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Injuries of the Clavicle,

Acromioclavicular Joint and


Sternoclavicular Joint
Andrew H. Schmidt, M.D.
Revised October 2010
Goals
1) Review anatomy of clavicle, AC joint, and
sternoclavicular joint
2) Review imaging of these areas.
3) Clavicle Fractures
Nonoperative RX
Surgical Repair
Nonunions and Malunions
4) AC Joint Injuries
5) Sternoclavicular joint injuries
Clavicle
S-shaped bone
Medial - sternoclavicular joint
Lateral - acromioclavicular joint and
coracoclavicular ligaments
Muscle attachments:
Medial: sternocleidomastoid
Lateral: Trapezius, pectoralis major
AC Joint
Diarthrodial joint between medial facet of acromion and the
lateral (distal) clavicle.
Contains intra-articular disk of variable size.
Thin capsule stabilized by ligaments on all sides:
AC ligaments control horizontal (anteroposterior ) displacement
Superior AC ligament most important
Distal Clavicle
Coracoclavicular ligaments
Suspensory ligaments of the upper
extremity
Two components:
Trapezoid
Conoid
Stronger than AC ligaments
Provide vertical stability to AC joint
Mechanism of Injury
Direct impact to the anterior - superior
shoulder of moderate high force.
1. Fall from height
2. Motor vehicle accident
3. Sports injury
4. Blow to the point of the shoulder
5. Rarely, a direct injury to the clavicle
Physical Examination
Inspection
Evaluate deformity and/or
displacement
Beware of rare inferior or
posterior displacement of
distal or medial ends of
clavicle
Compare to opposite side.
Physical Examination
Palpation
Evaluate pain
Look for instability with stress

Physical Examination
Neurovascular examination
Must be done thoroughly and documented!
Evaluate upper extremity motor and sensation
Measure shoulder range-of-motion

Radiographic Evaluation
of the Clavicle
Anteroposterior View




30-degree Cephalic Tilt
View
Radiographic Evaluation of the
Clavicle
Quesana View
45-degree angle superiorly and a 45-degree
angle inferiorly
Provide better assessment of the extent of
displacement
Radiographic Evaluation of the AC
Joint
Zanca View
AP view centered at AC joint with 10
degree cephalic tilt
Less voltage than used for AP shoulder

Stress Views of the Distal
Clavicle & AC Joint
Rationale: demonstrate instability and differentiate grade III AC
separations from partial Grade I-II injuries.
Performed by having patient hold 10# weight with injured arm.
Rarely used today, since most Grade I-III AC joint injuries are
treated the same anyway, and management of distal clavicle
fractures depends on initial displacement and location of
fracture.
Radiographic Evaluation of the
Medial One Third
X-ray: Cephalic tilt view of
40 to 45 degrees
CT scan usually indicated
to best assess degree and
direction of
displacement
S=sternum
C= medial clavicle
E= esophagus
Clavicle Fractures
Classification of Clavicle
Fractures
Group I : Middle third
Most common (80% of clavicle fractures)
Group II: Distal third
10-15% of clavicle injuries
Group III: Medial third
Least common (approx. 5%)
Treatment Options
Nonoperative
Sling
Brace
Surgical
Plate Fixation
Screw or Pin Fixation
Titanium elastic nails (usually
inserted medial to lateral)
Nonoperative Treatment
Standard of Care for most clavicle fractures.
Unclear about the need to wear a specialized brace.

