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Chapter 3 (Dr. Fenwick W.

English)

THE ART OF
EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILTIY

MENTAL PRISMS OF LEADERSHIP

Alison McBride
William Allan Kritsonis,
PhD
The optical prism: the premise for mental leadership

In optics, a prism is a
transparent optical element with
a flat, polished surface that
refract light.

Prisms can be used to break up,


reflect or split light into various
components.
THE ART OF LEADERSHIP
TACTILE VS. MENTAL

OPTICAL PRISM MENTAL PRISM


• TRANSPARENT • A LEADER IS “SEEN” BY
HIS ACTIONS
• A LEADER MUST STICK TO
• POLISHED HIS BELIEFS
• A LEADER MUST HAVE
DIFFERENT SIDES
• MULTI-DIMENTIONAL
DEPENDING ON THE
SITUATION
• REFRACTIVE (HOW IT • REALITY IS DISTORTED BY
DISTORT’S LIGHT) A LEADER’S SITUATIONAL
INTERPRETATION
Diagrams are great because
they communicate more
efficiently than a bunch of text.
But some diagrams fail because
of the sloppy positioning of their
shapes.

A messy flowchart Positioning shapes on the page


and an orderly one expertly and neatly will not only
make your diagrams look good,
but will also help communicate
the information within them
more clearly.
Use the grid and the rulers

If a diagram contains many shapes, it has


the potential to get cluttered. One way to
fight the clutter is to arrange shapes by
using the grid and the rulers.

When you first add shapes to


the page or position shapes,
The grid and rulers use the grid lines to keep them
straight. And keep an eye on
the grid to make sure your
shapes are evenly spaced.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Use the grid and the rulers

The rulers are also invaluable. Use


them to see the exact distance
between shapes or to know just how
big a certain shape is.

By default, shapes snap to the


grid lines and the measurement
lines on the rulers. So you don’t
The grid and rulers have to do fussy hand work to
position a shape: It puts itself
where you want it and then
stays there unless you move it.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Follow the guides

Even more visible than the grid lines


are the guides: vertical or horizontal
lines that you can place on a page.

You drag guides from a ruler, and by


default they appear blue, as in the
illustration.

Guides: another way


to keep things orderly

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Follow the guides

Guides help you organize your


diagrams according to their content.

For example, if you know that


your flowchart shows three
processes, you can evenly
space three vertical guides on
the page. Then you can position
the shapes running down each
Guides: another way
to keep things orderly
one.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

Sometimes using a mouse to position or size


a shape can be difficult. What if Visio snaps
your shape to a location you don’t want, or
you can’t seem to let go of the mouse
button at the right time?

The cure for these woes and the key to


positioning shapes precisely is the Size &
Position window, and it is found on the
View menu.

The Size & Position


window with X and Y
coordinates

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

The location of a shape is stated


in terms of X and Y coordinates:
• The X coordinate is the
position on the horizontal ruler
at the top of the page.
• The Y coordinate is the
The Size & Position position on the vertical ruler at
window with X and Y the left of the page.
coordinates
• The point where these meet is
the shape’s pin .

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

To move the shape, type in new


numbers for the coordinates.
The shape will automatically
shift to that exact location.
To size the shape, type new
numbers for width and height.
The shape edges change to
The Size & Position those exact dimensions, while
window with X and Y
the shape pin stays where it
coordinates
was before.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Command shapes to align themselves

The grid, rulers, and guides are great


when you create a diagram in a
planned, organized way. But sometimes
you’ll prefer to work more freely and
spontaneously, organizing as you go.

So while you’re working freehand or


when you’re finished, you can tidy up
your diagram by using the Align
The Align Shapes Shapes command on the Shapes
command can be a menu.
real time saver.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Command shapes to align themselves

Align Shapes makes it simple


to line up your shapes: Select
the shape you want the others
to line up with, then click the
alignment option you want.
In the example you see here, a
vertical alignment button got
The Align Shapes
these shapes in line. It’s like a
command can be a
real time saver. sheepdog for shapes.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

You can use the grid, the rulers, and guides


to position shapes one by one, but what if
you’ve got dozens of shapes in your
diagram?

The Distribute Shapes command on the


Shapes menu will get you home in time for
dinner.

Space patrol: the


Distribute Shapes
command

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

Let’s say you’ve got the shapes


you want on the page, but one
is too close to another, and
another is too far away.
The ideal arrangement is to
have an equal amount of space
between all the shapes.
Space patrol: the
Distribute Shapes
command

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

You can do this in three steps,


without any fussy mouse work:

1. Select three or more shapes.

2. On the Shapes menu, click


Distribute Shapes.
Space patrol: the 3. Choose a distribution option.
Distribute Shapes In this example, a horizontal
command
distribution option evened
things out.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Rotate shapes

Sometimes a shape is placed


right and sized right but still
needs one good turn.

