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Methods followed
Live Line Maintenance
History of LLMT Development
Hot Line Maintenance, as the name implies, working
on a line while energized to inspect and replace, if
necessary, defective parts to avoid costly forced
The principle of Hot Line Maintenance could be
said to have been first introduced long ago when
disconnect sticks were used to open energized
switches on distribution lines. The operation proved
that log dry poles could be equipped with fittings,
which could enable linemen to work safely on Live
Lines. However, it was many years later this idea was
used to develop tools for Hot Line Maintenance work.

History of LLMT Development
1913 First hot line tools were made in Wapakoneta,
Ohio, USA. Wooden sticks were used. They are
crude, bulky and difficult to handle.

1960- The tools were used on 400 kv. Also Bare Hand
method introduced.
1958 - Introduced in India. Also two Hot Line Training
Centre for voltage levels up to 110 kv were
established one at Bangalore and other at Ganguwal
1974- Training Centre restarted at Bangalore for
voltage levels up to 220 kv.

Classification of Live Line

Hot stick Method:-
In this method the lineman will be at ground
potential working with Hot Sticks (tools)
keeping safe clearance from the line.

Bare Hand Method:-
Here the lineman will be working at line
potential keeping safe clearance from ground.

Combination of Both Metod
Classification on the basis of
Voltage Level
1. 11Kv to 220 Kv using Hot stick Method
2. 400Kv and above using Bare Hand and
Combination Method

Basic Requirement

Proper Tools and Parts (T&P)
Comparison With Conventional
Requirement of
1. Metal Hardware
made up of Mild
Steel, Cast iron etc
2. Rope of deferent
sizes shall have good
mechanical strength.
Requirement of Tools
1. Metal Hardware but
made up of
Aluminum alloy
2. Rope shall have high
dielectric and
mechanical strength
3. Insulated Stick called

Conventional Method: This is break down
Damage or break down of electrical device
Interruption of flow of current
Live Line Maintenance
This is called preventive maintenance
Locating fault early stage and rectifying
Methods of locating Fault
1 By visual inspection: a) Bare Eye b) using
2 Patrolling:- Day and Night
3. Using Testing equipment:- Live Line
Insulator Testing Instruments,
Thermotector etc.


Hot lines tools refer to hot sticks used to carry
out hot line works. They have to be light in
weight but mechanically strong and highly
insulated (Dielectric strength).
It is made up of thousands of epoxy glass
resin impregnated glass fibre laid length wise
and wound wise on a unicellular glass foam
core, which is made up of millions of
unconnected cells filled with inert gas. (The
inert gas inhabits moisture absorption and

Types of Epoxy Tools and its
loading capacities
Strain Link Sticks
Roller link Sticks
Adjustable link stick of 76
length and 2 dia

Double Heavy duty
suspension link stick of 1

Single heavy duty suspension
link sticks

3500 lbs
6500 lbs
1000 lbs
5000 lbs - used for changing
110 kv / 132 kv suspension

13000 lbs used for changing
220 kv suspension insulators.

6500 lbs

Types of Epoxy Tools and its
loading capacities
Lever Lift saddle
Wire Tongs
Grip all sticks
6 length for
8 length for
10 length for
12 length for
Tie Stick
Utility platform
Universal stick
Wire cutter

1500 lbs

11 kv
33 kv
66, 110 kv
220 kv

750 lbs. Available in 36 & 42. It
will be used on poles with the
safer distance for working of line

Other Tools:

Hot Clamp

Conductor cover, insulator
cover, cross arm cover

Utility Plat Form

Epoxy glass rail plat form
with the provision to tie the
safety rope.

Hand gloves


Hot Stick Ladder

Snub ropes

Set of rope blocks

Safety Belt

Metal / Rope sling


Metallic Tools (Aluminium Alloy)

Pole Saddle

Cross arm saddle

Tower Saddle
Above saddles with 4 extn.

Lever lift saddle can life up
to 20

Rope snubbing bracket

Hand line hook

Tension puller

Tower yoke

Steel arm yoke

Two pole strain carrier of 8,
10, 12, 15 length having 2

Single strain carrier pole

Cum a - long clamp
Hand Line Pully

Punctured Insulator Detection
Live Line Insulator Testing
Major Maintenance Work to be
carried out
Replacement Of Insulator:-
1. Suspension
2. Tension
3. Pilot Insulator
4. Double String
5. Pin Insulator in case of Pole Structure

Nut Bolt Tightening, Replacement
Providing Bypass Jumper
Replacement of Jumper
Fixing of Vibrating Damper
Tree branches cutting, pruning
Oiling of nut bolt, liquid spray for contact
Binding of damaged conductor
Live Line Insulator Testing
Live Line Insulator Washing etc.
66 Kv Suspension Insulator
Removed Broken Insulator
Replaced with insulator
High Pressure Washing
220 Kv Tension Point Operation
Bare Hand Work In Substation
Scaffolding Assembly
50 ft Reach through scaffolding
Reaching to conductor through Hot
man Chair
Sending Hot Man by Chair
Spacer Cycle

Only authorized persons (Certificate Holders)
should do hot line maintenance.
Make sure that weather is clear and there is no
chance of rain.
Make proper plan to carry out the work in
advance. Line should clearly understand the
operation with drawing, tools used etc. Inspect
the tools to be used and clear all the tools.
See that the pole is strong enough to take the
load of crew and the tools.

Remove wrist watch or other ornaments before
climbing the pole.
Equip yourself with helmet, safety shoes
(conductive shoes) and safety belt.
Do not climb towards the jumper; if clearance
is less. Push the jumper or cover it with
insulated guards.
Take proper position on the pole and ensure
that you are safe to work with both hands.
Keep high degree of co-ordination among all of
you while working.

Do not loose temper, work clam and cool even if it is
time consuming.
If anybody on the pole/tower wants to change his
position, he should tell his colleague and to the in-
charge before doing so.
While working clear all doubts what so ever regarding
the work immediately with the in-charge.
Ground person should not come under the work spot
to avoid any accident.
In-charge of work should not do work with his own
hands. He should take such a position on the ground
from where he can see all the working persons and
should instruct them properly.


Voltage rage phase to phase in kv FEET METRE
2.1 to 15 2 0.61
15.1 to 35 24 0.71
35.1 to 46 26 0.76
46.1 to 72.5 2 0.91
72.6 to 121 34 1.02
138 to 145 36 1.07
161 to 169 38 1.12
230 to 242 5 1.52
345 to 362 7 2.13
500 to 552 11 3.35
700 to 765 15 4.57

Effect of current flow in body:

0 1 mA Cannot feel anything
1 8 mA Can feel but no pain
8 12 mA Painful but can let it go.
12 20 mA Freeze, cannot let go
20 50 mA Breathing stops
50 200 mA Heart stops
200 and above Sever Burns
Safety Work Permit
Safety Permit is a mandatory document and
nobody will in any circumstances over ride the
authority of Permit To Work
Working Permit is a document giving
permission for specific work to be carried out
subject to certain stated conditions with in
specified time.
Safety Permit is one of the tool for controlling

Working permit- it means permit to work
under live (charged) circumstances.
Working permit information of Hot line work
should be given to the Load Dispatch well in
advance by S/S or Line officials.
While issuing a working permit to the Hot Line
official it is important to check whether Auto
reclosure is in service or not. (applicable for
If it is in service then it should be made off.
So in case of any reason it may not get
charged again.