Simple Sling vs. Figure-of-8 Bandage
Prospective randomized trial of 61 patients
Simple sling
Less discomfort
Functional and cosmetic results identical
Alignment of healed fractures unchanged
from the initial displacement in both groups
Andersen et al., Acta Orthop Scand 58: 71-4, 1987.
Nonoperative Treatment
It is difficult to reduce clavicle fractures by
closed means.
Most clavicle fractures unite rapidly despite
displacement.
Significantly displaced mid-shaft and distal-third
injuries have a higher incidence of nonunion.
Nonoperative Treatment
There is new evidence that the outcome of
nonoperative management of displaced
middle-third clavicle fractures is not as good
as traditionally thought, with many patients
having significant functional problems.
Deficits following nonoperative treatment of
displaced midshaft clavicular fractures
A patient-based outcome questionnaire and muscle-strength
testing were used to evaluate 30 patients after nonoperative
care of a displaced midshaft fracture of the clavicle.
At a minimum of twelve months (mean 55 mos), outcomes
were measured with the Constant shoulder score and the
DASH patient questionnaire. In addition, shoulder muscle-
strength testing was performed with the Baltimore
Therapeutic Equipment Work Simulator, with the
uninjured arm serving as a control.
McKee et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88-A:35-40.
Deficits following nonoperative treatment of
displaced midshaft clavicular fractures
The strength of the injured shoulder was:
81% for maximum flexion, 75% for endurance of flexion,
82% for maximum abduction, 67% for endurance of abduction,
81% for maximum external rotation, 82% for endurance of
external rotation,
85% for maximum internal rotation, and 78% for endurance of
internal rotation (p < 0.05 for all).
Mean Constant score = 71 points
Mean DASH score = 24.6 points, indicating substantial
residual disability.
McKee et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88-A:35-40.
Conclusion of McKee study
Displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can
cause significant, persistent disability, even
if they heal uneventfully.
Definite Indications for Surgical
Treatment of Clavicle Fractures
1) Open fractures
2) Associated neurovascular injury

Relative Indications for Acute
Treatment of Clavicle Fractures
1) Widely displaced fractures
2) Multiple trauma
3) Displaced distal-third fractures

Relative Indications for Acute
Treatment of Clavicle Fractures
4) Floating shoulder
5) Seizure disorder
6) Cosmetic deformity
7) Earlier return to work.
Clavicular Displacement Literature
< 5 mm shortening: acceptable results at 5 years (Nordqvist et al,
Acta Orthop Scand 1997;68:349-51.
> 20 mm shortening associated with increased risk of nonunion
and poor functional outcome at 3 years (Hill et al, JBJS
1997;79B: 537-9)

Plate Fixation
Traditional means of ORIF
Plate applied superiorly or inferiorly
Inferior plating associated with lower risk of
hardware prominence.
Used for acute displaced fractures and
nonunions.
May dissect out supraclavicular
sensory nerves
Courtesy T. Higgins
Nonoperative Treatment Compared with Plate
Fixation of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures.
A multicenter, randomized clinical trial
132 patients
67 ORIF
65 sling
Constant and DASH scores significantly improved in ORIF
group.
Time to union 16 vs 28 weeks in favor of ORIF
9 patients in sling group had symptomatic malunion
9 patients in ORIF group had hardware complications
Canadian Orthopedic Trauma Society; JBJS Am;2007:89A: 1-10
Intramedullary Fixation
Large threaded cannulated screws
Flexible elastic nails
K-wires
Associated with risk of migration

Useful when plate fixation contra-
indicated
Bad skin
Severe osteopenia
Fixation less secure

Titanium Elastic Nails
Same as used in pediatric femur fractures.
Accommodate three-dimensional anatomy of the clavicle.
Typically inserted retrograde (from medial to lateral)
Best in fractures without comminution
Small incision at fracture site may be needed.
Minimally Invasive Intramedullary Nailing of Midshaft
Clavicular Fractures Using Titanium Elastic Nails
31 cases evaluated 26 mos avg (6-46 mos)
Three groups:
Isolated, n=9
Additional injuries, n=15
Multiple injuries, n=7
Mueller M, et al. J Trauma 2008;64:1528-1534
Minimally Invasive Intramedullary Nailing of Midshaft
Clavicular Fractures Using Titanium Elastic Nails
No nonunions or refractures in any group.
7 cases medial migration; 1 case lateral
perforation in 1 case reqd shortening of nail.
No differences in outcome between groups in
subjective outcome and objective scores
(DASH, Constant and Murley).


Mueller M, et al. J Trauma 2008;64:1528-1534
30 patients: simple shoulder sling
90% union
2 symptomatic malunions reqd OR
30 patients elastic nail
100% union
7 cases medial nail protrusion
2 refractures
Better DASH and Constant outcome
scores, significantly different during first
18 weeks.
Patients more satisfied with cosmetic
appearance and overall outcome.
Comparison of Techniques
No studies available that compare one
operative technique to another.
Both elastic nails and plates seem equivalent
in stable fractures; benefits of minimally
invasive approach used in elastic nailing
awaiting study.
Plate fixation best in comminuted fractures,
but again no evidence.
Does Timing of Surgery Matter?
Matched group comparison of 15 patients who
underwent early compression plate fixation
to 15 other patients who had operative
repair of a malunion/nonunion at avg of 63
months.

