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Human Resource Management

Dr. Karim Kobeissi


Islamic University of Lebanon - 2014

Chapter 4 : Job Analysis, Strategic Planning,


& Human Resource Planning

Job
A job consists of a group of related
tasks that must be performed for
organization to achieve its goals.
A job may be performed by one person,
such as the president of the firm.
A job may be performed by many
people, such as machine operators in a
large firm.

Job Vs Position
A position is the collection of
tasks
and
responsibilities
performed by one person.

In our firm, we have a supervisor,


two analysts, and four marketers
we have three types of jobs
and seven positions.

J o b

A n a l y s i s

A job analysis is a process of doing an In-Depth analysis of a


job and gathering information about the general tasks, or
functions, duties, responsibilities and the outcome of a
particular job. Its a process where we actually develop the
content for the job which further share with the employee to
make him aware about his duties & responsibilities A job
analysis identifies the kind of person who should be hired for
the job.

When Job Analysis Is Performed


Job analysis is performed at three specific

times:
1) When the organization is founded and a job
analysis program is initiated
2) When new jobs are created
3) When existing jobs are changed significantly as a
result of new technologies, methods, procedures,
or systems.

Questions Job Analysis Should Answer


What physical and mental tasks does the
worker accomplish?
Where is the job to be accomplished?
How does the worker do the job?
What qualifications are needed to perform
the job?
What are the performance standards for
this particular job?

Uses of Job Analysis Information


Job analyses provide
of

the

(1)

specification,

job

data

that forms the basis

description

and

(2)

job

both of which impact

virtually every aspect of human

resource management.

J o b

D e s c r i p t i o n

Job Description is an important document, which is


basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of
job Analysis. It provides both organizational information (like
location in organizational structure, authority etc) and
functional information (tasks, responsibilities, duties).

A Job Description should provide accurate, explicit and


concise statements of what employees are expected to do,
how they do it, and the conditions under which the duties are
performed.

Items Frequently Included in a Job Description

Major duties performed


Percentage of time devoted to each duty
Performance standards to be achieved
Working conditions and possible hazards
Number of employees performing the job
To whom the employees report
The machines and equipment used for the job

Job Specifications
Job Specification is a statement which tells us

minimum acceptable human qualities which


helps to perform a job. It is a written

statement of the educational qualifications,


specific qualities, level of experience, and

communication skills required to perform a


job.

Job Specifications Components


A job specification has the following components
Total Experience: It includes the total number of years of
experience required to perform the job. Generally it is
written in a range e.g. 5-7 years etc.

Education Qualification: It includes what degree, training


or certification required for the job.
Required Skills: This section includes physical, emotional,
technical, and communication skills required performing a
job and also including responsibilities involved in a job.

Job Analysis Methods


Job analysis is conducted in different ways according to an
organizations needs and resources. Selecting a specific

method should be based on how the information will be used,


such as for job evaluation, pay increases, development, etc.

The most common methods of job analysis are:


- Questionnaires
- Observation
- Interviews
- Employee recording
- Combination of methods

Conducting Job Analysis


Regardless of approach, the job analyst should before
conducting job analysis, learn as much as possible about

the job by reviewing organizational charts and talking with


individuals familiar with the jobs to be studied.
People who participate in job analysis should include, at a
minimum:
Job Analyst

Employee
Employees immediate supervisor

Steps in Job Analysis


Step 1:

Decide how youll use the information.

Step 2:

Review relevant background information.

Step 3:

Select representative positions.

Step 4:

Actually analyze the job.

Step 5:

Verify the job analysis information.

Step 6:

Develop a job description and job specification.

Problems If Job Specifications Are Exaggerated


Job specifications should always reflect the minimum, not the
ideal qualifications for a particular job. Otherwise, inflating the

specifications might causes problems such as:


Systematically

eliminate

minorities

or

women

from

consideration and the organization could be charged with


discrimination.
Ideal candidates will have to be compensated more than

candidates with minimum skills.


Job vacancies will be harder to fill because ideal candidates are
more difficult to find than minimally qualified candidates.

Timeliness of Job Analysis


Job
requirements
are
changing
so
rapidly
(due
to
technology ) that they
must be constantly
reviewed to remain
relevant.

Job Analysis for Team Members


With team design, there are no narrow
jobs
Work that departments do is often bundled
into teams
Last duty shown on standard job
description, And any other duty that
may be assigned, is increasingly
becoming THE job description.

HR as a Strategic Partner
Today, HR professionals are shifting from
an administrative and compliance role to
that of a strategic partner with upper

management HR helps determine the


strategic capabilities of the companys

workforce, current and future, to support


the firms mission.

Strategic Activities CEOs Want from HR


Make

workforce

strategies

integral

to

company

strategies and goals Integrate goals of HR with goals


of the organization.
Understand finance and profits.
Help line managers achieve their goals.
Emphasize adding value by demonstrating that HR can
produce a return on investment Human resource
professionals demonstrate how HR impacts business
processes to expand or shrink shareholder value.

The Strategic Planning Process


Process
by
which
top
management determines overall
organizational purposes and
objectives and how they are to
be achieved.
The strategic planning process
is a three steps activity.

The Strategic Planning Process (con)


1) Determining the organizations mission and goals.
2) Formulating Strategy

Managers analyze the organizations current situation (SWOT)


and then conceive and develop the strategies necessary to
attain the organizations mission and goals.
3) Implementing Strategy
Managers

decide

responsibilities
between

how

to

required

people

and

allocate

to

the

implement

groups

within

resources

those
the

and

strategies

organization.

