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Approaches to Teaching

Methods must:
show how language, literature and
composition are inseparable
show how teachers can teach them in a logical
organized manner
show the necessity and means of skills
instruction (spelling, vocabulary, reading,
library, dictionary skills)
Methods must:
make teachers know how to stimulate
interest, communicate with students, draw
their experiences
make teachers speculate what was right and
wrong in past lessons
help teachers develop good attitudes and
enthusiasm for teaching
Classification of instructional
practices (Carlsen, 1965: 364)
Teacher tells
(students memorizes and stores)
Teacher moulds
(students conforms)
Teacher stimulates
(students teach themselves)

The most likelihood in Msian setting
Harding modes of presentation
The child and the book
(making materials accessible to the students)
The literature as group experience
(inclusive of all types of genres)
Presentation of materials accompanied by
(accessible materials should be readable by
students without help)

3 Main Approaches to Teaching
(Carter, 1988: 3)
Information-based approach
Personal response-based approach
Language-based approach
Information-based Approach
Treat literature as a source of facts
Students read for information
Classes are teacher-centred
Students will become knowledgeable in
Little engagement with literary text
Personal response-based Approach
Aimed at motivating students to relate the
literary themes and topics to their personal
Classes are student-centred
Emphasize question-discussion methodologies

Language-based Approach
Classes are student-centred
Developing language competence
Leading to productive used of the language
Approach and Method
See page 59 and 60 of Rosli Talif book
A Survey of Approaches to Literature
Practical criticism
New criticism/Formalistic approach
Reader response/Transactional approach
Schema approach
Literary stylistics approach
Literary history/New historicism approach
Biographical approach
Psychological approach
A Survey of Approaches to
Socio-psychological approach
Paraphrastic approach
Cognitive psychology approach
Mythological and archetypal approaches
Moral-philosophical approach

Language-based Approaches
Developing study skills in reading literature
Forum or debate
Elicit prediction at crucial points in the text
Identify the crucial point
Ask students to make predictions in group
Let students to tell the story
Discuss certain elements like plot and themes
Allow students to be familiar with the set-up
of interpreting text
Forum or Debate
Proposing versus opposing views on text
Stimulates oral language practice
Promotes different tolerance of different
interpretations of the same text

From target language to native language
Compared both versions
Able to gauge lexical and structural level in
Nope. Dont do this.