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# Chapter 3 (Dr. Fenwick W.

English)

THE ART OF
BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILTIY

Alison McBride
William Allan Kritsonis,
PhD
The optical prism: the premise for mental leadership

In optics, a prism is a
transparent optical element with
a flat, polished surface that
refract light.

## Prisms can be used to break up,

reflect or split light into various
components.
TACTILE VS. MENTAL

## OPTICAL PRISM MENTAL PRISM

• TRANSPARENT • A LEADER IS “SEEN” BY
HIS ACTIONS
• A LEADER MUST STICK TO
• POLISHED HIS BELIEFS
DIFFERENT SIDES
• MULTI-DIMENTIONAL
DEPENDING ON THE
SITUATION
• REFRACTIVE (HOW IT • REALITY IS DISTORTED BY
INTERPRETATION
Diagrams are great because
they communicate more
efficiently than a bunch of text.
But some diagrams fail because
of the sloppy positioning of their
shapes.

## A messy flowchart Positioning shapes on the page

and an orderly one expertly and neatly will not only
but will also help communicate
the information within them
more clearly.
Use the grid and the rulers

## If a diagram contains many shapes, it has

the potential to get cluttered. One way to
fight the clutter is to arrange shapes by
using the grid and the rulers.

## When you first add shapes to

the page or position shapes,
The grid and rulers use the grid lines to keep them
straight. And keep an eye on
the grid to make sure your
shapes are evenly spaced.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Use the grid and the rulers

## The rulers are also invaluable. Use

them to see the exact distance
between shapes or to know just how
big a certain shape is.

## By default, shapes snap to the

grid lines and the measurement
lines on the rulers. So you don’t
The grid and rulers have to do fussy hand work to
position a shape: It puts itself
where you want it and then
stays there unless you move it.

and group shapes

## Even more visible than the grid lines

are the guides: vertical or horizontal
lines that you can place on a page.

## You drag guides from a ruler, and by

default they appear blue, as in the
illustration.

## Guides: another way

to keep things orderly

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes

diagrams according to their content.

## For example, if you know that

processes, you can evenly
space three vertical guides on
the page. Then you can position
the shapes running down each
Guides: another way
to keep things orderly
one.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

## Sometimes using a mouse to position or size

a shape can be difficult. What if Visio snaps
your shape to a location you don’t want, or
you can’t seem to let go of the mouse
button at the right time?

## The cure for these woes and the key to

positioning shapes precisely is the Size &
Position window, and it is found on the

## The Size & Position

window with X and Y
coordinates

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

## The location of a shape is stated

in terms of X and Y coordinates:
• The X coordinate is the
position on the horizontal ruler
at the top of the page.
• The Y coordinate is the
The Size & Position position on the vertical ruler at
window with X and Y the left of the page.
coordinates
• The point where these meet is
the shape’s pin .

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Open the Size & Position window

## To move the shape, type in new

numbers for the coordinates.
The shape will automatically
shift to that exact location.
To size the shape, type new
numbers for width and height.
The shape edges change to
The Size & Position those exact dimensions, while
window with X and Y
the shape pin stays where it
coordinates
was before.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Command shapes to align themselves

## The grid, rulers, and guides are great

when you create a diagram in a
planned, organized way. But sometimes
you’ll prefer to work more freely and
spontaneously, organizing as you go.

## So while you’re working freehand or

when you’re finished, you can tidy up
your diagram by using the Align
The Align Shapes Shapes command on the Shapes
real time saver.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Command shapes to align themselves

## Align Shapes makes it simple

to line up your shapes: Select
the shape you want the others
to line up with, then click the
alignment option you want.
In the example you see here, a
vertical alignment button got
The Align Shapes
these shapes in line. It’s like a
command can be a
real time saver. sheepdog for shapes.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

## You can use the grid, the rulers, and guides

to position shapes one by one, but what if
you’ve got dozens of shapes in your
diagram?

## The Distribute Shapes command on the

Shapes menu will get you home in time for
dinner.

