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CHAPTER 7

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN


The basic system design verification can be done through :
1. Power budget
2. Risetime budget

The power budget involves the power level calculations from the
transmitter to the receiver.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Attenuation
Coupled power
Other losses
Equalization penalty
(DL)

5. SNR requirements
6. Minimum power at
detector
7. BER
8. Safety margin (Ma)

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN


The optical power budget is then assembled taking into account
ALL these parameters.

Pi = (Po + CL + Ma + DL) dB
where Pi = mean input power launched in the fiber
Po = mean optical power required at the receiver
CL = total channel loss
DL = dispersion-equalization or ISI penalty

The sensitivity of the detector is the minimum detectable power.

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN

For probability of error calculations, P(e) or BER is given by :


1/ 2

1
SNR
P(e) erf c

2
2 2

where erfc = complimentary error function.


This value can be taken from the graph of P(e) against SNR
as shown in the figure below.

Graph of P(e) against SNR

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN


The finite bandwidth of the optical system may result in
overlapping of the received pulses or ISI, giving a reduction
in sensitivity at the optical receiver.
Therefore, either a worse BER must be tolerated or the ISI
must be compensated by equalization within the receiver.
Equalization requires an increase in optical power at the
receiver which may be considered as an additional loss
penalty.
This additional loss contribution is usually called
dispersion-equalization or ISI penalty, DL (dB).

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN


For the risetime budget, the calculations will
involve the bandwidth.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Risetime of the source, TS


Risetime of the fiber (dispersion), TF
Risetime of the amplifier, TA
Risetime of the detector, TD

BASIC SYSTEM DESIGN


The risetime budget is assembled as:

Tsyst = 1.1(TS2 + TF2 + TD2 + TA2)1/2


For non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data

Tsy st

0 .7

BT

For return-to zero (RZ) data

Tsyst

0.35

BT

Example 8.1:
We need to design a digital link to connect two points 10-km apart.
The bit rate needed is 30 Mb/s with BER = 10-12.
Determine whether the components listed are suitable for the link.
Source: LED 820 nm GaAsAl; couples 12 W into 50m
fiber; risetime 11 ns.
Fiber: Step Index fiber; 50m core; NA = 0.24 ;
5.0 dB/km loss; dispersion 1 ns/km; 4 connectors with
1.0 dB loss per connector.
Detector: PIN photodiode; R = 0.38 A/W; Cj = 1.5pF,
Id = 10 pA; risetime = 3.5 ns; minimum mean optical
power = - 86dBm
Calculate also the SNR of the link if RL given is 5.3 k

Solution :
For this example, 3 factors need to be considered:
a)

Bandwidth

b)

Power levels

c)

Error rate (SNR)

Risetime Budget
We start with the risetime budget. Assume using NRZ
coding, the system risetime is given by:

Tsyst

0.7
0.7

23 .3ns
6
BT
30 x10

Also:

Tsyst = 1.1(TS2 + TF2 + TD2)1/2

Solution :
Now we can assemble the total system risetime:
Total system risetime = 23.3 ns
Risetime of the source, TS = 11.0 ns
Risetime of the fiber (dispersion), TF = 10 x 1.0 ns = 10.0 ns
Allowance for the detector risetime, TD
2

Tsys
2
2
TD
TF TS 15.09ns
1.1

Solution :

Power Budget
Total power launched into fiber

= -19 dBm

Losses: Fiber attenuation 5 dB/km x 10 = 50 dB


4 connectors; 1 dB x 4 = 4 dB
Power available at detector = [( -19 dBm 5 0dB- 4 dB)] = -73 dBm
Since power available at the detector is 73 dBm, the sensitivity of
the detector must be less than this.
The safety margin, Ma = -73-(-86) dB
= 13 dB

Solution :

The choice of components are suitable because;


a) TD calculated is less than TD given
b) Total power available at the detector is greater than
the minimum power required by the detector i.e Ma is
positive.

Example 8.2
An optical link is to be designed to operate over an 8-km length
without repeater. The risetime of the chosen components are:
Source:

8 ns

Fiber: Intermodal

5 ns/km

Intramodal

1 ns/km

Detector

6ns

From the system risetime considerations estimate the maximum bit


rate that may be achieved on the link using NRZ code.

