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Slide 4a.

1
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Your specifications for a stiff structure
Distributed ramp force
Point force
Fixed
Fixed
Use 40 % material that can fit into
this rectangle
Slide 4a.2
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Stiff structure for your specifications
Slide 4a.3
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Your specifications for the
compliant mechanism
Hole
Fixed
F
i
x
e
d

Input force
Output
deflection
Use 30 % material
Slide 4a.4
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Compliant mechanism
to your specifications
Slide 4a.5
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Lecture 4a
Design parameterization in
structural optimization
Various ways of defining design variables for size,
shape, and topology optimization schemes.
Slide 4a.6
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Contents
Hierarchical description of the physical
form of a structure
Topology
Shape
Size
Size (dimensional, parameter) optimization
Shape optimization
Topology optimization
Ground structure method
Homogenization method
Power law, and SIMP methods
Micro-structure based models
peak function
Level-set methods
Slide 4a.7
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Hierarchical description of the physical
form of a structure
Topology or layout
Connectivity among portions of interest
force
force
support
Slide 4a.8
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Topology or layout (contd.)
Number of holes in the design domain
also determine the connectivity
force
force
support
Topology or
layout design
Slide 4a.9
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Hierarchical description of a physical
form of structure:
Shape
Shape design
Slide 4a.10
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Hierarchical description of a physical
form of structure:
Size
1
R
1
w
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
w
t = thickness
When the topology and shape are selected, one can
optimize by varying size related parameters such as
dimensions.
Dimensional or
parametric or
size design
Slide 4a.11
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Stiffest structure for these
specifications for a given volume
60x40=2400
120x80=9600
30x20=600 elements
Results given by PennSyn program for
Volume = 40%
Slide 4a.12
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Design parameterization
In order to optimize topology (layout), shape, or
size, we need to identify optimization variables.
This is called the design parameterization.
Size optimization
Thickness, widths, lengths, radii, etc.
Shape optimization
Polynomials
Splines
Bezier curves, etc.
Topology optimization
We will discuss in detail
Slide 4a.13
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Ground structure with truss elements
Define a grid of joint locations and connect them in all
possible ways with truss elements so that all the lements
lie within the design region.
Associated with each truss element, define a c/s area
variable. This leads to N optimization variables.
Each variable has lower (almost zero) and upper bounds.
Ground structure
A possible solution
Kirsch, U. (1989). Optmal Topologies of Structures. Applied Mechanics Reviews 42(8):233-239.
Slide 4a.14
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Ground structures with beam elements
Overlapping beam elements are avoided because they create
complications in practical realization of the designs.
Realizable slopes are limited but it does not matter in most
cases.
Again, each element has a design variable related to its cross-
section.
Saxena, A., Ananthasuresh, G.K., On an optimal property of compliant topologies, Structural and
Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 19, 2000, pp. 36-49.
Slide 4a.15
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Continuum modeling:
the homogenization-based method
At each point, we need to interpolate the material
between 0 and 1 in order to do optimization.
Three optimization
variables per element:
o, |, and u.
o
|
u
Each element is imagined to be
made of a composite material
with microstructural voids.
Bendse, M.P., and Kikuchi, N. (1988). Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a
homogenization method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 71:197-224.
Slide 4a.16
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Homogenization-based method (contd.)
Material with microstructure
Homogeneous material with
equivalent properties
Homogenization
o | u
H
o
m
o
g
e
n
i
z
e
d

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

H
o
m
o
g
e
n
i
z
e
d

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

H
o
m
o
g
e
n
i
z
e
d

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

Relevant homogenized properties are pre-computed and
fitted to smooth polynomials for ready interpolation.
Slide 4a.17
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Another microstructure based
method
The original homogenization-based method used three
variables to get some anisotropicy (orthotropy, in
particular). But practical considerations mostly need
isotropic materials.
Assume isotropic (spherical
inclusions)
Volume fraction =

Gea, H. C., 1996, Topology Optimization: A New Micro-Structural Based Design Domain Method, Computers
and Structures, Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 781 788.