Potter JM, et al. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2007;16:514-8
Does Timing of Surgery Matter?
Outcome Early Delayed
Strength = =
Endurance 109% 80% (p=.05)
Constant score 95 89 (p=.02)
DASH score 3.0 7.2 (p=.15)
Satisfaction exc exc


Potter JM, et al. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2007;16:514-8
Does Timing of Surgery Matter?
Conclusion: Late reconstruction provides
outcome similar to acute repair, except for
subtle decreases in endurance strength.

Such information might be of value in initial
decision-making.
Potter JM, et al. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2007;16:514-8
Complications of Clavicular
Fractures and its Treatment
Nonunion
Malunion
Neurovascular Sequelae
Post-Traumatic Arthritis
Risk Factors for the Development
of Clavicular Nonunions
Location of Fracture
(outer third)
Degree of Displacement
(marked displacement)
Primary Open Reduction
Principles for the Treatment of
Clavicular Nonunions
Restore length of clavicle
May need intercalary bone graft
Rigid internal fixation, usually with a plate
Iliac crest bone graft
Role of bone-graft substitutes not yet defined.
Correction of symptomatic nonunion with IM screw
Clavicular Malunion
Symptoms of pain, fatigue, cosmetic deformity.
Initially treat with strengthening, especially of
scapulothoracic stabilizers.
Consider osteotomy, internal fixation in rare cases in
which nonoperative treatment fails.
Correction of malunion with thoracic outlet sx
Neurologic Sequelae
Occasionally, fracture fragments or abundant
callus can cause brachial plexus symptoms.
Treatment is reduction and fixation of the
fracture, or resection of callus with or
without osteotomy and fixation for
malunions.
McKee MD, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003;85-A(5):790-7
Osteotomy for Clavicular
Malunion
15 patients with malunion after nonoperative treatment of a
displaced midshaft clavicle fracture of the clavicle.
Average clavicular shortening was 2.9 cm (range, 1.6 to
4.0 cm).
Mean time from the injury to presentation was three years
(range, 1 to 15 years).
Outcome scores revealed major functional deficits.
All patients underwent corrective osteotomy of the malunion
through the original fracture line and internal fixation.
McKee MD, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003;85-A(5):790-7
Osteotomy for Clavicular
Malunion
At follow-up (mean 20 months postoperatively) the
osteotomy site had united in 14 of 15 patients.
All 14 patients satisfied with the result.
Mean DASH score for all 15 patients improved from 32
points preoperatively to 12 points at the time of follow-up
(p = 0.001).
Mean shortening of the clavicle improved from 2.9 to 0.4 cm
(p = 0.01).
There was 1 nonunion, and 2 patients had elective removal of
the plate.

Rosenberg N, et al. J Shoul Elbow Surg 2007;16:510-513
Functional Outcome of Surgical Treatment of
Symptomatic Nonunion and Malunion of Midshaft
Clavicle Fractures
13 cases plate fixation / autogenous grafting of a clavicle
nonunion / malunion, followed mean 41 months.
All united
46% returned to previous job and sport
Constant scores remained lower than opposite arm
<25% free of pain.




Distal Third Clavicle Fractures
Classification of Distal
Clavicular Fractures
(Group II Clavicle Fractures)
Type I-nondisplaced
Between the CC and
AC ligaments with
ligament still intact
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Classification of Distal
Clavicular Fractures
Type II
Typically displaced secondary to a fracture
medial to the coracoclavicular ligaments,
keeping the distal fragment reduced while
allowing the medial fragmetn to displace
superiorly
Highest rate of nonunion (up to 30%)
Two Types
Type IIA
A. Conoid and trapezoid
attached to distal fragment
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Type IIB
Type IIB: Conoid
torn, trapezoid
attached
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Classification of Distal
Clavicular Fractures
Type III:articular
fractures
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Treatment of Distal-Third (Type II)
Clavicle Fractures
Nonoperative treatment
22 to 33% failed to unite
45 to 67% took more than three months to heal

Operative treatment
100% of fractures healed within 6 to 10 weeks after
surgery


Displaced Type II fractures of the distal
clavicle are often treated more aggressively
because of the increased risk of nonunion
with nonoperative treatment
Techniques for Acute Operative
Treatment of Distal Clavicle Fractures
Kirschner wires inserted into the distal fragment
Dorsal plate fixation
CC screw fixation
Tension-band wire or suture
Transfer of coracoid process to the clavicle
Clavicular Hook Plate

For most techniques of clavicular fixation,
coracoclavicular fixation is also needed to
prevent redisplacement of the medial
clavicle.

