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GAS TURBINE POWER STATION

URAN, NAVI MUMBAI


PRESENTED BY:
BHAT PRASHANT
RAMESH
J.E., CSTPS,
CHANDRAPUR.

INSTALLED CAPACITY: 60 MW X 4 No.s Gas Turbine UnitsYear 1982.


1 No scrapped w.e.f Aug-2003.
108 MW X 4 No.s Gas Turbine UnitsYear 1985 (fuel gas from GAIL,), Uran.
120 MW X 2 No.s Waste Heat Recovery
Plant (WHRP) Year 1994.

FUELS USED: Natural gas & RLNG from GAIL, Uran .


CV 8200 to 9500 Kcal/SM3 of Natural Gas from
ONGC.
Net CV 950 to 1000 BTU/SFT3 of RLNG.
Gross CV 1050 to 1100 BTU/SFT3 of RLNG.
Gas chromatograph installed at ONGC, Uran
(for Payment Purpose for APM gas).
Gas chromatograph installed at GTPS, Uran
(for Payment Purpose for RLNG gas).
Joint calibration of gas chromatograph for CV is
done monthly and flow meter calibration done
every 3 months.
3

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT


(GTPS)

+
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT
(WHRP)
------------------------------------------------------

=
COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT
(CCPP)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT


COMBINATION OF TWO CYCLES (CCPP)

1
GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
(GTPS)

2
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT
(WHRP)

HIGH TEMP. CYCLE

LOW TEMP. CYCLE

GAS TURBINE CYCLE

STEAM TURBINE CYCLE

AIR CYCLE

STEAM CYCLE

JOULE-BRYTON CYCLE

MODIFIED RANKINE CYCLE

INPUT ENERGY BY BURNING FUEL IN


COMBUSTION CHAMBER

INPUT ENERGY FROM GAS TURBINES


HOT EXHAUST GASES

PARTS :AXIAL ROTARY COMPRESSOR,


COMBUSTION CHMBERS,
GAS TURBINE

PARTS :WHRP, 2 PRESSURE 2 BOILERS,


2 PRESSURE. 1 STEAM TURBINE,
1 AIR COOLED CONDENSER

120 MW
108 MW

108 MW
GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

AIR CYCLE

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT STEAM CYCLE

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

AIR CYCLE

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT (GTPS)


HIGH TEMP. CYCLE
GAS TURBINE CYCLE
OPEN AIR CYCLE
JOULE-BRYTON CYCLE
INPUT ENERGY BY
BURNING FUEL IN
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
PARTS :AXIAL ROTARY COMPRESSOR,
COMBUSTION CHMBERS,
GAS TURBINE

FOUR PROCESSES OF GAS TURBINE CYCLE


1 ADIABETIC COMPRESSION
2 HEAT ADDITION
3 ISENTROPIC EXPANSION
4 HEAT REJECTION

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

AIR COMPRESSION
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
GAS TURBINE
EXHAUST TO ATMOSPHERE

Combustion chamber

Gas Turbine

P-V DIAGRAM

Compressor

4
1

VOLUME
Air Intake Filter

Exhaust Gases to boiler (or


bypass chimney)

120 MW

WHRP CYCLE
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT STEAM CYCLE

FOUR PROCESSES OF STEAM TURBINE CYCLE


1 COMPRESSION (1)

FEED WATER PUMP


2 HEAT ADDITION (1-2-3-4)
BOILER
3 ISENTROPIC EXPANSION (4-5) STEAM TURBINE
4 HEAT REJECTION (5-1)
AIR COOLED CONDENSER
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

HP Cycle

LP Cycle

2
3
1

ENTROPY Kcal/Kg/oc or Kcal/Kg/oc


T-S DIAGRAM

BRIEF DESCRIPTION & SPECIALITIES OF GTPS


GAS TURBINE UNIT 108 MW:-

IT WORKS ON GAS TURBINE OPEN CYCLE


WHICH IS HIGH TEMPERATURE CYCLE.
IT IS ALSO CALLED AS INTERNAL
COMBUSTION AIR CYCLE OR
JOULES-BRYTON CYCLE.

WORKING PROCESS
IT INVOLVES 4 BASIC PROCESES: 1)SUCTION FROM ATMOSPHERE & ADIABATIC
COMPRESSION IN COMPRESSOR.
2) HEAT ADDITION IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER.
3)EXPANSION & TORQUE GENERATION IN GAS
TURBINE PART
4)HEAT REJECTION IN EXHAUST THROUGH
CHIMNEY.

GAS TURBINE POWER= COMPRESSOR


POWER+ GENERATOR POWER.

