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LGC Shadow Title Master.pot


Workplace Ergonomics
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Presentation Objectives
participants will be able to...
Understand basic concepts of ergonomics
Identify common musculoskeletal injury risks
Learn strategies to decrease MSD injury risks
Address questions on ergonomics and back
safety


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Ergonomics
Study of Work
The science of fitting the job to the
worker
ergo = work
nomics = study of
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What are the physical demands of your
job
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Job Risk Factors
Working in awkward postures / positions
Prolonged sitting and standing
Bending, reaching, stretching
Driving for extended periods of time
Heavy lifting
Awkward lifting
Lifting in combination with twisting
Pushing, pulling, carrying
Accidents, slips, trips, falls
Vibration

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Goals of Ergonomics Program
Reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders developed by
workers when their jobs involve...
Awkward postures
Static positions
Reaching
Bending & Lifting
Force
Repetition
Contact stress
Vibration
Repetition
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration
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What are MusculoSkeletal Disorders?
MSDs are injuries and illnesses that
affect muscles, nerves, tendons,
ligaments, joints or spinal discs.
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration
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Common Body Parts Prone To
Workplace MSDs
Back - Lower
Neck and Upper Back
Upper Extremities - Arms and Hands
Lower Extremities - Legs and Feet

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Examples of MSDs
Carpal tunnel
Rotator cuff syndrome
Lateral epicondylitis
- tennis elbow
Low back pain
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Musculoskeletal Disorders:
Signs and Symptoms
in general
Decreased ROM
Decreased grip and/or
pinch strength
Swelling
Fatigue
Loss of function
Numbness
Burning sensation
Tingling
Pain
Cramping
Stiffness
French & Zecha, 2005
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Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why?
Related to intensity of work
Have biomechanical and physiological factors
Can occur after weeks, months, years on job
Can take weeks, months, years to resolve
Have occupational and non occupational
causes
French & Zecha, 2005
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Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why?
listening to our body
Disruption in balance between breakdown and
recovery
1st sx.fatigue (of body part)
2nd sxache
3rd sxpain
Leading to loss of function
French & Zecha, 2005
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Adaptation vs. Injury
the fork in the road
Adapt
Soft tissue remodels
More strength
More stability
More endurance
Discomfort
decreases
Injury
Soft tissue breaks
down
Less strength
Less stability
Less tolerance for
use
Discomfort increases
French & Zecha, 2005
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QUESTIONS?


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Part Two
Some Ergonomic
Risk Factor Concerns
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Introducing our 2nd focus area for
today
Back care
Posture
Contact stress
Repetition
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Posture check: reaching & bending
its all connected and its all about physics
Load & leverage
10# vs. 70# low back
15# vs. 45# head &
neck
Think about posture
Forward head
Sitting
Reaching
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Its all Physics
leverage
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Posture
Think of posture in terms of joint position

Static and awkward postures lead to:
Decreased movement
Decreased circulation
Increased stress and fatigue
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Posture check
Increased stress, decreased circulation
Higher risk Lower risk
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Posture check
ask yourself
Do you use a headset rather than cradling the
telephone between your head and shoulder?
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Posture check
ask yourself
Are you sitting against the back of your chair
while you work?
Is your head/neck upright and centered over
your shoulders when you look at the screen or
documents?
Are your shoulders relaxed when keying and
using the mouse?
Are your arms close by your sides when you
use the keyboard or pointer?
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Posture check
ask yourself
Are your elbows relaxed (100 degree angle)
when using the keyboard or mouse?
Are your wrists in a neutral position (aligned
with your forearm) when keying or using the
pointer?
Are you avoiding awkward postures such as
an extended finger or thumb when keying or
using the mouse?

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Equipment set-up example
risk identification
Elbow and shoulder away from body, reaching
increased strain on shoulder and wrist
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Elbow and shoulder more relaxed and closer to body
decreased strain on shoulder and wrist
Equipment set-up example
risk identification
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Equipment set-up example
risk identification
Forward placement of document holders and monitor
prevents excessive turning and bending stress in neck,
upper back and torso
Posture:
keeping it
straight!

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A word on repetition
Key issue is recovery time
- the time required for tissue to restore nutrition, replace
cells, dissipate byproducts
- rest breaks
Some newer research demonstrates that repetition
is significantly less of a problem vs. posture
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A word on contact stress
At your workstation notice where your body comes
into contact with objects
Where are your:

Front & back of knees
Elbows
Wrists
Back
Behind
Calves, feet, ankles


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QUESTIONS?