The Hook Plate (Synthes USA, Paoli, PA) was
specifically designed to avoid this problem of
redisplacement.
Hook Plate - Results
Recent series of distal clavicle fractuers
treated with the Hook Plate document high
union rates of 88% - 100%. Complications
are rare but potentially significant,
including new fracture about the implant,
rotator cuff tear, and frequent subacromial
impingement.
Preferred technique for fixation
of acute distal third clavicle
fractures
Horizontal incision
Manual reduction of fracture
Dorsal tension band suture and
reconstruction/augmentation of
coracoclavicular ligaments.

Look for avulsion fracture of CC
ligament attachment
If present, this fragment can be sutured to
proximal (eg. medial) clavicle to restore
stability, without need for hardware.

Jackson WFM, et al. J Trauma 2006;61:222-225
Indications For Late Surgery For
Distal Clavicle Fractures
Pain
Weakness
Deformity
Techniques For Late Surgery For
Distal Clavicle Fractures
Excision of distal clavicle
With or without reconstruction of
coracoclavicular ligaments (Modified
Weaver-Dunn procedure)
Reduction and fixation of fracture

Case Example 1
Case Example 1
Distal Clavicle
Medial Clavicle
Case Example 1
Coracoclavicular
fixation not visible
Fixation to Acromion
Case Example 2
This fragment likely has CC ligament attached; need
to reduce and hold clavicle shaft to this piece.
Case Example 2
This fragment likely has CC ligament attached; need
to reduce and hold clavicle shaft to this piece.
Sutures passed into this
fragment (not visible)
Case Example 2
This fragment likely has CC ligament attached; need
to reduce and hold clavicle shaft to this piece.
Sutures passed into this
fragment (not visible)
4 months
Case Example 2
This fragment likely has CC ligament attached; need
to reduce and hold clavicle shaft to this piece.
Sutures passed into this
fragment (not visible)
2 years
Acromioclavicular Joint
Mechanism
Sports injury or trauma.
Impact to superior acromion, driving the arm
down and rupturing the AC joint capsule
(first) and then the the coracoclavicular
ligaments (second).
Physical Findings
Pain over lateral clavicle / AC joint
May have prominent distal clavicle
May have skin abrasions
Unwilling to lift arm.
Should have full passive ROM of the
shoulder.
Radiographic Evaluation of the
Acromioclavicular Joint
Proper exposure of the AC joint requires one-third to
one-half the x-ray penetration of routine shoulder
views
Initial Views:
Anteroposterior view
Zanca view (15 degree cephalic tilt)
Other views:
Axillary: demonstrates anterior-posterior displacement
Stress views: not generally relevant for treatment
decisions.
Classification For
Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries
Initially classified by both Allman and Tossy et al.
into three types (I, II, and III).
Rockwood later added types IV, V, and VI, so that
now six types are recognized.
Classified depending on the degree and direction of
displacement of the distal clavicle.
Allman FL Jr. Fractures and ligamentous injuries of the clavicle and its articulation.
JBJS 49A: 774-784, 1967.
Rockwood CA Jr and Young DC. Disorders of the acromioclavicular joint, In
Rockwood CA, Matsen FA III: The Shoulder, Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1990, pp.
413-476.
Type I
Sprain of
acromioclavicular
ligament
AC joint intact
Coracoclavicular
ligaments intact
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles intact