The Three Steps Of The Planning Process

Human Resource Planning


The competitive organizational strategy of
the firm as a whole becomes the basis for
human resource planning.
Human Resource Planning is the
systematic process of matching the
internal and external supply of candidates
with job openings anticipated in the
organization over a specific period of time.

A . Requirements Forecast
A requirements forecast determines the (1) number, (2)
skills, and (3) locations of employees the organization will

need at future dates to meet its goals.

Before human resource requirements can be projected,


demand for the firms goods or services must be
forecasted. This prediction is then converted into people

requirements for the activities necessary to meet this


demand.

Techniques for Forecasting Human Resource


Requirements
1) Zero-base forecasting
2) Bottom-up forecast
3) Relationship between volume of sales and
number of workers required

4) Workforce planning software

1) Zero-Base Forecasting
The zero-base forecasting method uses the
organizations current level of employment as the
starting point for determining future staffing needs.
If an employee leaves the firm for any reason, the
position is not automatically filled and analysis
determines whether the firm can justify filling it.

The same analysis is done before creating new


positions.

2) Bottom-Up Forecast
In the bottom-up forecast, each successive
level in the organization, starting with the

lowest, forecasts its requirements to provide an


aggregate forecast of employees needed.

This process is highly interactive as the


estimated requirements from the previous level
are discussed, negotiated, and re-estimated
with the next level of management.

4) Workforce Planning Software


Workforce planning software allows companies
to forecast the number and kind of employees they
will need at some point in the future.
Workforce planning software falls into two
categories:
- Short-term or operational workforce planning
prepares for changes within months and is used
with mergers and restructuring.
- Longer-term, strategic workforce planning
software helps users envision the workforce as far
out as three to five years.

B. Availability Forecast
The availability forecast determines
whether the firm can secure employees

with the necessary skills, and from


which sources.
The human resource manager must
look to internal sourcesthat is, current
employeesand

meaning

the

combination.

external

labor

sources

market,

or

Human Resource Databases


A human resource database contains employee
information so management can make HR
decisions.
Such information might include: work history and
experience, specific skills and knowledge, licenses
or certifications held, completed organizational
training, education, performance evaluations,
assessment of strengths and weaknesses,
promotion potential, current job performance, field
of specialization, job preferences, geographic
preferences, career goals and aspirations,
anticipated retirement date, and personal history.

Shortage of Workers Forecasted


A shortage of personnel often
demands:
Innovative recruiting

Compensation incentives
Modified selection standards

Special training programs

Surplus of Employees
When a comparison of
requirements
and
availability indicates that
a worker surplus will
result, most companies
look to alternatives to
layoffs, but downsizing
may
ultimately
be
required.

Trends and Innovations: Alternatives to Layoffs


Although layoffs can be a necessary cost-cutting measure, alternatives
include:
Restricted hiring policy
Early retirement
Encouraging workers to use vacation time

Swapping employees
Moving employees from full-time to 30 hours a week without
reducing health benefits.
Job-sharing arrangements
Reduce the work week from five days to four

Offer an unpaid holiday option

Succession Planning
Succession planning is the
process of ensuring that qualified
persons are available to assume
key managerial positions once the
positions are vacant.
Goal is to help ensure a
smooth transition and
operational efficiency.

Disaster Planning
Planning
should
cover
catastrophes that range from
natural calamities, such as
hurricanes, earthquakes, and
floods to man-made crises:
- how the company will respond
when critical employees are
suddenly unavailable for an
extended period of time.

Manager Self-Service (MSS)


MSS is the use of software and corporate network

to automate paper-based processes requiring


managers approval, record-keeping, or input, and
processes that support managers job
MSS helps managers develop and grow staff and
assist employees in determining their career

paths and developing required competencies

Employee Self-Service (ESS)


ESS consists of Processes that
automate
formerly
laborintensive
transactions
for
employees
and
HR
professionals.
ESS applications can free up
valuable
HR
staff
time,
reducing administrative time
and costs.

Job Design
Job design is a step that follows job analysis and
is the the process in which the work is structured,
and

specific

tasks

and

responsibilities

are

designated to individuals or groups. Job design


dictates the manner in which work tasks are
arranged, to arrive at the maximum efficiency
and

optimal

outcomes.

Difference Between Job Analysis and Job Design


Job analysis involves the evaluation and analysis of a job, in
terms of the tasks, responsibilities, skills, tools, knowledge
and expertise required to fulfil the job requirements
successfully.
Job design dictates the manner in which work tasks are
arranged to arrive at the maximum efficiency and optimal
outcomes.
Job design follows job analysis, and the purpose of both job
analysis and design is to create the best fit among the
companys needs and individual with the right skills,
knowledge and capabilities to deliver to those needs.

Job Enrichment
Job enrichment involves making basic
changes in the content and vertical level
of responsibility of a job to provide greater
challenges to the worker, often improving
job performance and satisfaction.

Job Enlargement
Changes in scope of job to provide
greater variety to worker

Job Rotation
Job rotation, or cross-training, moves
employees from one job to another to
broaden their experience.
Often required for higher-level tasks
Can be effective in protecting a company
against
the
loss
of
key
employees.

Reengineering
Reengineering involves a firms radically
rethinking and redesigning its business
processes to become more competitive.

Reengineering aims to achieve dramatic


improvements in critical measures of
performance such as:
Cost
Quality
Service
Speed

Downsizing
Downsizing is a business strategy to reduce

costs, most often through a reduction in

payroll.