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With this philosophy, what happens to the students who

are poor readers or who do not like to read? Are we


setting them up for failure?

Research showed that religious schools use the


Perennialism philosophywhy?

Are electives really not important?


How can teachers teach all subjects without the use of
textbooks?

WHAT IS PERENNIALISM
Comes from the word perennial meaning everlasting.
A very conservative and inflexible philosophy of
education.

A teacher-centered philosophy that emphasizes the


importance of transferring knowledge, information, and
skills from the older (presumably wiser) generation to the
younger one.

Perennialism says since people are human, one should


teach first about humans, not machines or techniques.

TWO KINDS OF PERENNIALISM


IN EDUCATION
Secular Perennialism the word perennial
suggests something that lasts for an indefinite long
time, recurs again and again, or is self-renewing.
Perennialism is learning to reason
Advocates using original work in education
Comprises the humanist and scientific traditions
Formulated in the 20th century by Robert Hutchins and
Mortimer Adler

TWO KINDS OF PERENNIALISM


IN EDUCATION
Religious Perennialism focuses on the personal
development of the student, and says that all
learning could not come from within.
First developed by Thomas Aquinas
Religious Perennialism continues to shape the nature of
Catholic schools throughout the world

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF
PERENNIALISM
1.
2.

Permanence is more real than change

3.

The good life-the life that is fit for man/woman to liveremains essentially the same

Human nature remains essentially the same no


matter the culture

4. Moral principles remain essentially the same


5. Education that men/women receive should remain
essentially the same

PEOPLE OF PERENNIALISM
Robert Hutchins
Perennialist educator who strongly believed in having traditional
liberal arts in all schools

Introduced the Great Books program


Wanted NO extracurricular activities in schoolssaid they were
irrelevant to the learning process

Stated that textbooks have probably done as much to degrade


the American intelligence as any single force.

Professor and Dean at Yale Law School

PEOPLES OF PERENNIALISM
Mortimer Adler
Helped Hutchins organize the Great Books program
Proposed a single elementary and secondary curriculum
for all students, with no curricular electives except the
choice of a second language

Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University

PERENNIALISM IN THE
CLASSROOM
Students spend most of their time mastering the
three Rs- reading, riting, rithmetic

Greatest importance placed on reading


Teach values and character training through
discussions about underlying values and moral
principles in stories

Only elective is the choice of second language

PERENNIALISM IN THE
CLASSROOM CONTINUED
Few, if any, textbooks
Schools are organized around books, ideas, and
concepts

Teach from the Great Books-works by historys


finest thinkers and writers

Teachers do not lecture but lead and facilitate


discussions

PERENNIALISM IN THE
CLASSROOM CONTINUED
Role of the Teacher
Teach time-honored classics
Lifelong Learner
Discussion LeaderNot Lecturer

Role of the Student


Active Thinker/Learner

PERENNIALISM IN THE
CLASSROOM CONTINUED
Teaching Tools

Standardized Tests
Teacher-made tests
Memorization
Classic Books

Classroom Management

Orderly rows
Neat/Clean room
Strict rules
Punishment/Rewards

DOES PERENNIALISM STILL


EXIST??
Perennialism was started in the 1930s
Perennialism IS still around
St. Johns College in Annapolis, Maryland
Adopted the Great Books as a core curriculum in 1937
Readings in Literature, Philosophy, Theology, History,
Social Sciences, Mathematics, and Music

Students write extensively and attend weekly seminars to


discuss assigned readings

MORE ON ST. JOHNS COLLEGE


Grades are given but students only receive their
grades upon request

Expected to learn for learnings sake


Thrives in small-group atmosphere
2nd campus opened in 1964 in Santa Fe, New
Mexico

HOW PERENNIALISM FITS WITH


CONTENT STANDARDS
http://www.corestandards.org/thestandards/english-language-arts-standards/anchorstandards-6-12/college-and-career-readinessanchor-standards-for-reading/

The high school reading standards sound very


similar to the ideas of Perennialism.

??? ABOUT PERENNIALISM

With this philosophy, what happens to the students who


are poor readers or who do not like to read? Are we
setting them up for failure?

Research showed that religious schools use the


Perennialism philosophywhy?

Are electives really not important?


How can teachers teach all subjects without the use of
textbooks?

REFERENCES
www.oregonstate.edu
www.successfuleducation.info
Ediger, M. (1997). Influence of ten leading educators of
American education. Education, 118(2), 267. Retrieved
from EBSCOhost.

Perennialism (2003). Retrieved from


http://www.mtsu.edu/~tsbrown/pere.htm

Sadker, D., Zittleman, K. Teachers, Schools, and Society:


A Brief Introduction to Education. p.200-207. Retrieved
from http://www.education.com