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Part Three
Workstation equipment
use and set-up!
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Is my ergonomic potato chip really
ergonomic?
To be ergonomic a design
must
Fit the user
Be easy to use
Improve comfort
Improve performance
Improve health and safety
Not just bells and whistles!
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Computer workstation ergonomics
Chair
Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
Document holders
Lumbar pads/pillows
Arm rests

Glare
Eye strain
Footrests
Wrists pads
Keyboard trays
Laptops
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Chair Basics
Good lumbar (low back) support
Comfortable sitting for at least 2 hours
Chair has 5 point base
Adjustable arm rests (or none)
Seat pan is comfortable
Easily adjustable while sitting
Appropriate height & depth of seat pan
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Monitor issues and glare
protect your eyes !

Eye-to-screen distance at least 18 inches
Top of screen at eye level or slightly below
Dont stareblink frequently to lubricate
eyes
Use blinds to control outside light
Screen colors: dark letters on light
background (IBM blue)
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Work technique
ask yourself
Do you avoid leaning on the wrist rest while keying and
mousing?
Are you using a light touch to key?
Are you holding your mouse loosely with your hand and
fingers in a relaxed position?
Do you let go of the mouse when not using it?
Do you take 20 second breaks after every 20 minutes
of keying?

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Work technique
ask yourself
Do you take eye breaks and look at a distance every
20 minutes?
Do you blink while you look at the screen?
Do you take stretch breaks throughout the day?
Have you set up your work to encourage alternating
sitting and standing throughout the day?
Have you optimized your settings on your computer
to make your work easier? (i.e. flicker rate, mouse
speed, font size)
Do you know how to adjust your keyboard tray and
chair?

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Laptops
a few words
Harder on eyes and neck
Smaller screens
Lower quality displays
Lower viewing angle
Harder on wrists on arms
Narrow keyboard
Awkward postures
Harder on back
Carrying can strain back
Risk Reduction Measures
External keyboards
Docking stations
Practice good posture on road
Risk Factors
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Watch those deadlines!
tension and stress - ask yourself

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Some final words
Lets think about it
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Back Safety & Ergonomics
isnt just a work thing!
The big picture

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Ergonomics isnt just a work thing!
think physics & leverage working around home
Washing dishes, pots & pans
Carrying and loading groceries
Picking up and carrying kids
Walking the dog
Yard work
Raking, shoveling, sweeping
Lawn mowing, snow removal
Wheel barrels
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Ergonomics isnt just a work thing!
think of driving your car
Elbow resting on door, center console
Wrist over steering wheel
Buttock and back pain
Posture
Nerve and tissue compression
Position of legs while driving
Muscle strain: hamstring tightness
Decreased circulation
Upper neck/back tension and pain
Muscle strain:upper trapezius
Stress reactions, trigger points
Eye strain
Glare
Dehydration
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Ergonomics isnt just a work thing!
think of sleeping in your bed
Neck posture
Shoulder and arm posture
Wrist posture
Knee and hip posture
Back posture

For long periods of time: static and awkward positions,
decreased circulation, increased compression!
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Ergonomics
there is no magic solution
we are all unique in certain ways
Age
Gender
Anthropometrics Body Size & Shape
Equipment accommodates 5th% female to
95th% male
Skill Level
General Health and Condition
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QUESTIONS?


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Back Injury
From an Ergonomic View
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Common Back Disorders
General joint stiffness
Acute strains and sprains
Degenerative disk disease
Bulging disc
Herniated disc
Osteoarthritis

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Anatomy Review
the spine
Bones
Joints
Discs
Muscles and ligaments
Nerves

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Anatomy Review
the curves of the spine
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Poor Body Mechanics
Stressful Living & Working
Loss of Flexibility
Loss of Strength
Leading Causes of Back Problems
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Another cause of back problems
accidents
It is also possible to injure
your back due to accidents.
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How do we take care of our back?
Body Mechanics
Proper Lifting Techniques
Exercise
Stretching
Improved postures
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Its not how much you lift or move, but the way you do it!
1) Push vs. Pull
2) Keep Work Within Strike Zone
3) Keep Load Close To Body
4) Use Abdominal Bracing
5) Pivot with Feet - Avoid Twisting
6) Team Work vs. Mule Work
Body Mechanics
General Rules:
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Power Position:
Wide base of support
Feet shoulder width apart
Back straight
Head and shoulders up
Bend at hips and knees - NOT BACK!
Keep load close to body
Tighten stomach muscles
Use leg, hip and buttock muscles
Breathe out with lift

Proper Lifting Technique
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QUESTIONS?