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Nuclear Power

Presentation by:
Shri. Bharat V. Makhare
Asst. Engineer,
NTC, Nashik
MAHAGENCO

History of nuclear power


1938 Scientists study Uranium nucleus
1941 Manhattan Project begins
1942 Controlled nuclear chain reaction
1945 U.S. uses two atomic bombs on Japan
1949 Soviets develop atomic bomb
1952 U.S. tests hydrogen bomb
1955 First U.S. nuclear submarine

Atoms for Peace

Program to justify nuclear technology


Proposals for power, canal-building, exports
First commercial power plant, England 1956

Economic advantages
The energy in one pound of highly enriched
Uranium is comparable to that of one
million gallons of gasoline.

One million times as much energy in one


pound of Uranium as in one pound of coal.

Emissions Free
Nuclear energy annually prevents
5.1 million tons of sulfur
2.4 million tons of nitrogen oxide
164 metric tons of carbon

Nuclear often pitted against fossil fuels


Some coal contains radioactivity
Nuclear plants have released low-level radiation

Nuclear power around the globe


17% of worlds electricity from nuclear power
U.S. about 20% (2nd largest source)

431 nuclear plants in 31 countries


103 of them in the U.S.

Countries Generating Most Nuclear Power


Country
USA
France
Japan
Germany
Russia
Canada
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Sweden
South Korea

Total MW
99,784
58,493
38,875
22,657
19,843
15,755
12,679
11,720
10,002
8,170

Nuclear power in India


Nuclear Power Generation (2006-07 to 2013-14)
Year
2013-14
(Upto May - 2013)
2012-13
2011-12
2010-11
2009-10
2008-09
2007-08
2006-07

Gross
Generation Capacity Availability
(MUs)
Factor (%) Factor (%)
4831
71
76
32863
32455
26472
18803
14927
16930
18634

80
79
71
61
50
54
63

90
91
89
92
82
83
85

Nuclear power in India


Plant
Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Maharashtra
Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Maharashtra
Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Maharashtra
Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Maharashtra
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Rajasthan
Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Tamilnadu
Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Tamilnadu
Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), Karnataka
Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), Karnataka
Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), Karnataka
Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), Karnataka
Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Uttarpradesh
Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Uttarpradesh
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), Gujarat
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), Gujarat

Unit
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
1
2
3
4
1
2
1
2

Type Capacity (MWe) Date of Commercial Operation


BWR
160
October 28, 1969
BWR
160
October 28, 1969
PHWR
540
August 18, 2006
PHWR
540
September 12, 2005
PHWR
100
December 16,1973
PHWR
200
April 1,1981
PHWR
220
June 1, 2000
PHWR
220
December 23, 2000
PHWR
220
February 4, 2010
PHWR
220
March 31, 2010
PHWR
220
January 27,1984
PHWR
220
March 21,1986
PHWR
220
November 16, 2000
PHWR
220
March 16, 2000
PHWR
220
May 6, 2007
PHWR
220
January 20, 2011
PHWR
220
January 1,1991
PHWR
220
July 1,1992
PHWR
220
May 6, 1993
PHWR
220
September 1,1995

Total Nuclear Power Plant Capacity : 4780

What is nuclear energy?


Power plants use heat to produce electricity.
Nuclear energy produces electricity from heat
through a process called fission. Nuclear power
plants use the heat produced by fission of certain
atoms.

1. Nuclear fission
nucleus of atom is split into parts,
produces free neutrons and
energy

Nuclear Fuel: Uranium


92

U
Uranium

The fuel used in


nuclear power
plants is an
isotope of the
radioactive
element uranium

2. Uranium-235
Fission of U-235 splits nucleus
in two pieces

releases neutrons for chain


reaction
Nuclear fission chain
reaction releases energy in
the form of heat

Nuclear Reactors
3. Nuclear Reactor device built
to sustain a controlled nuclear
fission chain reaction
Main Components of Nuclear
Reactor:
- reactor vessel
- tubes of uranium
- control rods
- containment structure

control rods control


Containment
structure
radioactivity,
absorbs
contains
the reaction
neutrons
in
at least 3 feet of
concrete!

Nuclear Reactors
Basically there are two different
types of nuclear reactors
A Pressurized Water Reactor
(PWR) keeps water under
pressure so that it heats up but
doesnt boil. Water from the
reactor and water that is turned
into steam are in separate pipes

A Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)


uses the heat from fission to
heat water until it boils. The
water from the reactor and
that water that is turned into
steam are the same

The Nuclear Power Plant

Fission occurs
in the reactor
vessel. Heat is
produced.

The steam is
cooled in the
condenser to
return to the
liquid phase.