0
2
E E

=
Youngs modulus =
Slide 4a.18
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Fictitious density method; power
law model
Fictitious density approach
1 0 with
0
s s = E E
SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalty)
1 0 with
0
s s = E E
p
p is the penalty parameter to push densities to
black (1) and white (0).
For optimization, there will be as many as the
number of elements in the discretized model.
s '
Rozvany, G.I.N. , Zhou, M., and Gollub, M. (1989). Continuum Type Optimality Criteria Methods for Large
Finite Element Systems with a Displacement Connstraint, Part 1. Structural Optimization 1:47-72.
Slide 4a.19
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Penalty parameter in the SIMP
method: some justification

2 3
0
0

s s
E
E

2 3
0
0

s
E
E
p
Therefore,
3 > p
Hashin-Shtrikman bounds
Bendse, M.P. and Sigmund, O., Material Interpolation Schemes in Topology
Optimization, Archives in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 69, (9-10), 1999, pp. 635-654.
Slide 4a.20
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Microstructure for intermediate
densities
Bendse, M.P. and Sigmund, O., Material Interpolation Schemes in Topology
Optimization, Archives in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 69, (9-10), 1999, pp. 635-654.
Slide 4a.21
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Multiple-material interpolation
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
o

o

+ = e E e E E

0
E
E
0 0.5 1
0 0.5 1
0 0.5 1
{ }
2 1 1 1 2
) 1 ( E E E + =
For two-materials, in the SIMP method, two variables are needed.
Alternativelywith just one variable, many
materials can be interpolated.
Yin, L. and Ananthasuresh, G.K., Topology Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms with Multiple Materials
Using a Peak Function Material Interpolation Scheme, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol.
23, No. 1, 2001, pp. 49-62.
Slide 4a.22
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Advantages of the peak function based
probabilistic material interpolation
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
o

o

+ = e E e E E
1
E
2
E
E
1

Begin with large os and gradually


decrease to get peaks eventually.
( )
void i
N
i
E e E E
i
i
+ =

2
2
2
1
o

No bounds on the variables!
Slide 4a.23
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Peak function method for embedding
objects
Embedded
objects
Connecting structure
Traction forces
on I
T

Fixed
boundary
O
I

=
+ =
n
i
i
E E y x E
1
0

) , (
( )
( ) ( )
)
`

=
)
`

A
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
A

A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
i
i
i i
i i
i
i
yi
i
xi
i
i i
y y
x x
y
x
y x
E E
E E
| |
| |
o o
o

q q
cos sin
sin cos
~
~
~ ~
exp

exp

2 2
2
2
0 0
Z. Qian and G. K. Ananthasuresh, Optimal Embedding in
Topology Optimization, CD-ROM proc. of the IDETC-2002,
Montreal, CA, Sep. 29-Oct. 2, 2002, paper #DAC-34148.
Contours (level set curves)
Slide 4a.24
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Level-set method
A very powerful method for topology optimization.
The boundary defined as the level set of a surface defined
on the domain of interest. Zero level set curve defines
the boundary, while positive surface values define the
interior of the region.
O e <
I = O e =
O O e >
\ 0 ) (
0 ) (
\ 0 ) (
D x x
d x x
d x x
|
|
| Interior
Boundary
Exterior
D
O
M. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and D. M. Guo, A Level Set Method for Structural Topology Optimization,
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 192 (1), pp. 227-246, 2003.
Slide 4a.25
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Level set method for multiple materials
Multiple materials can be dealt with more level set surfaces.
n
n
2
With level set surfaces, materials can be exclusively
chosen.
Two level sets and four materials
Three level sets and eight materials
M. Y. Wang, personal communication, 2003.
3
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
1
Slide 4a.26
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Main points
Topology, shape, and size provide a
hierarchical description of the geometry of
a structure.
Different smooth interpolations
techniques for topology optimization
SIMP is widely used
Peak function based probabilistic
interpolation method can easily handle
multiple materials with few variables
Level-set method provides a larger design
space
Slide 4a.27
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Your specifications for a stiff structure
Distributed ramp force
Point force
Fixed
Fixed
Use 40 % material that can fit into
this rectangle
Slide 4a.28
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Stiff structure for your specifications
Slide 4a.29
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Optimal synthesis solution
Solved with 96x48 = 4608 variables in the optimization problem.
Actual time taken on this laptop = ~10 minutes
Slide 4a.30
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Designs with different mesh sizes
96x48 = 4608 elements
72x36 = 2592 elements
48x24 = 1152 elements
24x12 = 288 elements
Slide 4a.31
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Your specifications for the
compliant mechanism
Hole
Fixed
F
i
x
e
d

Input force
Output
deflection
Use 30 % material
Slide 4a.32
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Compliant mechanism
to your specifications
Slide 4a.33
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
A rigid-body mechanism (if you want)
Slide 4a.34
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Optimal compliant mechanism
to your specifications
Slide 4a.35
Stiff Structures, Compliant Mechanisms, and MEMS: A short course offered at IISc, Bangalore, India. Aug.-Sep., 2003. G. K. Ananthasuresh
Compliant designs for different
mesh sizes
Rough mesh
Medium mesh
Fine mesh