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TESTRING, INSTALLATION AND

COMMISSIONING OF LT METERS
Er. K.V.Surya Prakasa Rao

The meters are required to. be tested to ensure


proper working so that the accuracy is maintained
within permissible limits under I.E. Rules. The
meters are to be checked and calibrated with
various adjustments.

As per Indian standard specification-722 (ISS-722)


a meter should pass the following two types of tests

Type test.
Routine test

Type Test

These tests are carried .out by the manufacturers at the


National Testing Laboratory or at any approved testing
Laboratory. Test certificates are to be submitted to the
purchaser. Utilities also depute a representative from
time to time for random selection of three meters from a
lot for testing in the laboratory in the presence of the
representative.

1. Insulation

Resistance Test
The insulation resistance with a 500 V megger, between meter current circuit, voltage
circuit, both coupled together and meter body shall have a value not less than 5
Mega ohms.
2. High Voltage Test
The insulation between current circuit and potential circuit and with respect to body
shall withstand application of 2000 volts (R.M.S.) for one minute.
3. Creeping Test
In creeping test with no current in the current coil and with rated frequency, the rotor
of the meter shall not make a complete revolution at any voltage between 80 percent
of the lowest and 110 percent of the highest rated voltage.

4.. Starting Current Test


The rotor of a meter shall start and continue to run when meter carries the following
currents at maximum value of voltage range and U.P.F.
Percept _of basic

Current
(A) Meter with dial and pointer type to register
0.5 percent
(B) Meter with cyclometer type to register
0.75 percent
(C) Meter with M.D. Mechanism and
1.0
Cyclometer type to register

5 Limits of Error Test


Permissible error of the meter at rated voltage, frequency for single phase and
three phase meters are given below
Single Phase Meters
(2.5/5 maximum & 10/20 maximum Amps.)
Load current
PF
Errors
2.5 percent of full load
1.0
2.5 percent
5 percent to 100 percent of full load
1.0
2.0 percent
5 percent of full load
0.5
lag 2.5 percent
10 percent to 160 percent of full load
0.5
lag 2.0 percent
Three Phase Meters
Load current
5 percent of full load

10 percent to 12.5 percent of full ,load 20


percent to 125 percent of full load 0.5 lag

PF
1.0

1.0

Errors
2.5 percent to
-3.0%
2.0 percent
2.0 percent

6. Power Loss Test


The loss in the meter voltage circuit and current circuit shall not exceed the
rated values :
Rated value
Voltage circuit loss
Up to 240 V
Current circuit loss
Up to 10 A
1.5 watts
10A 50A
2.0 watts
above 50 A
4.0 watts

following values of the


Power loss Max.
1.5 watts

7 Temperature Rise Test


With each current circuit carrying the maximum current for which the meter is
specified to carry continuously and with each voltage circuit carrying 1.2 times the
rated voltage, the temp. rise of winding of current circuit of the meter shall not
exceed
50C over the steady value at 40C ambient temp. In case of
windings of
bare copper or enamelled copper, the temp rise shall not exceed
60C. The
temperature rise is to be measured by change of resistance of one of
the current coils
at the meter terminals.

8. Energy Register Test


The energy registering mechanism register shall be capable of integrating
continuously, i.e., before passing again through its starting position, the number of
kWh corresponding to 2500 hours of service for 1 phase meters and 1000 hours
for 3-phase meters at rated values. Reverse running stopper shall not
effect
the speed of rotor at 5 percent load current at rated voltage and
U.P.F. by more
than 1.5 percent.
9.Change of error due to Variation of Voltage
A variation of 10 percent above or below the rated voltage at any current from 100 to
20 not cause a change of more than 1
percent in the error of meters.
percent of the rated current at U.P ,F. shall

10. Change of error due to Variation in Frequency


A variation of 5 percent above or below the rated frequency shall not cause the charges
of error more than (a) 1.0 percent at rated voltage, U.P.F. and basic
current (b) 1.5
percent at Rated voltage, U.P.F. and 20 percent basic current, (c)
2.0 percent at Rated
voltage, 0.5 P.F (Lag) and basic current.
11. Effect of Heating by Main Current
The change in registration of meter shall not exceed the limits as follows and total
error in rate of registration should not exceed permissible limits of errors.
Percentage basic of
Registration