4. Nuclear power plant


consists of all the
parts needed to create
electricity by using
The heat is used nuclear energy
to heat water to
create steam

The steam is
used to turn the
turbine in the
generator to
produce
electricity

Video: How a pressurized water nuclear


reactor (pwr) works

Key Components of
2. Uranium-235
1. nuclear fission

3. nuclear
reactor
4. nuclear power
plant

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear reactions deal with interactions between the nuclei of
atoms including of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
Both fission and fusion processes deal with matter and energy

Fission is the process of splitting of a nucleus into two


"daughter" nuclei leading to energy being released

Fusion is the process of two "parent" nuclei fuse into one


daughter nucleus leading to energy being released

Fission Reaction
A classic example of a fission reaction is
that of U-235:
U-235 + 1 Neutron
2 Neutrons + Kr-92 + Ba-142 + E
In this example, a stray neutron strikes
an atom of U235. It absorbs the
neutron and becomes an unstable atom
of U-236. It then undergoes fission.
These neutrons can strike other U-235
atoms to initiate their fission.

THE SOURCE: FISSION


Fission is the splitting of a nucleus into two or more separate nuclei of
comparable mass
One neutron interacts with one fissionable nucleus (Uranium for
example)
Results are:

Fission Products Two heavy nuclides


One heavier than the other (Average ratio of ~ 2 : 3 )

Neutrons 2.43 on average emitted / fission


Important that more neutrons are produced than are used to cause
one fission

Gamma rays, beta particles


Energy !!
2

E = mc

Nuclear Power Stations use a fuel called uranium, a relatively


common material. Energy is released from uranium when an atom is
split by a neutron. The uranium atom is split into two and as this
happens energy is released in the form of radiation and heat. This
nuclear reaction is called the fission process

Fusion Reactions
A classic example of a fusion reaction is that of deuterium
(heavy hydrogen) and tritium which is converted to Helium
and release energy.

p+p

He + n + .42 MeV

Nuclear reaction
Chain reaction occurs when a Uranium
atom splits
Different reactions
Atomic Bomb in a split second
Nuclear Power Reactor more controlled,
cannot explode like a bomb

Nuclear Reaction

NUCLEAR REACTION
U235 + n fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV
If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of

fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations


there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a
mole) fissions

NUCLEAR FUEL
Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to
derive nuclear energy. The most common type of
nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to

undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear


reactor
The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu.
Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions

Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Nuclear fuel cycle

Uranium mining and milling


Conversion and enrichment
Fuel rod fabrication
POWER REACTOR
Reprocessing, or
Radioactive waste disposal
Low-level in commercial facilities
High level at plants or underground repository

Uranium enrichment
U-235
Fissionable at 3%
Weapons grade at 90%

U-238
More stable

Plutonium-239
Created from U-238; highly radioactive

Radioactivity of plutonium
Life span of least
240,000 years
Last Ice Age glaciation
was 10,000 years ago
Neanderthal Man died out
30,000 years ago

Nuclear Reactor Process


3% enriched Uranium pellets formed into
rods, which are formed into bundles
Bundles submerged in water coolant inside
pressure vessel, with control rods.
Bundles must be SUPERCRITICAL; will
overheat and melt if no control rods.
Reaction converts water to steam, which
powers steam turbine

NUCLEAR REACTOR
A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain
reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a

steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the


chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is

uncontrolled causing an explotion.

CONTROL RODS
Control rods made of a material that absorbs
neutrtons are inserted into the bundle using a
mechanism that can rise or lower the control rods.
The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers

like, boron, cadmium or indium.

In a nuclear power station the uranium is first formed into pellets and
then into long rods. The uranium rods are kept cool by submerging
them in water. When they are removed from the water a nuclear
reaction takes place causing heat. The amount of heat required is
controlled by raising and lowering the rods. If more heat is required
the rods are raised further out of the water and if less is needed they
lower further into it.

Nuclear Fission from Slow Neutrons and


Water Moderator

STEAM GENERATORS
Steam generators are heat exchangers used to
convert water into steam from heat produced in a

nuclear reactor core.


Either ordinary water or heavy water is used as the

coolant.

STEAM TURBINE
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts
thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it

into useful mechanical


Various high-performance alloys and superalloys

have been used for steam generator tubing.

COOLANT PUMP
The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures
of the orderof 155bar.

The pressue of the coolant loop is maintained almost


constant with the help of the pump and a pressurizer

unit.

FEED PUMP
Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the
condenser for condensation and recirculated for the next

cycle of operation.
The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the

working fluid loop.

CONDENSER
Condenser is a device or unit which is used to

condense vapor into liquid.