Solution:

Tsyst = 1.1(TS2 + TF2 + TD2)

= 1.1 [82 + (8 x 5)2 + (8 x 1)2 + 62)1/2]


= 46.2 ns
Max bit rate =

0.7
BT (m ax)
15 .2 Mbps
Tsyst

Maximum bit rate = 15.2 Mbps

or 3 dB optical BW = 7.6 MHz

Example 8.3
The following parameters were chosen for a long haul single mode
optical fiber system operating at 1.3 m.
Mean power launched from laser = 3 dBm
Cabled fiber loss

= 0.4 dB/km

Splice loss

= 0.1 dB/km

Connector loss at transmitter and receiver = 1 dB each


Mean power required at the APD
When operating at 35 Mbps (BER = 10-9) = -55 dBm
When operating at 400 Mbps (BER = 10-9) = -44 dBm
Required safety margin = +7 dB

Example 8.3
Estimate:
a) Maximum possible link length without repeaters when
operating at 35Mbps. It may be assumed that there is
no dispersion-equalization penalty at this rate.
b) Maximum possible link length without repeaters

when operating at 400 Mbps.


c) The reduction in the maximum possible link length
without repeaters of (b) when there is dispersionequalization penalty of 1.5 dB.

Solution:

a) 35 Mbps
Pi Po = [(Fiber cable loss + Splice losses ) x L +
Connector loss + Ma ] dB
[-3 dBm (-55 dBm)] = (0.4 + 0.1)L + 2 + 7

= 0.5L = 52 2 - 7
=> L = 86 km
b) 400 Mbps
Pi Po = [(Fiber cable loss + Splice losses ) x L +
Connector loss + Ma ]dB
[-3 dBm (-44 dBm)] = (0.4 + 0.1)L + 2 + 7

0.5L = 41 2-7
L = 64 km

Solution:
c) Including dispersion-equalization penalty of 1.5 dB

Pi Po = [(Fiber cable loss + Splice losses ) x L + Connector


loss + DL + Ma ] dB
[-3dBm (-44 dBm)] = (0.4 + 0.1)L + 2 + 1.5 + 7
0.5L = 41 2 -1.5 - 7
L = 61 km
Note: A reduction of 3 km in the maximum length without repeaters
when DL is taken to account.

Example 8.4
An optical link was designed to transmit data at a rate of 20 Mbps

using RZ coding. The length of the link is 7 km and uses an LED at


0.85 m. The channel used is a GRIN fiber with 50 m core and
attenuation of 2.6 dB/km.
The cable requires splicing every kilometer with a loss of 0.5 dB per
splice. The connector used at the receiver has a loss of 1.5 dB. The
power launched into the fiber is 100 W. The minimum power
required at the receiver is 41 dBm to give a BER of 10-10. It is also
predicted that a safety margin of 6 dB will be required.
Show by suitable method that the choice of components is suitable
for the link.

Solution
The power launched into the fiber:

100 W = - 10 dBm

Minimum power required at the receiver

- 41 dBm

Total system margin

- 31 dBm

Fiber loss

7 x 2.6

18.2 dB

Splice loss

6 x 0.5

3.0 dB

Connector loss
Safety margin

6.0 dB
27.2 dB

Excess power margin = 31 dBm - 27.2 dB = 3.8 dBm


Based on the figure given, the system is stable and provides an
excess of 3.8 dB power margin. The system is suitable for the link
and has safety margin to support future splices if needed.

Example 8.5
An optical communication system is given with the following
specifications:
Laser: = 1.55m, = 0.15 nm, power = 5 dBm, tr = 1.0 ns
Detector: tr = 0.5 ns, sensitivity = -40 dBm
Pre-amp: t A = 1.3 ns
Fiber: total dispersion (M+Mg) = 15.5 psnm-1km-1; length = 100 km;
= 0.25 dB/km
Source coupling loss = 3 dB

Connector (2) loss = 2 dB


Splice (50) loss = 5 dB
System: 400 Mbps, NRZ, 100 km

Solution
For risetime budget
system budget,

ts =

0. 7
0 .7

BT
400 10 6

= 1.75 ns

source

ts

= 1.0 ns

(1)

fiber

tF

= 15.5 100
= 0.25 ns

(2)

detector

tR

= 0.5 ns

pre-amp

tA

= 1.3 ns

total

For receiver,
2
2
tR
tA

= 1.39 ns

(3)

System risetime, ts from (1), (2) and (3)


=

1.0 0.252 1.42 = 1.73 ns

Since the calculated ts is less than the available ts, the components
will be suitable to support the 400 Mbps signal.

Solution

For the power budget,


Laser power output

5 dBm

Source coupling loss

3 dB

Connector loss

2 dB

Splice loss

5 dB

Attenuation in the fiber

25 dB

Total loss

35 dB

Power available at the receiver = (5 dBm -35 dB) = -30 dBm


The detector sensitivity is -40 dBm which is 10 dB less. Therefore
the chosen components will allow sufficient power to arrive at the

detector.