NORMAL STARTING & LOADING TIME IS 13.3


MINUTES.
COMPRESSOR END IS ANCHORED AT
THRUST BEARING .
GAS TURBINE END WITH CASING IS
SUPPORTED ON FLEXIBLE SUPPORT.
GENERATOR IS COUPLED WITH FLEXIBLE
CUPLING TO GAS TURBINE.

TOTAL LENGTH OF COMPOSITE SHAFT IS


16.5 METERS.
SPEED OF TURBINE IS 3000 RPM.
VIBRATION LIMIT IS 11 MICRONS/SECOND.
INITIAL SPINNING IS BY FREQUENCY
CONVERTER.
GENERATOR WORKS AS SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR UPTO 700 RPM TO ESTABLISH
REQUIRED AIR FLOW FOR FUEL GAS FIRING
& WITHDRAWS AT 2100 RPM.
MANUFACTURER:-SIEMENS KWU, V 94.2
FRAME.

EFFICIENCY 30% AT 37 DEGREE CELCIUS


AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.
AIR FUEL GAS RATIO IS 54:1.
AIR FLOW= 450 KG/SEC. OR 400 CUBIC
METER /SEC.
FUEL GAS FLOW= 8 KG/SEC.
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC THROTTLE
GOVERNING IS USED.

TOTAL REACTION TYPE OF TURBINE.


LIFE OF TURBINE IS 36000 RUNNING
HOURS.
TURBINE EFFICIENCY IS AFFECTED
BY AMBIENT TEM. & PRASSURE,
FILTER LOSS, FREQUENCY, AGING,
AIR LEAKAGES & FLAME PATTERN.

AIR INTAKE FILTERS: 3 AIR FILTERS ARE USED ( METALLIC


MOISTURE ELIMINATOR, PRE-FILTER &
FINAL FILTER )
SCREENING OF PARTICLES UPTO THE SIZE
OF 1 MICRONS TAKES PLACE IN FILTERS.
PRESSURE DROP OF 350 PASCALS OR
30 mmWc ACROSS FILTERS.

ROTARY AXIAL COMPRESSOR HAVING 16


COMPOUNDED STAGES IS USED TO ACHIVE
COMPRESSION RATIO OF 9.5.
EFFICIENCY OF COMPRESSOR IS 87.9%.
2 NO. OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS WHICH
ARE TWO WAY BALANCED, COAXIAL,
REGENERATIVE, REFRACTORY LACED.
8 NO. OF MULTI-FUEL BURNERS ARE
PROVIDED TO EACH COMBUSTION
CHAMBER WHERE AIR HEAT UP UPTO
1020 DEGREE CELCIUS.

GAS TURBINE PARTS: 4 STAGE GAS TURBINE IS USED WHERE


FIRST STAGE IS AIR COOLED.
FIRST & SECOND STAGES ARE AIR COOLED
IN MODIFIED GAS TURBINES.
UNIT EFFICIENCY IS 30% AT 37 DEGRRE
CELCIUS AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.
INLET HOT GAS TEMP. IS 1020 DEGREE
CELCIUS & EXHAUST GAS TEMP. IS 515
DEGREE CELCIUS.
EXHAUST PRESSURE IS 16 mbar &
VELOCITY IS 118.5 METERS/SEC.

AIR COOLED GENERATOR OF 136 MVA


CAPACITY IS USED.
CLOSED CYCLE COOLING WATER SYSTEM
WITH LUWA COOLERS IS USED.
GENERATOR IS COUPLED WITH FLEXIBLE
COUPLING TO GAS TURBINE.

STEAM TURBINE: 2 PRESSURE SINGLE CYLINDER STEAM


TURBINE IS USED.
HP CYLINDER HAS 25 STAGES & LP
CYLINDER HAS 6 STAGES
HP STEAM TURBINE EXHAUST PASSES TO
LP STEAM TURBINE INLET.
LP STEAM IS ALSO ADDED TO LP STEAM
TURBINE INLET.
BALANCED STEAM INLET IS ACHIEVED
THROUGH 2 NO. OF HP CVs & ESVs & 2 NO.
OF LP CVs &ESVs.
STEAM TURBINE IS TOTAL REACTION TYPE
TURBINE.

NO ON SHAFT MOP OR STEAM POWERED


MPO IS THERE HENCE 2 DC MPOs ARE USED.
NO BLEEDING THEREFORE NO HEATERS. NO
REHEATERS. THUS THERE IS ONLY 2 PRESSURE
SIMPLE RANKINE CYCLE.
CONDENSING STEAM TURBINE WITH AIR
COOLED CONDENSER IS USED.
STEAM TURBINE EFFICIENCY IS 34%.
TOTAL STEAL FLOW IS 500.8 T/Hr.
TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE ) & TURBINE
STRESS CONTROLLER (TSC ) PROTECT STEAM
TURBINE STARTING /STOPPING AND DURING
NORMAL RUNNING CONDITION.