The objective of the condenser are to reduce the

turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to


recover high quality feed water in the form of
condensate & feed back it to the steam generator
without any further treatment.

COOLING TOWER
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to
transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.
Water circulating through the condenser is
taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse

Nuclear Reactor

How a Nuclear Reactor works ?

235U

fissions by absorbing a neutron and producing 2 to 3


neutrons, which initiate on average one more fission to make
a controlled chain reaction
Normal water is used as a moderator to slow the neutrons
since slow neutrons take longer to pass by a U nucleus and
have more time to be absorbed
The protons in the hydrogen in the water have the same mass
as the neutron and stop them by a billiard ball effect
The extra neutrons are taken up by protons to form deuterons
235U is enriched from its 0.7% in nature to about 3% to
produce the reaction, and is contained in rods in the water
Boron control rods are inserted to absorb neutrons when it is
time to shut down the reactor
The hot water is boiled or sent through a heat exchanger to
produce steam. The steam then powers turbines.

Video: How a pressurized water nuclear


reactor (pwr) works

Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor


Uses the fast neutrons from 235U fission on
surrounding 238U to produce 239Pu
In 10-20 years, enough Pu is produced to
power another reactor
No moderators are allowed
No water, must use liquid sodium coolant
U must be at 15%-30% enrichment to generate
power with fast neutrons while breeding Pu
This is at weapons grade enrichment, however
Super-Phenix in France has operated for 20
years

Breeder reactor
Breeds plutonium as it operates
Uses liquid sodium metal instead of water for coolant
Could explode if in contact with air or water

1966 Fermi, Michigan


Partial meltdown nearly causes evacuation of Detroit

1973 Shevchenko, Russia


Breeder caught fire and exploded

Controversial proposals in Europe, U.S.

Reprocessing
Separates reusable fuel from waste
Large amounts of radioactivity released

1960s West Valley, NY


Radiation leaked into Lake Ontario

1970s La Hague, France


Released plutonium plumes into air

Back end: Radioactive wastes


Low-level wastes in commercial facilities
Spent fuel in pools or dry casks by plants

Nuclear lab wastes


Hanford wastes leaked radiation into Columbia River

High-level underground repository


Yucca Mountain in Nevada to 2037
Wolf River Batholith in Wisconsin after 2037?
Risks of cracks in bedrock, water seepage

Yucca
Mountain

Transportation
risks
Uranium oxide spills
Fuel rod spills (WI 1981)

Radioactive waste risks

Radioactive Waste Recycling


Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power
plants and weapons facilities by recycling it into
household products.
In 1996, 15,000 tons of metal were received by the
Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers .
Much was recycled into products without
consumer knowledge.
Depleted Uranium munitions for military.

Pathways Of Exposure To Man From Release of


Radioactive Materials

Nuclear Plant Future


The countries of the world are each planning their
own course of nuclear plant development or decline
Nuclear power is competitive with natural gas
It is non-polluting
It does not contribute to global warming
Obtaining the fuel only takes 5% of the energy
output
Plant licenses have been extended from 20 years to
an additional 20 years

Nuclear Plant Future


Newer designs are being sought to make them more
economical and safer
Preapproval of a few designs will hasten development
Disposal of high level radioactive waste still being
studied, but scientists believe deep burial would work

International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor (ITER)

ADVANTAGES
Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low
amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of
green house gases and therefore the contribution of
nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore
relatively little.
This technology is readily available, it does not have
to be developed first.

It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical


energy in one single plant

DISADVANTAGES
The problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved
one.
High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant
with 100% security.

The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium.


Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to
last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the
actual demand.

DISADVANTAGES
Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could

be preferred targets for terrorist attacks..

During the operation of nuclear power plants,


radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be
used for the production of nuclear weapons.

Comparison of Fuel Characteristics


Calorific value of fossil fuels (kcal/kg)
Domestic Coal: 4000, Imported Coal: 5400, Naphtha: 10500, LNG: 9500

Indian uranium-ore contains only 0.06% of uranium


(Canadas 18%), but this provides
20 times more energy per tonne of mined material than coal
when uranium is used in once through open cycle in PHWRs
1200 to 1400 times more energy per tonne of mined material
than coal when used in closed cycle based on FBRs

1000 MWe Nuclear Power Plant needs movement of


12 trucks (10 Te/truck) of uranium fuel per year
1000 MWe Coal Power Plant needs movement of
3,80,000 trucks (10 Te/truck) of coal per year

Challenges and strategies


A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan its economy
on the basis of large scale import of energy resources or energy
technology
Indigenous development of energy technologies based on
domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us
Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of the total
electric power required 50 years from now, in order to limit
energy import dependence in percentage terms at about the
current level