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# DR MARK BINGLEY

PEMBROKE 237
m.s.bingley@gre.ac.uk

MECH 1064
APPLIED ENGINEERING MECHANICS
3 SUBJECT AREAS

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
MECHANICS
`
ENGINEERING DYNAMICS

Mark Bingley
Michael Okereke
Kaushika Hettiartachi

## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS IN CONTEXT

Engineering Mechanics is concerned with analysing stresses in a
body or component subject to external loading
Stress analysis deals with:
Tension/Compression Loads
Torsion
Bending

## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS assesses whether the

resultant stresses in a body are large enough to cause
failure

FAILURE
FAILURE is said to occur if the stresses causes changes in the
component that mean it is no longer fit for use
(it does not necessarily mean catastrophic fracture - separation of a
body into 2 or more parts although it could)

## TYPES OF FAILURE - EXAMPLES

Yielding and Plastic Deformation
Ductile Fracture
Brittle Fracture
Fatigue
Creep Deformation and Failure
Composite Failure
Wear
Corrosion

FRACTURE MECHANICS
Fast, Unstable, Catastrophic

BRITTLE FRACTURE

This is an example
of brittle fracture
caused by using
cold water for a
hydrostatic
pressure test and
then pressurizing
vessel. The
temperature of the
water caused the
metal to become
brittle.

## Jan. 15, 1919: Morass of Molasses Mucks Up Boston

21 dead - 150 injured
Image below shows elevated train structure destroyed in incident

## AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF LECTURE

To appreciate which materials are susceptible
to Brittle Fracture
To understand the role of cracks in Brittle
Fracture
To understand the concepts of Fracture
Mechanics through a stress analysis approach
To be able to analyse simple problems in
Fracture Mechanics and carry out the
calculations necessary to solve problems

## TENSILE BEHAVIOUR OF CERAMICS

(TYPICAL BRITTLE MATERIALS)

## WHY CONCRETE IS BRITTLE

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/13763
.flv

## TENSILE BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH STRENGTH

METALS
NORMAL DUCTILE BEHAVIOUR

BRITTLE BEHAVIOUR

## WHICH MATERIALS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO

BRITTLE FRACTURE
HIGH STRENGTH
LOW-DUCTILITY MATERIALS:
CERAMICS AND GLASSES
HIGH STRENGTH METALS

## Low C Steels (at low

temps)

Medium-High C Steels

Q and T Steels

Aerospace/Automotive
Al Alloys

Titanium Alloys

TOUGHNESS
THE RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE
TOUGH MATERIALS
Require large amounts of (Deformation) Energy
to cause Fracture

BRITTLE MATERIALS
Fail with low Energy input

IMPACT TESTING
Impact loading:

(Charpy)

## -- severe testing case

-- makes material more brittle
-- decreases toughness
Adapted from Fig. 8.12(b),
Callister 7e. (Fig. 8.12(b) is
adapted from H.W. Hayden,
W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The
Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical
Behavior, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc. (1965) p. 13.)

final height

initial height

15

TEMPERATURE
Increasing temperature...

## --increases %EL and Kc

Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT)...

Impact Energy

## FCC metals (e.g., Cu, Ni)

BCC metals (e.g., iron at T < 914C)
polymers
Brittle

More Ductile

Temperature

## Adapted from Fig. 8.15,

Callister 7e.

Ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature
16

IMPORTANCE OF CRACKS
CRACKS OR FLAWS MUST BE PRESENT FOR BRITTLE FRACTURE TO
OCCUR
In inherently brittle materials such as ceramics the cracks may be
sub-microscopic
However Larger Cracks Form Easily in Metals

During Casting

During Forming

During Heat-Treatment

During Grinding

## During Service (Corrosion, Wear, Mishandling, Fatigue)

QUESTION WE NEED TO ASK:
UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES (LOAD CONDITIONS) DO CRACKS
PROPAGATE?
This is the area of FRACTURE MECHANICS

(LOADING MODES)