THROTTLE & BYPASS GOVERNING SYSTEM


IS USED IN STEAM TURBINES.
IT IS ELECTRO HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS &
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED
GOVERNING.
HYDRAULIC/ GOVERNING OIL PRESSURE IS
150 bar.
AUXILIARY/ GLAND SEAL SEAM BOILER:STEAM FLOW 0.5 KG/SEC. AT THE
PRESSURE OF 6 bar & TEMP. 210 DEGREE
CELCIUS.
FUEL NATURAL GAS, VESSEL TYPE.

GENERATOR: MANUFACTURER: SIEMENS AEG.


AIR COOLED & AIR IS COOLED BY COOLING
WATER.
EXCITATION V/C 273V/634 A.
RATED V/C 10.5 KV/8284 A.
RATED OUTPUT 164.6 MVA.
AUXILIARY SUPPLY REDUNDANT AO/BO.
SYNCH. BREAKER 10.5 KV & 220 KV. NORMALLY
10.5 KV SYNCH. BEAKER IS USED. 10.5 KV
BREAKER ENABLES TO EXPORT & IMPORT OF
POWER THROUGH GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
AND SAVES THE COST OF ONE STATION
TRANSFORMER & ONE STATION LV
TRANSFORMER.

AIR COOLED CONDENSER( ACC ): ACC IS RADIATOR LIKE HEAT EXHANGER


WITH FINNED TUBES.
STEAM TURBINE EXHAUST DUCT IS
ELEVATED UPTO ACC WHICH IS AT 25
METERS HEIGHT.
STEAM IS CONDENSED AND LATENT HEAT
OF EXHAUST STEAM IS TRANSFERRED TO
ATMOSPHERIC AIR WHICH IS CIRCULATED
BY FANS.
MANUFACTURER: GEA

FAN: 2 SPEED 98/49 RPM, FRP BLADES,


DIAMETER 8350 MM, STAR/STAR &
DELTA/DELTA SWITCHGEAR & GEARBOX.
HEAT EXCHANGE AREA OF FINNED TUBE
SURFACE: 445068 SQR. METERS.
STEAM FLOW: 500.8 T/Hr.
TOTAL AIR FLOW OF 20 FANS: 10519
KG/SEC.
HEAT DISSIPATION/ REJECTION: 292.05 MW.
FAN POWER ( 132/33 KW* 20 NO.s ): 2350
KW.

AUTOMATION SYSTEMS: SIEMENS TELEPERM ME SYSTEM COMPRISES OF 4


SUB SYSTEMS.
1) COMMUNICATION,
2) AUTOMATION,
3) OPERATING & MONITORING 4) INFORMATION.
TOTAL HIERARCHY PYRAMID LIKE STRUCTURE:MASTER- AREA- SUB AREA- GROUP- SUBGROUPLOOP.
SYSTEMS LIKE CLEAN DRAIN, EVACUATION,
HYDAC, ACC FANS & WTP ARE CONTRPLLED BY
INDIVIDUAL PLC CONTROLLERS.
STATE OF THE ART FULLY AUTOMATIC SYSTEM.
COMPLETE STARTING AND STOPPING PROGRAM
ARE DONE BY SIMPLY CLICKING MASTER
COMMAND.

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT ( WHRP )


120MW:-

2 STEAM BOILERS AND SINGLE STEAM


TURBINE COMPRISE ONE WHRP
2 GAS TURBINES, 2 STEAM BOILERS &
ONE STEAM TURBINE COMPRISE ONE
CCPP.
WHRP USES LOW TEMP. CYCLE OR
DOUBLE PRESSURE STEAM CYCLE
OR 2 PRESSURE MODIFIED RANKINE
CYCLE.

WHRP HAS 4 BASIC PROCESSES: 1)PRESSURIZATION OF FEED WATER BY


FEED PUMP AND HEATING OF FEED WATER
IN ECONOMIZER.
2)EVAPORATION IN EVAPORATORAND
SEPARATION OF STEAM IN DRUM.
3)SUPERHEATING OF STEAM IN
SUPERHEATER.
4)HEAT REJECTION AND CONDENSATION IN
AIR COOLED CONDENSER.
MANUFACTURER:- SIEMENS KWU.
WHRP CYCLE EFFICIENCY IS 24% AT 30
DEGREE CELCIUS AMBIENT TEMP.

WHRP BOILERS: NO SUPPLEMENTARY FIRING REQUIRED.