From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
AC joint disrupted
< 50% Vertical
displacement
Sprain of the
coracoclavicular
ligaments
CC ligaments intact
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles intact
Type II
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Type III
AC ligaments and CC
ligaments all disrupted
AC joint dislocated and the
shoulder complex
displaced inferiorly
CC interspace greater than
the normal shoulder(25-
100%)
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles usually detached
from the distal clavicle
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Type III Variants
Pseudo-dislocation through an
intact periosteal sleeve
Physeal injury
Coracoid process fracture
Type IV
AC and CC ligaments
disrupted
AC joint dislocated and
clavicle displaced
posteriorly into or
through the trapezius
muscle
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles detached from
the distal clavicle
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Type V
AC ligaments disrupted
CC ligaments disrupted
AC joint dislocated and
gross disparity between
the clavicle and the
scapula (100-300%)
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles detached from
the distal half of clavicle
From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Type VI
AC joint dislocated and
clavicle displaced inferior
to the acromion or the
coracoid process
AC and CC ligaments
disrupted
Deltoid and trapezius
muscles detached from the
distal clavicle

From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Treatment Options For Types I - II
Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries
Nonoperative: Ice and protection until pain
subsides (7 to 10 days).
Return to sports as pain allows (1-2 weeks)
No apparent benefit to the use of specialized
braces.
Type II operative treatment
Generally reserved only for the patient with
chronic pain.
Treatment is resection of the distal clavicle and
reconstruction of the coracoclavicular
ligaments.
Treatment Options For Type III-VI
Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries
Nonoperative treatment
Closed reduction and application of a sling and harness
to maintain reduction of the clavicle
Short-term sling and early range of motion
Operative treatment
Primary AC joint fixation
Primary CC ligament reconstruction (usually with
allograft, often with augmentation)
Excision of the distal clavicle
Dynamic muscle transfers
Type III Injuries: Need for acute surgical
treatment remains very controversial.
Most surgeons recommend conservative
treatment except in the throwing athlete or
overhead worker.
Repair generally avoided in contact athletes
because of the risk of reinjury.
Literature unable to support operative
or nonoperative treatment as superior
Functional outcomes appear similar.
Cosmesis not different (scar vs bump)
Only 50% of surgical cases reduced at follow-
up.
10% complications after surgery.

Ceccarelli et al. J Orthopaed Traumatol 2008;9:105-108.
Indications for Acute Surgical
Treatment of Acromioclavicular
Injuries
Type III injuries in highly
active patients

Type IV, V, and VI
injuries
Surgical Options for AC Joint
Instability
Coracoid process transfer to distal transfer
(Dynamic muscle transfer)
Primary AC joint fixation
Primary Coracoclavicular Fixation
CC ligament reconstruction +/- distal clavicle
excision.
Weaver-Dunn Procedure
The distal clavicle is excised.
The CA ligament is transferred to
the distal clavicle.
The CC ligaments are repaired
and/or augmented with a
coracoclavicular screw or
suture.
Repair of deltotrapezial fascia


From Nuber GW and Bowen MK, JAAOS, 5:11, 1997
Indications for Late Surgical
Treatment of Acromioclavicular
Injuries
Pain
Weakness
Deformity
Techniques for Late Surgical
Treatment of Acromioclavicular
Injuries
Reduction of AC joint and repair of AC and
CC ligaments
Resection of distal clavicle and reconstruction
of CC ligaments (Weaver-Dunn Procedure)
Case Example
AP View
Zanca View
Case Example
After Weaver-Dunn
procedure
Sternoclavicular Joint
From Wirth MA and Rockwood CA, JAAOS, 4:268, 1996
The Anatomy of the Sternoclavicular Joint
Diarthrodial Joint
Saddle shaped
Poor congruence
Intra-articular disc
ligament. Divides SC
joint into two separate
joint spaces.
Costoclavicular ligament-
(rhomboid ligament)
Short and strong and
consist of an anterior
and posterior
fasciculus


Interclavicular ligament- Connects the
superomedial aspects of each clavicle with the
capsular ligaments and the upper sternum
Capsular ligament- Covers the anterior and
posterior aspects of the joint and represents
thickenings of the joint capsule. The anterior
portion of the ligament is heavier and stronger
than the posterior portion.
Epiphysis of the Medial Clavicle
Medial Physis- Last of the ossification
centers to appear in the body and the last
epiphysis to close.
Does not ossify until 18th to 20th year
Does not unite with the clavicle until the 23rd
to 25th year