PF

Percentage change in rate

100
1.0
1.0
100
0.5 lag
1.5
200
1.0
2.0
12. Temperature Coefficient Test
The meter shall not have a temperature co-efficient greater than 0.1 percent per degree
centigrade at the Rated voltage and at the following points calibrated at 272C and
valid between limits of 0 to 40C ambient temperature.
Percent Basic Current
PF
100
1.0
10
1.0
100
0.5 lag
13. Effect of Oblique Suspension Test
A change in 3 degree in level, in any direction shall not change the error of the meter
by more than 1 percent at the basic current IJ.P.F or by more than 3 percent at 5 percent
basic current and U.P.F.

14. Effect of External Magnetic Field : ,

The change in the percent error of the meter caused by an external field of 0.5 MT (5
gauss)
produced by a current of the same frequency as that of the voltage applied to the meter shall not
exceed 3 percent at basic current rated voltage and U.P.F
15. Range of Adjustment Test
Facilities for adjustment for the purpose of calibration shall be capable of further
movement or adjustment.
(a) Brake magnet adjustment should provide at least 4 percent increase and 6 percent decrease in
speed at rated current, voltage and U.P.F.
(b) Low load adjustment should provide at least plus and minus 3 percent change in speed at 5
percent rated current voltage and U.P.F.
(c) Inductive load adjustment should provide on each energy element plus and minus 1 percent
change hi speed when me meter current circuit of the element along is carrying rated current at
0.5 p. F. Lag.
(d) Torque balance adjustment should be provided so that speed of elements may be controlled
separately and the meter so adjusted that each element contributes its true position of the total
registration when the system load is unbalanced, the device for making adjustments shall be such
that adjustment may be effected gradually and the sense of adjustment being suitably indicated
and device shall be capable of being . locked in position after adjustment.
16. Independence of Adjustment Test
(a) In low load adjustment 2 percent adjustment shall not effect the speed at 0,5 p.F at 50% rated
current by more than 8%
(b) In inductive load adjustment - 1 % adjustment on energy element shall not effect the error by more
than 0.5% at 5% of rated current

17 Continuous Current Test


The meter shall not be injured by current of 200
percent of the basic current
applied
continuously and its errors shall remain within
permissible limits.
18. Effects of Short Circuit Test
A meter shall be able to carry for 0.5 sec. a
current equal to 30 times the
basic current
when this does not exceed 10 A and 20 times
the basic current
when this exceeds 10A.
The variation of error shall not exceed 1.5
percent.

19. Sustained Accuracy Test


Initial test for accuracy shall be carried at the
rated voltage, frequency and
following loads
and percent error shall be noted.
200 percent basic current U.P.F
100 percent basic current U.P.F
10 percent basic current U.P.F
After initial test the meter shall be run
continuously at 200 percent
basic current at
U.P.F. for 1000 hours. On completion of this run,
the meter
shall be retested and percent
error shall not differ by more than 1 percent from
the error of meter under initial test

II. Routine

Test
The routine-tests are carried out as a routine by the manufacturers and in the
laboratory of the Board. The routine tests carried out in the board's laboratory

are:

1. Long period dial test.


2. Non-registration with voltage along-creep test.
3. Starting current test.
2 and 3 have already been described.
The long period dial test is done with the help of a R.S.S. (Rotating sub-standard)
meter.
The current coils of the meter under test and R.S.S. meter arc connected in series, while
potential coils are connected in parallel. The meters are started and stopped simultaneously
after connecting to the same load for a fixed
period of say half an hour then
Percent error = (R - A) / R x 100

R = Energy recorded by kWh. meter under test


A = R.S.S meter
The revolutions of both the meters could also be counted. The procedure is to reset the R.S.S. to
zero and start the meter (under test). As soon as the disc-spot of this meter reaches the zero
position, the R.S.S. is started with a snap switch. The number of revolutions made by R.S.S. for a
chosen number revolutions of the test meter are noted then
Percent error = ( Calculated Rev. of R.S.S.- observed Rev. of R.S.S)/Observed Rev. of R.S.S

If meter constants are


Test meter 300 revs. / Kwh.
RSS 600 revs./ Kwh

Ratio 1:2

When Test meter makes 10 revs. R.S.S. meter makes 20.