GAS TURBINE HOT EXHAUST GAS IS AN INPUT TO THE WHRP
BOILER
WHRP BOILERS ARE JUST STATIC HEAT EXCHANGERS.
ONE WHRP BOILER IS PROVIDED FOR ONE GAS TURBINE
EXHAUST.
STEAM OF 2 WHRP BOILERS IS FED TO ONE STEAM
TURBINE.
WHRP BOILERS ARE HIGHLY COMPACT & VERTICAL.
WHRP REQUIRES ON IDFANS & NO FD FANS. GAS TURBINE
EXHAUST PRESSURE OF 16 mbar IS SUFFICIENT TO KEEP
AIR FLOW.
DESIGN TEMP. APPROCH IS 15 DEGREE CELCIUS.
( GAS TURBINE EXHAUST GAS TEMP.- STEAM TEMP.=15
DEGREE CELCIUS)

HEAT TRANSFER AREA IS APPROXIMATELY


1,00,000 SQR. METERS WHICH IS MANY
TIMES THAN CONVENTIONAL BOILER.
WHRP BOILER IS A BOX OF ZIGZAG COILS.
COIL IS MADE OF PIPE WITH CLOSELY
SPACED FINS.
HUGE BOILER INLET DAMPERS( BID ) &
BOILER BYPASS DAMPERS( BYD ) ARE
OPERATED BY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (
HYDAC SYSTEM ). HYDAC OIL PRESSURE IS
192 bar.
GAS TURBINE CAN BE RUN
INDEPENDENTLY IF WHRP BOILER IS
UNDER SHUT DOWN.

EVAPORATOR CIRCULATION IS ASSISTED WITH


BOILER CIRCULATION PUMP (BCP).
WHRP BOILER IS TWO PRESSURE BOILER: 1) HP LOWER HALF PRT WITH PRESSURE OF 72
BAR & TEMP. OF 500 DEGREE CELCIUS.
2)LP UPPER HALF PART WITH PRESSURE OF 7.2
BAR & TEMP. OF 210 DEGREE CELCIUS.
CONDENSATE PREHEATER IS LOCATED ON THE
TOP SIDE AND IT WORKS AS LP ECONOMIZER
WHICH HEATS THE CONDENSATE WATER FROM 60
TO 150 DEGREE CELCIUS.

ALL TUBE BUNDLES ARE HANGING FROM TOP


SIDE AND EXPAND DOWNWARDS. GAS EXHAUST
DUCTS AND BOILER INLET DUCTS ARE
CONNECTED BY FLEXIBLE EXPANSION JOINTS.
GALSS WOOL IS USED FOR INSULATION AND NO
REFRACTORY IS USED.
STEAMING CAPACITY:- HP 208.7 T/Hr & LP 49.2
T/Hr.
FULL DRUM CAPACITY:- HP 51 T & LP 31 T.

SEPARATE FEED WATER PUMPS: HP FW PRESSUR=120 BAR & LP FW PRESSURE= 22


BAR.
CHIMNEY TEMP. IS MAINTAINED 129 DEGREE
CELCIUS IRRESPECTIVE OF LOAD VARIATION.
CONDENSATE PREHEATER CIRCULTION IS MADE
WITH CONDENSATE WATER AS WELL AS FEED
WATER IN PROPORTION TO MINTAIN STACK TEMP.
129 DEGREE CELCIUS CONSTANT.

NOX MIXTURE OF N2O, NO, NO2 IS THE ONLY


POLLUTANT IN CHIMNEY OUTLET WHICH IS 20 TO
30 PPM IN STACK. IT IS LESS THAN 1 PPM WHICH
IS PERMISSIBLE LIMIT AT BREATHING LEVEL.
IN WHRP BOILER THERE ARE RARE CHANCES OF
TUBE FAILURES.
NO EROSION OR ABRASION DUE TO ABSENCE OF
DUST.
WHRP BOILER EFFICIENCY IS 76%.
STEAM FLOW: HP 209 T/Hr ( 58 KG/ SEC. ) & LP 49 T/Hr ( 14
KG/SEC.)
TOTAL STEAM FLOW= 258 T/Hr ( 72 KG/SEC.)

Advantages & Disadvantages of Gas Turbine Plants:


Gas turbine plants possess certain
advantages over steam turbine plants: They are more compact, since fuel is burnt directly
in the small combustion chamber in the gas turbine
rather than in a bulky boiler. Besides, a gas turbine
plant has no condenser.
Gas turbines can be started quickly. They generally
take full load within 30 seconds to 30 minutes.
They are simpler in design and easy to maintain.
They consume less metal & other materials for the
same capacity
Gas turbines cost less.
Unlike steam turbines, they require very less water
for cooling. So gas turbines are more suitable for
power generation where the water scarcity exists or
the water is more precious.

Though the gas turbines possess many


advantages over the steam turbines, they are
inferior to steam turbines in the following
respects:They have a lower specific power.
They have lower efficiency at the modern
state of progress.
However to increase the plant efficiency the
gas turbines can be used in the combined
cycle modes.
Gas turbines have a shorter service life.
Gas turbines are more sensitive to fuel
quality.

THANK YOU

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