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Is a communication process
Must be an active participant
Have to understand and evaluate meaning of a
Know the types and strategies of listening

Types of Listening
1. Informative Listening
to understand the message

2. Relationship Listening
to improve the relationship between people

3. Appreciative listening
to listen for enjoyment

4. Critical Listening
to evaluate message
Strategy #1
Be ready to listen
Prepare to listen mentally and physically
Know what you are listening for
Think about the topic in advance, if possible
Put other thoughts out of your mind
Have your stationary ready


Strategy # 2

Set a purpose for listening
What do you want to achieve????
Find main ideas or details of the topic?
Take notes from lecture?
Participate better in class discussion?
Stay awake during class lecture?

Strategy #3
Maintain eye contact
Keep focused and involved
Use body to show interest and concern
Face those you are talking with
Lean slightly forward

Strategy # 4
Focus on content
Concentrate on what you are listening for
Avoid writing down all the words
Look for main points and relevant supporting details
Identify the topic sentences
Be alert of signposts
Try guessing the meanings of unfamiliar words by
looking at the context

Strategy # 5
Avoid distractions
Don't let your mind wander or be distracted
Eliminate internal and external distractions
External distractions:
classmates arriving late
noise from outside classroom
internal distraction:
concern over argument with friend from the night before
worry about assignments that need to be submitted

Strategy # 6
Avoid emotional involvement
Remain objective and open-minded
Avoid paying attention too much on the speakers
body language or voice quality
Be courteous

Strategy # 7
Stay active by asking mental questions
Ask questions while listening
Focus on 5W and IH
What key point is the lecturer making?
How does this fit with what I know from previous lectures?
How is this lecture organized?
Anticipate what the speaker lecturer is going to say

Strategy # 8
Listen for transitions
Identify word/phrase that show the flow of the
Introduction or Summary:
Today I'd like to discuss....
Let's look at the topic of....
To summarize....
As a review....

Strategy # 8
First, second, third
First, next, then, finally
Most important, least important
In addition, last

Compare and Contrast:
similarily, both, likewise, in like manner
however, on the other hand, instead of, nevertheless

Cause and Effect:
the cause of, for this reason, because
as a result, results in, thus, therefore

Strategy # 9
Be alert for other verbal and nonverbal cues
Listen to how something is said
Tone of voice changes
Item written on whiteboard or slides
Specific phrases may be used
"Last semester...."
"Some students have had difficulty with this."
Strategy # 10
Organise ideas effectively
Use short forms, abbreviations and symbols
Leave out parts of speech that are not necessary
Omit articles, prepositions, pronouns, be verbs
Use dashes
e.g. MH17 crashed- Eastern Ukraine 298 passengers-died.

Use shortened phrases
e.g. the Chinese PM The Prime Minister of the Peoples
Republic of China