## Space patrol: the

Distribute Shapes
command

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

## Let’s say you’ve got the shapes

you want on the page, but one
is too close to another, and
another is too far away.
The ideal arrangement is to
have an equal amount of space
between all the shapes.
Space patrol: the
Distribute Shapes
command

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Distribute shapes evenly

## You can do this in three steps,

without any fussy mouse work:

## 2. On the Shapes menu, click

Distribute Shapes.
Space patrol: the 3. Choose a distribution option.
Distribute Shapes In this example, a horizontal
command
distribution option evened
things out.

and group shapes
Rotate shapes

## Sometimes a shape is placed

right and sized right but still
needs one good turn.

## For example, you might want to

rotate an arrow to point where
Rotating 1-D and 2-D
it should. Or you might want
shapes turn a desk in an office layout to
get more light from a window.

and group shapes
Rotate shapes

## To rotate 2-D shapes, use the

green rotation handle . Just click
and drag the handle to the new
position.
To rotate 1-D shapes, click and
drag either the beginning point
Rotating 1-D and 2-D or the ending point, swinging
shapes the shape around to where you
want it.

and group shapes
Flip shapes

## And now for a different kind of rotation.

Sometimes you need to rotate a shape, not
by turning it around, but rather as if you
were turning it over, to create a mirror-
image reversed version.

like a pancake.

do, simply flip.

and group shapes
Flip shapes

vertically.

## 1. When you flip a shape

horizontally, the flip action
occurs from side to side.

## 2. When you flip a shape

When rotating won’t vertically, the flip action
do, simply flip. occurs from top to bottom.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Suggestions for practice
1. Take a look at the practice diagram.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 1, question 1
How do you access the Size & Position

## 1. Select a shape, and then double-click the

Width or Height value in the status bar at the
bottom of the program.

Window.

## 4. On the View menu, click Size & Position

Window.
Expertly position, stack,
and group shapes

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 1, question 2
Suppose you have a shape of a house with a tree on the
left side. If you flipped the shape vertically, what would
the result look like? (Pick one answer.)

## 1. The house would be upside down, the roof

would be pointing down, and the tree would
be pointing down as well.

## 2. The house would be tipped sideways with the

roof and tree pointing to the left.

## 3. It would look the same, because flipping

returns the shape to the original position

and group shapes

## The house would be upside down, the roof would be pointing

down, and the tree would be pointing down as well.

## When you flip vertically, the shapes flip from top to

bottom or vice versa.

and group shapes
Lesson 2

## Stack shapes to relate

shapes
Stack shapes to relate
shapes
Sometimes the position of shapes
isn’t enough to convey a
information is required.

## This network diagram contains

shapes placed under and on top
of each other in a particular
stacking order. Using stacking
Relationships become order the right way can make
clearer when you use complex relationships easier to
stacking order. understand in your diagrams.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
How shapes stack up

## Take a look at the illustration, and the concept

of stacking order will be more clear to you.

## Although you’ll never see stacked shapes from

the side in Visio, imagining them like this helps
you get the picture.

the side to show
stacking order

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
How shapes stack up

## By default, Visio puts shapes in a

stacking order as you add them to
the page. The rule to remember for
how Visio establishes the stacking
order is: “The last one wins.”

## What that means is, the last

shape you place on the page is
the highest in the stacking
Shapes viewed from
order.
the side to show
stacking order

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
How shapes stack up

## But this rule doesn’t always work to

if you added the computer, and
then added the circle? The circle
would hide the computer, and
that’s no help.

## Obviously, knowing how to

Shapes viewed from
change the stacking order will
the side to show help tremendously.
stacking order

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
How to change the stacking order

## To change a shape’s position in the

stacking order, select the shape,
and then point to Order on the

## You’ll see four options. Bring to

Front or Send to Back moves a
shape all the way in the stacking
Changing the stacking order.
order for a shape

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
How to change the stacking order

## If your stacking order includes

many shapes, however, you
may not want a shape to go all
the way to the front or back of
the order.
In that case, you can move the
shape forward or backward a
Changing the stacking step at a time, by choosing
order for a shape either Send Forward or Send
Backward.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Suggestions for practice

## 2. Add the rectangle and change its stacking order.

3. Add the circles and change the stacking order in other ways.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 2, question 1
Why might you want to specify a stacking
order for shapes? (Pick one answer.)