If R.S.S. revs, are observed as 19.5 then
Percent Error = 20-19.5/19.5 x 100
The error is positive and the meter is recording fast 3
percent is the limit of variation. It is preferable to keep
the error positive. The comparison could be made for
load and P. F. conditions.
Annual loading and phantom loading methods are
adopted to test the meters under different load
conditions.

Actual Loading Method


This method is employed generally for testing of single
phase meters in laboratory. On a meter testing bench
which is equipped with various tappings to facilitate
meter testing at different load conditions. The loan is
provided by standard resistances or lamps obviously
'powers factor is unity. 1/10th F.L. and F.L. adjustments
are done at U.P.F.
It is important to note in this connection that consumers
P.F. varies from 0.5 to unity (or 85). Therefore meter
must be calibrated at 0.5 P.P. 50 percent load to achieve
this condition the current coil is energized by R phase
and voltage coil by Y phase and the polarity of pressure
coil is reversed. Under these conditions p.f. becomes 0.5
because of 1200 phase shift between voltage and
current vectors.

Phantom or Fictitious Loading Method


When the capacity of meters .under test is very high testing with actual
loading method would involve a considerable Joss of power and not
economical too, therefore, to avoid wastage of power during testing,
phantom loading method is adopted, on this method pressure circuit is
supplied from a circuit of normal voltage source and the current circuit from
a separate low voltage source. Thus total power consumed during testing
becomes very small due to small pressure coil current at normal voltage
plus load current at very less voltage for current circuit meter under test and
R.8.S. act as a load on phantom loading kit. This point is illustrated by
following two circuits:
(a) Normal Loading
Power consumed in pressure and current circuit
= (220 2/ 8800) + ( 220 X 5)
= 5.5+1100 = 1105.5 W.
(b) Phantom Loading
Power consumed in pressure and current circuit
= (2202/8800)+ (6X5)
= 5.5 + 30 = 35.5 W
From Equations (1) and (2) it is obvious that with phantom loading power
consumed is very small as compared with normal loading.

Installation and Commissioning of Meters


I.
Apart from testing and calibrating the meters they must be
properly installed, as per the connection diagram. After installation of
meter its performance should be checked at site also. If we take 100
watt lamp (resistive load and time constant of energy meter is 2400
rev/ kWh. Assuming normal supply voltage the consumption in one
hour will be 100 watt hours. The matter
disc should therefore rotate.
(2400 x 100) / 1000 = 240 rev. / hour
Therefore tune taken for one revolution is
60x60/240 =15 seconds
If the time taken is more, the meter is running slow and vice-versa if
the rime is less. Suppose 16 seconds instead of 15 seconds are
taken then the meter is slow by
(160-15) x 100/15 = 66.6%
It should, therefore, be adjusted.
For synchronous motors power factor can be taken unity. For
Induction motors it is 0.7/0.8 and for welding transformer it is about
0.6. The motors contribute inductive load in the system.

II.C.T, Operated Meters


For C.T. "operated meters:
1. Ratio test by primary injection kit and
2. Polarity test should be carried out.
It should be borne in mind that C.T. Secondary terminals should not be
kept open..
Following points must be kept in view while installation of meters:
(a) Position of meter should be such that reading is easily visible.
(b) Mounting of meter should be on solid wall or D.P. structure are on
panel board.
(c) For H.T. metering equipment, CTs should be right on the incoming
side before the print of isolation.
(d) Meter should be fitted in protected meter box, nowadays provided
by the Board, It should be installed in a place where rain-water
should not enter.
(e) The meter box has facility of sealing from outside. It should
therefore be sealed.
(f) The meter-recording should be checked at site as explained.