For example, you might want to


rotate an arrow to point where
Rotating 1-D and 2-D
it should. Or you might want
shapes turn a desk in an office layout to
get more light from a window.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Rotate shapes

To rotate 2-D shapes, use the


green rotation handle . Just click
and drag the handle to the new
position.
To rotate 1-D shapes, click and
drag either the beginning point
Rotating 1-D and 2-D or the ending point, swinging
shapes the shape around to where you
want it.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Flip shapes

And now for a different kind of rotation.


Sometimes you need to rotate a shape, not
by turning it around, but rather as if you
were turning it over, to create a mirror-
image reversed version.

This is called flipping a shape. Yes, just


like a pancake.

When rotating won’t


do, simply flip.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Flip shapes

You can flip shapes horizontally or


vertically.

1. When you flip a shape


horizontally, the flip action
occurs from side to side.

2. When you flip a shape


When rotating won’t vertically, the flip action
do, simply flip. occurs from top to bottom.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Suggestions for practice
1. Take a look at the practice diagram.

2. Use the rulers and create some guides.

3. Position shapes using the guides and grid.

4. Use the Size & Position window.

5. Try nudging a shape.

6. Align shapes and distribute spacing.

7. Rotate shapes and flip a shape.

Online practice (requires Visio 2003)

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 1, question 1
How do you access the Size & Position
window? (Pick one answer.)

1. Select a shape, and then double-click the


Width or Height value in the status bar at the
bottom of the program.

2. On the Shape menu, click Size & Position


Window.

3. On the View menu, click Shapes Window.

4. On the View menu, click Size & Position


Window.
Expertly position, stack,
and group shapes
Test 1, question 1: Answer

On the View menu, click Size & Position Window.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 1, question 2
Suppose you have a shape of a house with a tree on the
left side. If you flipped the shape vertically, what would
the result look like? (Pick one answer.)

1. The house would be upside down, the roof


would be pointing down, and the tree would
be pointing down as well.

2. The house would be tipped sideways with the


roof and tree pointing to the left.

3. It would look the same, because flipping


returns the shape to the original position

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 1, question 2: Answer

The house would be upside down, the roof would be pointing


down, and the tree would be pointing down as well.

When you flip vertically, the shapes flip from top to


bottom or vice versa.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Lesson 2

Stack shapes to relate


shapes
Stack shapes to relate
shapes
Sometimes the position of shapes
isn’t enough to convey a
relationship. Additional visual
information is required.

This network diagram contains


shapes placed under and on top
of each other in a particular
stacking order. Using stacking
Relationships become order the right way can make
clearer when you use complex relationships easier to
stacking order. understand in your diagrams.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
How shapes stack up

Take a look at the illustration, and the concept


of stacking order will be more clear to you.

Although you’ll never see stacked shapes from


the side in Visio, imagining them like this helps
you get the picture.

Shapes viewed from


the side to show
stacking order

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
How shapes stack up

By default, Visio puts shapes in a


stacking order as you add them to
the page. The rule to remember for
how Visio establishes the stacking
order is: “The last one wins.”

What that means is, the last


shape you place on the page is
the highest in the stacking
Shapes viewed from
order.
the side to show
stacking order

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
How shapes stack up

But this rule doesn’t always work to


your advantage. For example, what
if you added the computer, and
then added the circle? The circle
would hide the computer, and
that’s no help.

Obviously, knowing how to


Shapes viewed from
change the stacking order will
the side to show help tremendously.
stacking order

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
How to change the stacking order

To change a shape’s position in the


stacking order, select the shape,
and then point to Order on the
Shape menu.

You’ll see four options. Bring to


Front or Send to Back moves a
shape all the way in the stacking
Changing the stacking order.
order for a shape

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
How to change the stacking order

If your stacking order includes


many shapes, however, you
may not want a shape to go all
the way to the front or back of
the order.
In that case, you can move the
shape forward or backward a
Changing the stacking step at a time, by choosing
order for a shape either Send Forward or Send
Backward.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Suggestions for practice

1. Take a look at the practice diagram.

2. Add the rectangle and change its stacking order.

3. Add the circles and change the stacking order in other ways.

4. Connect the Accounting and Sales circles.

Online practice (requires Visio 2003)

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 2, question 1
Why might you want to specify a stacking
order for shapes? (Pick one answer.)

1. To show a sideways view of how boxes are


stacked in a storeroom.

2. To show relationships by placing shapes in


front of or behind each other.

3. So that you can number shapes in specific


sequence.

4. So that you can arrange the shapes in an


even and orderly fashion.
Expertly position, stack,
and group shapes
Test 2, question 1: Answer

To show relationships by placing shapes in front of or behind


each other.

