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HVDC

TRANSMISSION

H-HIGH
V-VOLTAGE
D-DIRECT
C-CURRENT
ANEY EXECUTIVE ENIGINEER
+ 500KV HVDC TERMINAL STATION
MSETCL CHANDRAPUR
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SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM AC YARD,


CHANDRAPUR

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM DC YARD,


CHANDRAPUR

TYPES OF CONNECTIONS OF HVDC CONVERTER BRIDGE

MONOPOLAR GROUND CONNECTION

BIPOLAR CONNECTION
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Different types HVDC Converter Bridge Arrangements


BACK -TO-BACK

This is application where two AC systems to be


connected are physically in same substation and no
transmission line or cable is required.This is used for
interconnection between asynchronous Power System
networks.

TRANSMISSION
BETWEEN TWO
SUBSTATION.

This is for bulk power transfer through dc line or cable


from one Substation to another
which are
geographically far away from each other.

MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

More than two HVDC Substation, geographically


separated are connected to each other by same
transmission line then it is multiterminal system.

PARALLEL
MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

If one or more converters are connected at same voltage


level then system is parallel multiterminal.Here voltage
remains same but the current capacity increases.

SERIES
MULTITERMINAL
SYSTEM

If one or more converters are connected in series then


system is series multiterminal.Here voltage increases.

UNIT CONNECTION

This is scheme when generator is directly connected to


the converter transformer of the rectifier so that
generated power is directly fed into dc line

MONOPOLAR METALLIC RETURN


POLE-1

M RTB

INVERTER

RECTIFIER
GRTS

POLE-2

RECTIFIER

INVERTER

POLE-1

M RTB

INVERTER

RECTIFIER
GRTS

POLE-2

RECTIFIER

c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

INVERTER

TWO TERMINAL HVDC

PRINCIPLE OF POWER TRANSFER BETWEEN TWO CONVERTER STATIONS

CURRENT
(I)

V1

TRANSMISSION LINE
RESISTANCE (R)
V2

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

P=V2*I

I=(V1-V2)/R
CURRENT
(I)

10V

TRANSMISSION LINE
RESISTANCE
(R=1OHMS)

9V

RECTIFIER

INVERTER

P=9*1=9W

I=(10-9)/1
=1AMP
CURRENT
(I)

12

RECTIFIER

I=(12-9)/1
=3AMP

TRANSMISSION LINE
RESISTANCE
(R=1OHMS)

9V

INVERTER

P=9*3=27W
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Static Ud/Id Characterstics


DC Voltage

Io(inverter)

Io(rectifier)
DC Current

Current Margin

c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

12 pulse bridge with three phase transformer connected


DCCT

Smoothing
reactor

To control
system

DC voltage
divider

DCCT

c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

To
control
system

DC voltage
divider

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12 PULSE CONVERTER

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

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CHANDRAPUR PADHE HVDC


PROJECT
FEATURES:
A. BIPOLE PROJECT
B. TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE 500KV
C. POWER CARRYING CAPACITY 1500 MW OR 750MW
/POLE.
D. OVERLOAD CAPACITY :
1650 MW FOR 2HRS AMBIENT ABOVE 33C .
2200 MW FOR 5 SECS AMBIENT BELOW 33C .
E. TYPE OF THRISTOR VALVE QUARAPULE VALVE.
F. TYPE OF CONDUCTOR -QUARAPULE
CONDUCTOR/POLE.
G. NO.OF FILTERS/STATION-4NOS.
H. FILTER MVAR CAPACITY /STATION-800MVAR.
I. LINE LENGTH 753 KM.
J. INTERSTATION COMMUNICATION AND
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LD,KALWA THROUGH
OPTICAL FIBRE

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+/- 500KV, 1500MW CHANDRAPUR


PADGHE BIPOLE HVDC PROJECT

CHA-PAD HVDC l

RATING OF
LINK

Power
Transmis
sion
Capabilit
y (MW)

Minimum
Continuous
Rating

1500

Nominal
Rating

1500

2
hours
overload
rating

1650

DC CT
DC LINE
ISOLATOR

DC BUS
ARRESTOR

DC FILTER

CONVERTER
TRANSFORMER

AC FILTER

DC VOLTAGE
DIVIDER

CONVERTER
BREAKER

NBS

AC SIDE
VALVE
HALL
c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

DC SIDE

AC SIDE

VALVE HALL

DC SIDE

A) AC FILTERS

A)THYRISTOR VALVES

A)DC FILTERS

B) CONVERTER
BREAKERS

B)DC BUS ARRESTORS

B)DC BREAKER
(METALLIC RETURN
TRANSFER BREAKER,
GROUND RETURN
TRANSFER
SWITCH,NEUTRAL BUS
SWITCH)

C) MEASURING
EQUIPMENTS

C)VALVE COOLING
SYSTEM

C) SMOOTHING
REACTOR

D) CONVERTER
TRANSFORMERS

D)DC CTs, DC VOLTAGE


DIVIDERS.
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AC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
AC Side mainly Constitutes of
1)Ac filters: They serve two purpose
A) They offer low impedance path to the harmonics which travel on AC side
generated during the conversion process.
B)Filters constitutes of R,L&C .These filter caters part of capacitive MVAR to the AC
Bus which helps in boosting the system voltage.
Harmonics Generated are:
i)Harmonics of the order of h=2 to 5 due to voltage imbalance caused by firing
angle and transformer commutation inductance.
ii)h=pq1 order Harmonics are generated on AC side of Converter where p is a
value dependent on 6 or 12 pulse Bridge and n=1,2,
Switching of the Ac filters through Circuits Breakers are done by
Reactive Voltage Controller depending on the DC power flow through
the link.