Meter Reading
I. Registering or counting mechanism is to record continuously a number. This
recording is proportional to the revolutions made by the moving system. The
rotor shaft drives a series of five or six pointers. These rotate on round-dial
which are marked with ten equal divisions. There are two types of registration
system:
(a) Pointer type ;,
(b) Cyclometer type. Reading could be made from both the types of
meters.
II. C.T. Type Meters
In case of C.T, operated meters the multiplying factor should be calculated. It
depends upon ratio, meter rating and dial factor. An example is given below
(a) (i) Meter rating 100/5A 400V
(ii) C.T.ratio200/5A400V
(iii) Dialfactor48
Overall M.F = [(C.T Ratio) / meter C.T rating] x Dial factor
= [(200 / 5 x 400 ) / 100 / 5 x 400 ] x 48 = 96
The performance of the meter should be checked on load after installation
and commissioning. It should be ensured for correct recording applying
multiplying power-factor, which Could be noted on paper. This could be
pasted in the meter box and one copy be kept in file/ledger. Many disputes
have arisen due to this omission. If there is delay by the consumer in
connecting the load, the commissioning of meter could be deferred till-the
consumer starts drawing power.

Routine Tests of L.T. Meters and Various Checks/tests while in


Service
All single and three-phase meters are tested in the Testing
Laboratory after their receipt in the area stores from the
manufacturers. Similarly disputed meters where consumers suspect
that their meters are recording excess consumption are also sent to
the laboratory for testing after the consumers deposit the testing
charges for such contested meters.
In addition, routine checking and testing of old meters is to be
carried out periodically to ensure their proper working and accuracy.
This is (he requirement of LE; Rules.

Type tests are carried out on prototype specimens at National


Testing Laboratories. No meters are marketed till Type tests are got
done. Routine tests are carried out in the Board's laboratory and by
the manufacturers.
Adjustments in the Laboratory
Adjustments are carried out in energy meters at various load
and power factor conditions in the laboratory I so that they read
correctly and their errors within allowable limits. The sequence of
these adjustments is as follows:

(1) Preliminary Light Load Adjustments


The disc is so positioned that the holes, are not underneath electromagnets and rated
voltage is applied to the potential coil. The light load adjustment device is adjusted until
the disc just falls to start When the meter carries minimum values of current as shown
in starting current test.
(2) Full Load Adjustment
In energy meters braking torque is developed by means of eddy currents induced in
aluminium disc which moves in the air gap of a permanent (brake magnet) magnet Due
to continuous motion of the disc there is a continuous braking action. The current in the
disc interacts with the flux Of permanent magnet and produces a braking torque which
is directly proportional to product of current, flux and effective radius R.
With rated supply across pressure coil, full load current at UPF is passed through the
current coil braking torque is adjusted hi two ways to ensure that the meter revolves at
the speed within the permissible limits of errors. . .
(a) By Rotating the Brake Magnet about its Axis of Fixation; By angular movement of
the brake magnet about its axis of fixation, the effective radius from axis if disc is
varied. Therefore with decrease of the radius R braking torque will decrease and meter
becomes fast
(b) By Linear Movement of Magnetic Shunt: Normally brake magnets are provided in
pairs with unlike poles adjacent to each other. This arrangement provides definite
advantage because eddy currents produced by this arrangement take shorter path
through the disc. This results in lower resistance and hence larger braking torque is
produced.
The distance of iron magnetic shunt (in the form of screw) from (he magnets is varied
by taking it away from the magnets or near to the magnets and to by pass lesser or
greater portion of the flux.
If the magnetic shunt is brought near the poles it will bypass larger amount of flux, so
the disc will cut through a smaller amount flux resulting in reduced braking torque. So
the meter becomes fast. On the other hand if it is moved away from the magnets, it will
bypass lesser amount of flux giving a larger braking torque. The energy meter under
this condition becomes slow.

(3) Inductive Load Adjustment or L%


Adjustment or Power Factor Adjustment
The deflecting torque of an energy meter is
created by die interaction of two magnetic fields
produced by the current and potential which
causes the disc to move thereby. This torque is
proportional to the product of fluxes and to the
sin of phase shift angle between them.
The arrangements for adjusting the mmf of the
Lag Coil are:

(1) Adjustable Resistance .