Stacking order lets you indicate which shapes belong


logically with other shapes, and makes separate
categories visually distinct.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 2, question 2

How do you move a shape to the back of


the order? (Pick one answer.)

1. On the Shape menu, click Lay Out Shapes,


and then click Shallow or Deep for the
Depth option.

2. On the Shape menu, point to Order, and


then click Send to Back.

3. On the Format menu, click Behavior, and


then click Send to Back.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 2, question 2: Answer

On the Shape menu, point to Order, and then click Send to


Back.

You can also right-click a shape and follow this same


process. After right-clicking the shape, click Shape
on the shortcut menu. Then point to Order, and
then click Send to Back. But here's one more tip:
The keyboard shortcut is CTRL+SHIFT+B.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 2, question 3
You add a square to the page, then a circle, and then a
triangle. Which shape will be on the top of the stacking
order? (Pick one answer.)

1. The square; since it was added first, it wins.

2. The triangle; since it was added last, it wins.

3. The circle; because it doesn’t have any


corners, it wins.

4. The smallest shape; because it mustn’t be


covered, it wins.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 2, question 3: Answer

The triangle; since it was added last, it wins.

The triangle will be on top in the stacking order.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Lesson 3

Group shapes together


How to group shapes together

Suppose you’ve made a map


with several buildings clustered
together. But oops…The cluster
of buildings is on the wrong
street. You need to move all the
buildings down one block.

You could select each one and


move it down separately. Or—
To move all the more efficiently—you could
buildings, group them group the buildings so that the
first.
cluster stays bound together,
and move them all at once.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Select, then group

The first step in grouping shapes is to select


the shapes.

You can do this by holding down the SHIFT key


while you click them, or by dragging a selection
net around them.

Grouping shapes

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Select, then group

When you’ve got the shapes


selected, click Group on the
Shape menu. That’s it: The shapes
are now grouped.

You can do anything to a group


of shapes that you can do to a
single shape: resize, rotate,
align it with others, and so on.
Grouping shapes
Visio treats a group as one big
2-D shape.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Change just one shape within a group

Even after you’ve grouped shapes, you can


still edit just one of the shapes in the group.

1. Click the group to select it.

2. Click again to select a shape


Selecting a shape within the group.
within a group

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Change just one shape within a group

When one shape is selected, it


appears with green handles, but
these handles have Xs in them.
This is a signal that the shape
you selected is part of a group.

Now you can change that one


Selecting a shape shape any way you’d like.
within a group

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Ungroup shapes

Sometimes you need to ungroup


a group of shapes. The process
is simple:

1. Select the shape.

2. On the Shape menu, point to


Grouping, and then click
Ungroup.
Ungrouping shapes

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Shapes that are grouped from the start

You might have worked with


grouped shapes without knowing
it: Many of the shapes in Visio are
actually groups already.

How did the shapes get grouped?


Designers made each shape by
hand, and then grouped the
Many Visio shapes, shapes to make them easier for
like this factory you to work with.
shape, are grouped
from the get-go.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Shapes that are grouped from the start

This factory shape is a perfect


example.

1. This is what the factory shape


looks like when you put it on
the page.

2. But if you ungroup it, you’ll


Many Visio shapes, find it’s actually a group of
like this factory several component shapes.
shape, are grouped
from the get-go.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Suggestions for practice

1. Examine the practice diagram.

2. Select and group houses.

3. Select and group cars.

4. Change a single shape in a group.

5. Ungroup shapes.

6. Take a look at a shape that was grouped for you.

Online practice (requires Visio 2003)

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 1

Which of the following is a reason why you would


group shapes together? (Pick one answer.)

1. To move or resize several shapes as one.

2. To make particular changes to each shape on


the page.

3. To connect several shapes with arrows.

4. To save shapes for later use.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 1: Answer

To move or resize several shapes as one.

Grouping is useful when you need to modify several


shapes as one.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 2

True or False: Every shape in Visio is


actually a group. (Pick one answer.)

1. True.

2. False.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 2: Answer

False.

Although many shapes are complex and are actually


many shapes grouped together as one, this is not
always the case. Some shapes consist only of one
shape. One shape is not a group.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 3

You might ungroup shapes when you needed to do which


of the following? (Pick one answer.)

1. Make a simple change to one shape within


the group.

2. Add text to the group.

3. Connect the group of shapes with a line.

4. Move one shape independently from the


others in the group.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Test 3, question 3: Answer

Move one shape independently from the others in the group.

You would also ungroup shapes if you need to make


extensive changes to one of the shapes.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
Quick Reference Card

For a summary of the tasks covered in this course,


view the Quick Reference Card.

Expertly position, stack,


and group shapes
USING THIS TEMPLATE

See the notes pane or view


the full notes page (View
menu) for detailed help on
this template.