## 1. To show a sideways view of how boxes are

stacked in a storeroom.

## 2. To show relationships by placing shapes in

front of or behind each other.

sequence.

## 4. So that you can arrange the shapes in an

even and orderly fashion.
Expertly position, stack,
and group shapes

each other.

## Stacking order lets you indicate which shapes belong

logically with other shapes, and makes separate
categories visually distinct.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 2, question 2

## 1. On the Shape menu, click Lay Out Shapes,

and then click Shallow or Deep for the
Depth option.

## 2. On the Shape menu, point to Order, and

then click Send to Back.

## 3. On the Format menu, click Behavior, and

then click Send to Back.

and group shapes

Back.

## You can also right-click a shape and follow this same

process. After right-clicking the shape, click Shape
on the shortcut menu. Then point to Order, and
then click Send to Back. But here's one more tip:
The keyboard shortcut is CTRL+SHIFT+B.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 2, question 3
You add a square to the page, then a circle, and then a
triangle. Which shape will be on the top of the stacking

## 3. The circle; because it doesn’t have any

corners, it wins.

## 4. The smallest shape; because it mustn’t be

covered, it wins.

and group shapes

and group shapes
Lesson 3

## Group shapes together

How to group shapes together

## Suppose you’ve made a map

with several buildings clustered
together. But oops…The cluster
of buildings is on the wrong
street. You need to move all the
buildings down one block.

## You could select each one and

move it down separately. Or—
To move all the more efficiently—you could
buildings, group them group the buildings so that the
first.
cluster stays bound together,
and move them all at once.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Select, then group

the shapes.

## You can do this by holding down the SHIFT key

while you click them, or by dragging a selection
net around them.

Grouping shapes

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Select, then group

## When you’ve got the shapes

selected, click Group on the
Shape menu. That’s it: The shapes
are now grouped.

## You can do anything to a group

of shapes that you can do to a
single shape: resize, rotate,
align it with others, and so on.
Grouping shapes
Visio treats a group as one big
2-D shape.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Change just one shape within a group

## Even after you’ve grouped shapes, you can

still edit just one of the shapes in the group.

## 2. Click again to select a shape

Selecting a shape within the group.
within a group

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Change just one shape within a group

## When one shape is selected, it

appears with green handles, but
these handles have Xs in them.
This is a signal that the shape
you selected is part of a group.

## Now you can change that one

Selecting a shape shape any way you’d like.
within a group

and group shapes
Ungroup shapes

## Sometimes you need to ungroup

a group of shapes. The process
is simple:

## 2. On the Shape menu, point to

Grouping, and then click
Ungroup.
Ungrouping shapes

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Shapes that are grouped from the start

## You might have worked with

grouped shapes without knowing
it: Many of the shapes in Visio are

## How did the shapes get grouped?

hand, and then grouped the
Many Visio shapes, shapes to make them easier for
like this factory you to work with.
shape, are grouped
from the get-go.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Shapes that are grouped from the start

example.

## 1. This is what the factory shape

looks like when you put it on
the page.

## 2. But if you ungroup it, you’ll

Many Visio shapes, find it’s actually a group of
like this factory several component shapes.
shape, are grouped
from the get-go.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Suggestions for practice

## 4. Change a single shape in a group.

5. Ungroup shapes.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 3, question 1

## Which of the following is a reason why you would

group shapes together? (Pick one answer.)

the page.

and group shapes

shapes as one.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 3, question 2

## True or False: Every shape in Visio is

actually a group. (Pick one answer.)

1. True.

2. False.

and group shapes

False.

## Although many shapes are complex and are actually

many shapes grouped together as one, this is not
always the case. Some shapes consist only of one
shape. One shape is not a group.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Test 3, question 3

## You might ungroup shapes when you needed to do which

of the following? (Pick one answer.)

the group.

## 4. Move one shape independently from the

others in the group.

and group shapes

## You would also ungroup shapes if you need to make

extensive changes to one of the shapes.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
Quick Reference Card

## For a summary of the tasks covered in this course,

view the Quick Reference Card.

## Expertly position, stack,

and group shapes
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