A few turns of fairly thick wire are placed around the centre limb of shunt
magnet and the circuit is closed through a low adjustable resistance. The
resistance of this circuit is altered to adjust the lag angle of flux.
(2) Shading Bands.
In this arrangement copper shading bands LI are placed around central limb
of shunt magnet instead of a lag coil with adjustable resistance. In this case
the adjustment can be done by moving the shading band along the axis of
limb. As, the shading bands are moved, up to limb they
embrace more flux.
'
(3) Lag Plate ;
In some meters a single turn lag coil consisting of a punched lag plate is
used. The material and cross, section of the lag plate are such that
appropriate values of impedance and mmf are obtained. The lag plate is
situated in the air gap directly beneath the central limb of shunt magnet and
the Jag angle is adjusted by moving the plate either readily with respect to
the axis of the disc or parallel to the axis of the disc so that it links more or
less shunt magnet flux.
' ; Thus its induced voltage and consequently current and mmf are altered.

(4) Low-Load Adjustment


Despite every care is to be taken in the design, friction errors are liable to
be serious particularly at light loads. Therefore, in order to ensure accurate
registration at low loads it is necessary to arrange for a small torque which
is particularly independent of load o& fee-meter and act in the direction of
rotation. This torque is approximately equal to the friction torque acting in
opposite direction of rotation.
It is obtained by means of a small shading loop (or vane) situated between
centre pole of shunt magnet and the 'disc and slightly to one side of the
centre line of the pole. The interactions between the portions of the flux
which are shaded and unshaded by this loop and the currents induced by
these fluxes in the disc results in a small deriving torque whose value van
be adjusted by the lateral movement of the loop. This lest for correct
adjustment is free from serious errors at light load and starting currents
other methods of non-symmetrical shading are also in use. '
In meters where lag plate is used for power factor adjustment the additional
torque to compensate for the friction can be produced by displacing the
plate in a direction parallel to the direction of motion of disc.
During this adjustment 5 percent or 10 percent F.L. current at UPF is
passed through the meter current coil and the rated supply voltage is
applied across pressure coil adjustment is done till meter runs at correct
speed.

(5) Anti creep Adjustment


As a final check on light load adjustment the pressure coil is energised by 110 percent
of rated voltage with zero load current. If light load adjustment is done correctly the
meter should not creep under these conditions.
Creeping is continuous but slow rotation of meter at no load when only the pressure
coil is energized
Main cause for creeping is over compensation for friction of the compensating device
(low load adjustment is adjusted to give a driving torque to compensate for starting
friction which is sufficiently higher than running friction meter disc will tend to run in the
same direction (creep) at no load because the friction compensating torque is
independent of load current. The other causes for creeping are, vibrations, stray
magnetic fields and excessive voltage across the potential coils.
Creeping is undesirable so it is prevented by two ways.
1. By two Diametrically Opposite Holes. Two diametrically opposite poles are drilled in the
disc. The disc comes to rest with one of the hole under the pole of voltage
magnet thus
the rotation being limited to a maximum of 1800. When hole comes
under the edge of
poles circular eddy current paths in the disc are distorted,
the effective, centre of eddy
current paths is shifted from A to 'A", which is the
central point of the equivalent magnetic
pole produced by the currents. The
polarities are such that there is a resulting force on the disc tending to move A' away
from the pole axis A. Thus as soon as hole reaches a
position near the edge of a
pole further movement of the disc is opposed by the torque described
above.
The magnitude of this torque is insufficient to affect the action of meter on load2. By two Magnetic Vanes. One small iron piece is attached to the spindle and 2nd below
voltage coil so when pressure coil is energized it is attracted by vane provided
on voltage
coil or when magnetic vane-comes near to brake magnet it is
attracted by the iron piece attached on the spindle and creeping is stopped.
In some meters back stoppers are also provided either in the rotor shaft or counting train
is blocked in the -ear operated mechanism

(6) Torque Balance Adjustment


This is provided on poly phase meters only to confirm that each element may be
controlled separately because in some cases one common disc is used in place of
three separate discs. It is therefore, necessary to check the operation of each
element when it is carrying load current to ensure that none of the element is having
negative torque, which cans .happen even when the overall torque is positive. The
meter is adjusted in such a way that contribution of each element is true to the total
record when the system load is unbalanced.

