managing water are:

1. Detention structures (mainly used to
control floods) eg. Dams.

2. Retention structures(to rejuvenate
ground water).

Detention structures
It provides an unparallel source of recreation (like pools, ponds, cascades, fountains, waterfalls etc.)

Sinuous lines can be provided with water. It gives a soft texture.

Sometimes aquatic plants are grown on the edge of water to have obscured edge. This also provides a very natural and
organic edge

Texture can be provided by flow of water.

Naturalized small streams called brooks can be provided.

The sound of water can be used to enhance the landscape and sound of water is decided by speed and volume.

Smooth sheet flow effect can be used with the help of water falls and it will have a glossy effect and effect of verticality
will be present.(waterfall)

Textured flow in cascades/ stepped flow can be used. [waterfall (straight flow) cascade (slipped flow)].

Water bodies provide contemplation (thought) opportunities.

Undesirable noises can be masked by water bodies if provided in urban areas.

They are microclimate enhancers( comfortable micro climate) like Mughals buildings are on bank of river Yamuna.

When large volume of water forcibly comes out of narrow openings, jets or fountain are created. they provide a frothy
and misty effect.

Water bodies freeze and provides opportunities for ice-skating

Three dimensional relief of the surface
of earth is called as earth form.

Methods Of Representation Of Earth

1. Contours
2. Hachure

The shape or the relief of the ground surface
can be indicated by contours.
Contours are the lines of equal height above
a fixed reference point or bench mark of
known or assumed elevation.
These lines basically join points which have
equal heights above the fixed point.
They are considered to be the signature of
the land form.
Two contour lines can never intersect each
other because a same place cannot have two
different elevation except in the case of cliffs
and caves.
Contour lines should have equal intervals.
In representation, Us facing uphill denote
valleys and Us facing downhill represent
Contour lines always form closed loops.


Hachure are also representative
lines which are drawn
perpendicular to the contour lines.

More dense lines indicate shade,
less dense indicates sunlight.

Hachures represent the slope of
the landthe more gentle the
slope, the fewer the lines and
the absence of line indicates flat

A valley is an elongated depression in
the landscape that is formed by the
action of water or carved out by glaciers.

Valley bottoms are represented by "U"
or "V" shaped contour lines with their
closed end pointing towards higher

1. U Shapes - Formed by the action of

2. V Shaped - Formed by the action of
A ridge is a landform feature
characterized by a continuous
elevational crest with sloping sides.

Ridges are represented by "U" or "V"
shaped contour lines with their closed
end pointing towards lower elevation.

U-shaped contours indicate broader
ridges, while V-shaped contours
represent narrower and sharper ridge
Slope of a topographic landform or constructed
element, refers to the amount of inclination of that
surface to the horizontal.

There are several systems for expressing slope:
1. As an angle of inclination to the horizontal.

2. As a percentage, the formula for which is ((Rise/Run)
X 100) which could also be expressed as the tangent of
the angle of inclination times 100(tanQ X 100).

3. As a ratio of one part rise to so many parts run. For
example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 100
feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 20.

Grading is the work of ensuring a level base, or one with a specified slope, for a
construction work such as a foundation, or landscape and garden improvements, or
surface drainage. The earthworks created for such a purpose are often called the sub-
grade or finished contouring
Military crest is a term in military science that refers to the shoulder
of a hill or ridge rather than its actual crest (highest point). It is the
highest contour of elevation from which the base of its slope can be
seen without being located.
a. Stones
b. Brick
c. Lighting
d. Timber
e. Metal
f. Plastics
g. Glass
h. Composite materials

Stones are hard, impermeable, inorganic elements used
extensively in landscape architecture.

They are seen as :

1. Paving
2. Retaining wall
3. Stacked stone wall
4. Sitting
5. Shelters
6. Parapets
7. Bridges
8. Sculptures
9. Planters
10. Bollards

One of the best examples of use of stone as a landscape
Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or
shaped from quarried stone.
Nowadays concrete or cement bricks are also made and used widely.

Bricks are extensively used in landscaping for making:
1. Curb
2. Pavements
3. Planters
4. Screens.etc.
Herringbone Pattern is an important pattern
used in brick landscaping.

It consists of bricks being placed at 90
degrees to each other and arranged in a zig
zag manner.

Bricks are cheap and easily available and can
be laid easily and quickly as they can be
customized to suit the requirements.

Bricks can be used to make beautiful
pathways, benches and plazas.

Bricks are available in different finishes and

Timber is yet another best used elements of landscape.
This adds the attraction and improves the quality of landscaping by its use in
various ways:
1. Benches
2. Tables
3. Shelters
4. Pergolas
5. Bridges
6. Sculptures .etc.
Glass is a transparent fusion of silica,
alkaline flux, and stabilizer into a rigid, non-
crystalline mass. An extremely versatile
material, molten glass can be formed by
various means. It can be blown into bulbous
shapes, flowed into sensuous forms, or cut,
flattened, and cooled slowly to reduce

stainless steel
mild steel
cast iron
wrought / ductile iron
Metals are nowadays extensively used in landscape architecture.
Metals are being used as:
1. Benches
2. Railings
3. Bollards
4. Pergolas
5. Fencing
6. Lightings
7. Sculptures
8. Bridges
9. Dustbins
10. Bicycle parking.etc.
The term bollard light is a type of
architectural outdoor lighting that is a
short, upright ground-mounted unit
typically used to provide illumination
to light walkways, steps, or other

These types of light fixtures typically
give off light from the top or the sides.

They are usually placed near shrubs
and trees to have a pleasing effect.

Landscape lighting or garden lighting
refers to the use of outdoor illumination of
private gardens and public landscapes.
It is done for the enhancement and
purposes of safety, nighttime aesthetics,
accessibility, security, recreation and
sports, and social and event uses.
The outdoor lighting can be powered by
conventional source electricity-based
fixtures fixed post, wall, hanging, tree
mount, stake-mount, stationary, and
movable fixtures.
Some popular kinds of exterior lighting
fixtures are path lights, deck lights, step
lights, bollards, underwater lights and
hanging lights.
Therefore, the beauty of the landscape can
be maintained and enjoyed during
nighttime also only with the help of these
light fixtures.

Sculpture is an important form of public art.
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created
by shaping or combining different materials such
as wood, glass, metal etc.
It can be the signature of one particular area
which provides a definite identity to that place.
A sculpture can change the face of a simple space
and convert it into one of the most interesting
and demanding places.
The Rock Garden of Chandigarh is iconic because
of the different sculptures made out of waste
Sculptures act as the focal point of large areas
where people can gather.