Radiographic Techniques for
Assessing Sternoclavicular
Injuries
40-degree cephalic tilt
view
CT scan- Best
technique for
sternoclavicular joint
problems
From Wirth MA and Rockwood CA, JAAOS, 4:268, 1996
Injuries Associated with
Sternoclavicular Joint
Dislocations
Mediastinal Compression
Pneumothorax
Laceration of the superior
vena cava
Tracheal erosion

From Wirth MA and Rockwood CA, JAAOS, 4:268, 1996
Treatment of Anterior
Sternoclavicular Dislocations
Nonoperative treatment
Analgesics and immobilization
Functional outcome usually good
Closed reduction
Often not successful
Direct pressure over the medial end of
the clavicle may reduce the joint
Treatment of Posterior
Sternoclavicular Dislocations
Careful examination of the patient is
extremely important to rule out vascular
compromise.
Consider CT to rule out mediastinal
compression
Attempt closed reduction - it is often
successful and remains stable.

Closed Reduction Techniques
Abduction traction
Adduction traction
Towel Clip - anterior force applied to
clavicle by percutaneously applied towel
clip
Operative techniques
Resection arthroplasty
May result in instability of remaining
clavicle unless stabilization is done.
Suggest minimal resection of bone and
fixation of medial clavicle to first rib.
Sternoclavicular reconstruction with suture,
tendon graft.
Literature For those interested in further review.
Clavicle Fractures
Andersen K; Jensen PO; Lauritzen J. Treatment of clavicular fractures. Figure-of-eight bandage versus a
simple sling. Acta Orthop Scand 1987 Feb;58(1): p71-4.
Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society. Nonoperative Treatment Compared with Plate Fixation of
Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures. A multicenter, randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg
2007;89-A:1-10.
McKee MD, Pedersen EM, Jones C, et al. Deficits following nonoperative treatment of displaced
midshaft clavicular fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 2006;88-A:35-40.
Mueller M, Rangger C, Striepens N, Burger C. Minimally Invasive Intramedullary Nailing of Midshaft
Clavicular Fractures Using Titanium Elastic Nails. J Trauma 2008;1528-1534.
Nowak J, Holgersson M, Larsson S. Can we predict long-term sequelae after fractures of the clavicle
based on initial findings? A prospective study with nine to ten years of follow up. J Shoudler Elbow
Surg 2004;13:479-486.
Potter JM, Jones C, Wild LM, Schemitsch EH, McKee MD. Does delay matter? The restoration of
objectively measured shoulder strength and patient-oriented outcome after immediate fixation versus
delayed reconstruction of displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle. J Shoulder Elbow Surg
2007;16:514-518.
Robinson CM, Court-Brown CM, McQueen MM, Wakefield AE. Estimating the risk of nonunion
following nonoperative treatment of a clavicular fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004;86-A:1359-
1365.
Smekal V, Irenberger A, Struve P, Wambacher M, Krappinger D, Kralinger FS. Elastic Stable
Intramedullary Nailing Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular
FracturesA Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial. J Orthop Trauma 2009;23:106-112.
Literature For those interested in further review.
Distal Third (lateral) Clavicle Fractures
Jackson WF, Bayne G, Gregg-Smith SJ. Fractures of the lateral third of the
clavicle: an anatomic approach to treatment. J Trauma;61(1):222-225.
Meda PV, Machani B, Sinopidis C, et al. Clavicular hook plate for lateral end
fractures:- a prospective study. Injury;2006:37(3):277-283.
Literature For those interested in further review.
Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries
Calvo E, Lopez-Franco M, Arribas IM. Clinical and radiologic outcomes of
surgical and conservative treatment of type III acromioclavicular joint injury. J
Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006;15(3):300-305.
Ceccarelli E, Bondi R, Alviti F, et al. Treatment of acute grade III
acromioclavicular dislocation: a lack of evidence. J Orthopaed Traumatol
2008;9:105-108.
Lizaur A, Marco L, Cebrian R. Acute dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint.
Traumatic anatomy and the importance of deltoid and trapezius. JBJS
1994;76B: 602-606.
Mikek M. Long-term shoulder function after type I and II acromioclavicular joint
disruption. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:2147-2150.
Nadarajah R, Mahaluxmivala J, Amin A, Goodier DW. Clavicular hookplate:
complications of retaining the implant. Injury 2005;36:681-683.
Spencer EE. Treatment of grade III acromioclavicular joint injuries: a systematic
review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;455:38-44.
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