Regulating screws are provided on each voltage core for torque balance which
controls the proportion of useful voltage coil flux cutting the rotor.
In case of two element energy meter (3 ph.3 wire type) torque developed by each
element is equal only at unit p.f. at. other p.f. conditions torque produced by the two
elements are not equal and are of trying proportion. The torque produced by R
element being more at lagging p.f. and that by 'R' element at leading p.f. conditions.
In addition to normal compensating device attached to each element an adjustable
magnetic
shunt is provided on one or both elements to balance the torques of
the two. The necessary adjustment is made with the coils energized from a single
phase supply. The pressure coils
are connected in parallel and the current coil
series in such a manner that the torque
produced by the two elements
opposes each other. The magnetic shunt is adjusted to a
position,
where
the two torques are exactly equal and opposite so that the meter does not
Rotate
With three-phase supply set on the test bench kit p.f. is kept unity with the help of
phase
shifter and the connection of one of the current coils of Rand B
phase element is
reversed, necessary adjustment is made until the meter
fails to rotate.
In case of three-phase four wire meters contribution of each element is equal to the total
torque developed by the meter. Therefore during torque balance adjustment, one
element is disconnected and connections of 2nd element reversed. The meter should
not rotate under these conditions because torque developed by one element is
balanced by the other. This is true at all p.f. conditions.

Repairs of Minor Defects in the Laboratory


Following main defects are generally found in meters : . ,
,
1. Rotor shaft found bent.
2. Counting train found defective.
3. Rotor disc found bent.
4. Pressure disc has discontinuity.
5. Meter excessive slow fast, even after an adjustment.'
6. 6. Upper guide pin broken.
7. Current coil short with body.
8. Wrong name plate meter constant as the revolutions of
meter does not tally with constant
9. Demagnetized brake magnets.
10.Broken glass plates.

Out of new meters received from area Stores, defective ones are
replaced free of cc by supplier and for carrying out repairs of old
meters collected from field by area store repairing is being carried
out at meter, repairing section by canalisation or by providing spa
parts required. After due repairs meters are sent to L T meter testing
for calibration, it is very necessary when electromagnet gaps have
been distributed or when any component is replaced

First apply the rated voltage to each element in him for


3ph. meters without any current in current circuit and adjust
the low load adjuster to a point where the rotor disc becomes
stationary. If this adjuster is moved in either direction the disc
should start to creep

The routine testing of meters could be once in 3/5 years. In


addition, the consumer installation and meters should be checked
from time to time surprisingly. The important points to be paid
attention while checking are
(i) Connections of meter are proper.
(ii) Seals are not tampered.
(iii) No loose or direct connection exists.
(iv) Meter is not damaged to record less.
(v) CTs are properly connected. No reversal of any phase
connection exists. Multiplying factor
is properly calculated
and applied,
(vi) Meter is well-protected from rain, vermin and dust etc.
Links are connected.
viiiTerminal block is not damaged.
ix It may also be mentioned that with the help of load current of
known magnitude (preferably of resistive type) and a wrist watch
having a second hand, one can off-hand check at site the
performance of the meter as also its accuracy to some extent, as
indicated below:

Let the resistive load be a bulb of 40 Wand the time constant of the
energy meter 120 Rev /kWh. Assuming normal supply voltage, the
consumption in one hour is 40 watt hour. The meter disc could
therefore rotate
@ 1200 x 40 71000 = 48 Rev./hour. Say for 1 Rev.
the disc would take (60x60)/48=75 seconds, , ,
If the time taken is more, it means the meter is running slow and
vice-versa. In -fact, the percent error can also be calculated from the
time it actually takes. In this particular case, if the time taken is 78
sec, the meter is slow by

(78-75) / X 100 /75=3%


If the load current is not resistive but inductive or capacitive, the
power factor of the current is to be assessed first depending upon
the nature of the load, and the energy consumption worked out. For
example, a 10 HP flour mill drawing 10 Amps, current at 400 volts
can be presumed to be running at 0.8 power factor and having 3 x l
0 x 400 x 0.8 = 5.54 kW load, for the purpose of such checking.

Installation and Testing of


Meters with C.T. & P.T.
In order to increase the range of an ammeter shunts are generally used. A low
resistance shunt is placed in parallel with an ammeter to measure current
than that which the instrument itself can carry. Similarly in order to increase
the range of a voltmeter, a resistance (with negligible inductance) is used in
series with the instrument. This type of arrangement is used in multi-range
testing instruments,
A very general method of increasing range of A-C. instruments is to use
instrument transformers with ammeters, voltmeters or watt meters etc. The
transformers are either current transformers or potential transformers, which
are respectively used to increase current or voltage range of instruments.
The advantages of use of instrument transformers are as follows :
(i) Single range instruments can be used to cover large current or voltage
range. The usual
ranges of ammeters and voltmeters are 5 amperes
and 110 volts. .
(ii) The indicating instruments can be located away from the H.T. circuit and
do not require insulation for higher voltage.
(iii) A split core C.T. with primary winding on which secondary winding is
also wound can
be used to measure the current in heavy current
bus-bar without breaking the current circuit.