## STRESS ANALYSIS OF CRACKS

(MODE 1 LOADING)
CRACKS ARE DANGEROUS
BECAUSE:
THEY ACT AS STRESS
RAISERS

Lines
represent
areas of equal
stress

## All specimens are of

equal width at their
centre abrupt
changes in crosssection give rise to
larger stress
concentrations

Where lines
are close
together is an
area of stress
concentration

## HOW DANGEROUS (HOW LIKELY TO

CAUSE FAILURE) A CRACK IS,
IS DETERMINED BY SOMETHING
CALLED THE

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR

THE SIZE OF THE STRESS INTENSITY
FACTOR IS RELATED TO:

COMPONENT

K =

## Magnitude of K depends upon:

Applied Stress()
Crack Length (a)
Crack Shape Factor (Y)
Y depends upon
Crack shape
Specimen size, shape
Geometry and type of loading

K Ys a

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR K

This is a measure of the intensity of the local
stress at the crack root
As will be seen on the following slides it varies with
the geometry of the part
Figs (a), (b), (i), (j) represent infinite (large) plates
plate dimension >>> crack length
Figs (c), (d), (f), (g) represent finite plates
plate dimension crack length

STRESS INTENSITY
FACTOR SOLUTIONS
(a), (b)
Infinite (large) Plates)

(a) K s

(b) K 1.1s

## 1.1 = edge factor

(c)Finite Plates
Y varies with 2a/W ratio
According to graphical solutions

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR SOLUTIONS CONT`D

(d), (e)Finite Plates
Y varies according to graphs

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR SOLUTIONS

(f), (g)Finite Plates
Y varies according to graphs

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR SOLUTIONS CONT`D

Solutions for
(i) Circular cracks
(j) Elliptical cracks
embedded in
infinite (large)
plates

NOTE:
For Semi-circular
and Semi-elliptical
cracks at the
surface/edge of a
plate
The equations
given are multiplied
by the edge-factor
(1.1)

## STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS CONT`D

To be used with the Elliptical Crack Solution (j)

FRACTURE
FAST BRITTLE - FRACTURE WILL OCCUR WHEN:

K = KIC
Ys a KIC
KIC is the

## CRITICAL STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR or

PLANE STRAIN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

## FRACTURE TOUGHNESS VALUES OF A RANGE OF

MATERIALS

FRACTURE STRESS
At Fracture:
Applied Stress ()

## Fracture Stress (f)

K IC Ys f a

IMPORTANT
Fracture Stress of a material is not Constant
It depends on the crack length present

## Large Crack Length gives Low Fracture Stress

Small Crack Length gives High Fracture Stress

## UNITS OF K AND KIC

K =

Y a

K =

(MPa)(m)

K =

(MN/m2)(m1/2) =

MPam

MNm-3/2

CLASS EXAMPLES
1. A plate is to be loaded in service to a stress of 400 MPa.
Examination of the plate reveals a centre crack 10 mm long.
If the plane strain fracture toughness (K1C) is 70 MPam, is
the plate safe to be put into service?
2. A plate was found to contain a circular shaped crack 15 mm
in diameter. The plate fractured at a stress of 650 MPa.
What is the K1C value of the material ?
3. An aerospace aluminium alloy has a yield stress of 500 MPa
and a plane strain fracture toughness value (K1C) of
25 MPam. The design stress is half the yield stress. What is
the critical crack size (that would result in fracture). Assume
that the crack is in the form of an edge crack.

Q1 ANSWER

## For centre-crack in infinite plate refer to fig 8.7(a)

2a = 10 mm
a = 5 mm

K s a

K 400 5 103

K = 50.13 MPam
KIC = 70 MPam
K < KIC
NO FRACTURE

Q2 ANSWER
Circular crack in infinite plate refer to fig 8.7(i)
2a = 15 mm
a = 7.5 mm
K
K IC

s a

2
s f a

2
K IC 650 7.5 10 3

## KIC = 63.5 MPam

Q3 ANSWER
Edge crack in infinite plate refer to fig 8.7 (b)

K 1.1s a
K IC 1.1s f a

## Assume design stress = fracture stress = f = (y / 2)

Where y = yield stress
25 1.1

500
a
2