(a)
(b)
Single Tuned Filter
HP-12
HP-3

(c)
Double Tuned Filter
HP-24/36
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AC FILTER BANK

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AC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
2) Converter breakers: Breakers generally SF6 are used for catering AC
supply to the Converter Transformer. In Bipolar Projects sometimes
it is required that only one Converter Breaker caters load to both
poles depending on the type of Bus bar arrangements .In such cases
Converter Breakers of high current carrying capacity are employed s.
Also Circuit Breakers are employed for Switching in and out of the
AC Filters.
3) Measuring Equipments: Equipments like CVTs are installed for
measurement of bus voltages which useful in for control of power
on HVDC link. CTs installed in AC yard as well as Filter area are
employed for protection of AC Bus and Filters respectively.
4) Converter Transformers: This is one of the key equipments in HVDC
link.AC supply is fed to the Converter through the transformer .As
the name suggests the transformer is connected to the converter.
The secondary or the valve winding of the Transformer is directly
connected to valve through either wall mounted bushing or the
bushings of the transformer are protruding inside the valve hall and
are connected to the valve. The secondary of the converter
transformer is carrying AC as well as DC valve current through it. The
transformers may be of following type in case of 12- pulse
converters:-
i) 1phase 3 winding transformer 3units/pole.

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CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

2A

3A

PRIM ARY
WINDING

SECONDARY
WINDING 2

SECONDARY
WINDING 1

2B

B1

3B

B2

1PHASE THREE WINDING CONVERTER TRANSFORM ER

c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

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20

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CONVERTER TRANSFORMER

12 -PULSE CONVERTER FED BY THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

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VALVE HALL EQUIPMENTS


1) Thyristor Valves: Thyristor valves are heart of HVDC .These valves
are air insulated , water cooled and suspended in controlled
enviroment. Previously the thyristor valves where erected on
ground but nowadays they are suspended to meet the seismic
requirements. The 12-pulse bridge consist of 3 nos. quadruple valve.
Each quadruple valve is connected to one phase. One valve consists
of no. of thyristors connected in series depending on the rating of
the thyristor. Each thyristor is equipped with damping circuit for
dv/dt protection, series connected reactor for di/dt protection for
group of thyristor and thyristor control unit for the firing as well as
for status monitoring of thyristor .
Configuration for Chandrapur Padghe project:
3 nos. Quadruple valve
1 valve consist of 16 modules
1 module consist of 6 thyristors
1 valve consist of 96 thyristors
Each phase quadruple valve consist of 384 thyristor
One pole converter consist of 1152 thyristor
Series connected thyristor
Fine Water cooled valves.
Each thyristor of blocking voltage 7kv ,1700amp DC.

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Single Thyrister

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Thyrister Module

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Thyrister Module

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28

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Quadruple Converter Valves

Quadruple
valve

Single valve

Double valve

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VALVE HALL EQUIPMENTS


2) Fine Water Cooling system For Converter Valves:

Dissipation of losses in the form of heat from Thyristor


Valves.
Fine water / Demineralised water used for heat dissipation.
Few percent of water routed through water treatment
circuit.
Temperature, Conductivity and leakage is monitored.

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DC SIDE EQUIPMENTS
DC Side mainly constitutes:
1. DC Smoothing Reactor: Smoothing Reactor is the first equipment connected
in series on DC side i.e. HV side .As the name suggest it is for Smooth ripple free
DC and also limits the sudden change in DC current during fault on DC line or DC
bus. The reactor are generally air insulated or oil filled smoothing reactor. At low
DC voltage air insulated smoothing reactor are used but for high voltage oil
insulated smoothing reactor is used.
Specification of Smoothing reactors in Chapad Project:
Inductance (L): 350mH
Rated Voltage : 500KV DC
Rated current 1700 amp DC

2. DC filters:-The harmonics generated on DC side are of the order of h=kn


where k=6 or 12 depending on the type of converter 6 or 12 pulse. These
harmonics result in current harmonic in DC line. As no. of harmonics increases
the amplitude of the harmonics decreases.

3. DC Switches/Breakers :- DC side Switches are basically High speed isolator


which connect the neutral bus to earth electrode line or metallic return path or
station ground .They divert/isolate the dc current in event of any fault on DC
side. They do not perform the function of current breaking. There are 4 types of
DC Switches:
A. NBS
B.NBGS
C. MRTB
D.GRTB

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DC SIDE EQUIPMENT
A) Neutral Bus Switch (NBS): This DC Switch performs the function of connecting
the the converter to the neutral bus. In event of any fault on the neutral bus the
NBS isolates the neutral bus and the converter after the operation of respective
protection.
B) Neutral Bus Grounding Switch (NBGS): This Switch provides path for local /
station grounding in event of breakdown on electrode line or any maintenance
on electrode line or on Metallic return transfer breaker during bipolar balanced
condition .
C)Metallic return transfer Breaker (MRTB):-This Switch is used to commutate
the current from ground return path to metallic return path. In this type of
transfer .The current that is commutated from Ground path to metallic path is
near about 70 t0 80 percent of pole current due to difference in the resistance
offered by these two paths. Hence Special Arrangement is adopted for current
quenching from Ground to metallic path which shown in figure
D) Ground return transfer Switch (GRTS) :The GRTS is used to commutate
current from metallic return to ground return The maximum DC current that is to
be commutated in this case is only 20 to 30 percent.

BREAKER
CONTACTS

SPARK GAP
CAPACITOR

c:\ V.B.Bhandarkar

NON-LINEAR
RESISTOR

Arrangement for MRTB

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