Installation of Meters
For L.T. Consumers, where the demand of load is 50 amperes or more, it is
normal practice to use energy meters with current-transformers. When the
demand is more than 100/150 HP, L.T. supply is not given but the
consumer has to avail H.T. supply. H.T. supply should be given at 33 kV
and higher voltage by extending line from the sub-station so that
independent feeder is available to the industrial consumer. The feeder may
not be governed by the rural discipline. Hence interruptions would be rare.
Extension of supply at 11 kV should be avoided.
Most of the H.T. Consumers prefer two part tariff. They are required to be
billed for maximum demand also and units consumed. Hence poly phase
meters are provided with maximum demand indicator to record the demand
in kVA / kV, over a fixed period (half an hour) each time, when moves with
the help of a time switch. The pointer for maximum demand is left behind
recording the consumption and is reset every month after taking the
reading.
Proper Selection of Meters .
For accurate metering it is necessary that meter normally operates at
the higher ranges where its accuracy is better. To achieve this CT ratio
is properly selected. It is recommended that the CTs used are of single
ratio, as far as possible, and the ratio selected are in accordance with
the following table to have better working torque for the meter

S. No
(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(B)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

CT Ratio
Suitability for max. loading in kV A
(With 20% overloading of L T)
For supply at 11 ::
5/5 Amps
UptolI5kVA
7.5/5 Amps
115 to 150 kV A
10/5 Amps
150 to 225 kVA
15/5 Amps
225 to 340 kV A
20/5 Amps
340 to 450 kV A
25/5 Amps
450 to 570 kV A
For supply at 33 kV
2.5/5 Amps
5/5 Amps
10/5 Amps
20/5 Amps
30/5 Amps
50/5 Amps
75/5 Amps
100/5 Amps
150/5 Amps
250/5 Amps

Up to 225kVA
225 to 345kVA
345 to 675 kV A
675 to l350 kVA
350 to 2100 kVA
2100 to 3450 kVA
3450 to 5200 kV A
5200 to 6900 kV A
6900 to 11300 kVA
11300 to 14000 kVA

It may be said as a guideline that while' selecting CT ratio the same


should be related to 80% of the ultimate contract demand that may
be expected in about a year's time of the commissioning of the
consumer. As the current transformers are designed for 20%
overloading, the CT would be adequate where the load exceeds
80% of the contract demand. It may be prescribed that the CT ratio
should be checked in relation to the maximum demand once every
year, or whenever there is increase in the contract demand.

It may be added that whenever metering on L,T. side is


provided for H,T. Consumer, 3 percent of the energy recorded is
added for the transformer losses. It is further to be ensured that a 3
phased-4 wire meter is only installed.

Testing of Meters
Before installation of meters with CTs and P.T.s, testing
has to be carried out. The metering equipment has to be
tested for
1 . Correct polarity of C.T.S.
2. Continuity test of primary and secondary windings.
3. Ratio test by primary injection kit.
4. Insulation resistance.
5. Terminal markings as per name plate details.
After the above checks, special checks to be applied for,
are as follows :

I. Multiplying Factor
Since C.T. and P .T. ratios have a direct relation with the
consumption to be recorded by a meter, proper working-out of the
multiplying factor has to be carried out, unless the dial of a meter is
originally calibrated for the C.T.s and P.T.s to be used therewith.
The multiplying factor is given by (C x P) / C1xP1) where C and P
are ratios of the C.T.s and P.T.s actually used, while CI and PI are
ratios of C.T.s and P.T.s for which the meter is calibrated. Then to
the energy consumption = ( W1 x C x P) / C1xP1
where W1 is energy consumption as recorded by the meter.
Suppose

W1 = 1000 units
C
= 200/5 amps
P
= 33000/110 volts
C1
= 10015 amps
P1
= 11000/110 volts
Then Wl = ( 1000 x 33000 / 110 x 200 / 5 ) /11000 / l10 x 100 / 5
The actual consumption = 6000 units.
Similarly for MD., the multiplying factor would have to be applied.

(II) Power Factor Check .,


(A) Speed of kW or. disc
(a) Both PT fuses of Rand B Phases cut inSeconds/Revolution = T1 .
(b) R phase PT fuse cut-outSeconds/Revolution = t 1
(c) B phase PT fuse cut-outSeconds/Revolution = t 2
(B) Speed of kVA hr. disc for both Rand B phase fuses in
circuitSeconds/Revolution =
Then
(i) P.F. = cos [ tan -1 T 1 / T2 ]
......(1)
(ii)
Also with (b) and (c) conditions under (A)
P.F. = cos [tan-1 ( t 2 t 1) / ( t 2 + t 1) ] (2)
The result from both the equations should be the same and
tally.

(IV) Power Check


(i) Energy can be calculated by line current, line voltage and P.P. worked-out
under II x time.
(ii) Energy calculated under (i) should be equal to the recording by kWh disc
when P.T. fuses of
both Rand B phases are in circuit.
The above tests are to ensure that H.T. meters are properly installed and
tested. It is to ensure that the potential and current coil connections are on
the same phase: phase sequence of die meter is correct so as to give
cumulative effect of loads on all three phases.
For C.T. and P -T. operated meters, it is preferred to use a test terminal block
(TIB) for C.T., P.T. and meter wiring. This TIB provides the facilities of
shorting CT secondaries for testing purpose without any interruption to the
consumer. The C.T. leads should be directly connected to the meter while
PT supply to the meter should be connected through the fuses of proper
rating. To eliminate the possibility of tempering with the fuses. The fuses
should be provided with protective cover and properly sealed.
Now a days pilfer box is provided for this type of metering equipment.. It should
be used so that no outside agency can temper with the equipment, (details
in Annexure). Since the meter records correctly in vertical position, the box
should be welded to the structure to avoid changing of position.

(V) Testing and Checking of HT Meters at Site


After installation and commissioning of meters or during routine testing of H.T.
Meters, it must be ensured mat same phase C.T. and P.T. are entering in
one element of meter and phase sequence at the meter terminals is correct.
Following checks are made after charging on supply:
1 . Voltage at meter terminals
2. Phase sequence at meter terminals
3. Current on each phase should be approximately equal for three phase-load
4. Element wise rotation of disc
5. Load test, it should tally with the connected load of consumers,
If results are satisfactory M.F. meter details reading etc, should be noted
and consumers signature should be taken on result 'sheet. ;
The meters of H.T. consumers may be tested at the following periodicity: i
1 . H,T. Consumers having - After every 3 months demand of more than 25
MW
2. H.T. Consumers having - After every 6 months demand between 5 and
25 MW
3. H.T. Consumers below 5 MW - After every one year

Electronic Tri-Vector Meters and L.T. Meters


Digital electronic meters are now used for installation at
S/s and consumer's premises. Due to display system,
tampering with meter is difficult. Being electrostatic, the
life and accuracy is expected to be better. The meter is
described with various new features in the earlier
chapter. In addition to the above tests the visual features
are to be checked so that the meter cannot be tampered
by outside agency.
Effect of Wrong Connections
Effect of wrong connections on energy registration is
different under different omissions and errors. These are
shown in a tabular form for information and adoption so
there is no loss of revenue and proper demand could be
raised to cover the loss due to the error/omission.

(iii) Checking of Connection


SI
Element
kWh meter
RkvAh
meter
No
(i)
If 'R' element is connected to the
Disc should rotate in
Disc should rotate in
supply along
forward direction
forward
direction
(ii)
If 'B' element is connected to the
Disc should rotate in
Disc should stop
supply alone
forward direction
(iii) If both 'R', 'B' elements connected to
Disc should rotate in
Disc
should rotate in
supply
forward direction
forward
direction
The rotation of disc on element-wise, depends on the power factor of the
installation. The above analysis is for the P.F. = 0.866. This has been explained with
the help of phase or diagram as shown in Annexure.