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CHAPTER-FIVE

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS


5.1. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

is a systematic mode of inquiry into


complex social structures, interactions, or
processes

by

employing

observational,

interpretive, and naturalistic approaches.

Qualitative Researchinvolves finding out


what people think, and how they feel - or

at any rate, what they say they think and


how they say they feel.

This kind of information is subjective.


It involves feelings and impressions,

rather than numbers.


2

Qualitative Researchers study things (people


and their thoughts) in their natural settings,
attempting to make sense of, or interpret,
phenomena in terms of the meanings people
bring to them.

qualitative refers to the type of data being

collected (which is often textual data, as


opposed to quantitative or numeric data),
3

Distinctions from Quantitative


Research

The distinction lies on


1.

2.

paradigmatic sense and in a


data-oriented sense

1. PARADIGMATIC SENSE

qualitative is based on the assumption that social


reality is not singular or objective,

but is rather shaped by human experiences and


social contexts (ontology), and

is therefore best studied within its socio-historic

context

by

interpretations

(epistemology).

reconciling
of

its

the

subjective

various

participants
5

In contrast, quantitative research assumes


that the reality is relatively independent of

the context, and can be abstracted from their


contexts

and

studied

using

objective

techniques such as standardized measures.


6

The

control

and

generalizability

of

quantitative research are traded in qualitative

research for contextual detail and deeper


understanding

of

the

phenomenon

of

interest.

2. DATA-ORIENTED SENSE

qualitative research relies mostly on nonnumeric


data,
however, quantitative research relies numeric
data for
Hence, qualitative research is not amenable to
statistical procedures such as
computation of means or
regression coefficients.

Although qualitative data is sometimes coded


quantitatively by ratters into categories and

frequencies, the coded data is not statistically


analysed,

OTHER MINOR DIFFERENCES


S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g
T
e
c
h
n
i
q
u
e

Qualitative Research

Quantitative research

employs Purposive
sampling strategy
cases are selected based on
whether they possess
certain desired contextual
characteristics
convenience samples and
small
samples
are
considered acceptable in
qualitative research as long
as they fit the unique
requirements of a given
context

random sampling (or a


variation of this technique)
cases are chosen randomly
from a population
but not in quantitative
research

10

Qualitative Research

role
of
the
rese
arc
her

. receives critical attention


considered part of the social
phenomenon, and her/his specific
role and involvement in the
research process must be made
clear during data analysis
such as ethnography, action
research,
and
participant
observation
qualitative methods, such as case
research, the researcher must take
a neutral or unbiased stance
during the data collection and
analysis processes

Quantitative research

the researcher is
considered to be
external to and
independent of
data collection
and
analytic
procedures

11

Analysis is holistic and contextual

reductionist
isolationist

Interpreta tend to focus on language, Heavily


signs, and meanings, from the
tions
techniques
perspective of the actors
involved in the social
phenomenon
Benefit

and

statistical

ability to modify the research research project cannot


process or even change the
be modified or changed
research questions at a late
once the data collection
stage of the project during or
has
started
without
after data collection
redoing the entire project
data collection and analysis is
from the start
often done simultaneously
and iteratively
12

Benefits and Challenges of Quantitative Re.


Advantages

1. well-suited for exploring hidden


reasons behind complex, interrelated,
or multifaceted social processes
such as inter-firm relationships or
inter-office politics

where quantitative evidence may be


biased, inaccurate, or otherwise
difficult to obtain.

13

2. they are often helpful for theory


construction in areas with no or
insufficient a priori theory
3. they are also appropriate for studying
context-specific,
unique,
or
idiosyncratic
events or processes
4. ability to uncover interesting and
relevant research
questions
and
issues for follow- up research.
14

Disadvantage
1. tends to consume more time and
resources
Care should be taken to collect
adequate data:
too little data can lead to false or
premature assumptions,
too much data may not be effectively
processed by the researcher

15

2. requires well-trained researchers


who can conduct such research
without injecting their personal
biases or preconceptions into the
studys design,
data collection, or
data analytic procedures

16

Given

the

qualitative

subjective

nature

interpretation,

of
the

researcher must be careful to interpret


the

social

phenomenon

from

the

perspectives of the actors embedded in


that phenomenon, and not from her
own personal viewpoints, since she is
not part of the social context

17

3. all participants or data sources may not be

equally credible,

unbiased, or

knowledgeable about the phenomenon of

interest,

or may have undisclosed political agendas,


which may lead to misleading or false
impressions.

18

4. given the heavily contextualized nature of


inferences drawn from qualitative research,

such inferences do not lend themselves well to


replicability or generalizability.

Finally, qualitative research may sometimes


fail to answer the research questions of
interest or predict future behaviours
19

Characteristics of qualitative
research
1. NATURALISTIC INQUIRY:

assumes that social phenomena is situated within

and cannot be isolated from its social context,

the findings of such research must be interpreted

within the socio-historical context in which the


phenomena are embedded

20

This implies that contextual variables should


be observed and considered in seeking

explanations of a phenomenon of interest

although

context

sensitivity

limits

generalizability of inferences
21

2. RESEARCHER AS INSTRUMENT:

Observations must be interpreted through the eyes of the


social actors embedded in the social phenomenon
being studied.

Interpretation must occur at two levels.

involves viewing or experiencing the phenomenon


from the subjective perspectives of the social
participants.
is to understand the apparent meaning of the
participants experiences to provide a thick
description
22

3. USE OF EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE:

Documenting the verbal and non-verbal language


of participants and

the analysis of such language are integral


components of qualitative analysis.

The study must depict the emotions and

experiences of that person, so that readers can


understand and relate to that person.
23

Use of

imageries,

metaphors,

sarcasm, and

other figures of speech is very common in

qualitative analysis.

24

4. TEMPORAL NATURE:

Qualitative research is often not concerned with


searching

for

specific

answers,

but

with

understanding a dynamic social process as it


unfolds over time

Hence, such research requires an immense


involvement of the researcher at the study site for
an extended period of time,
and is necessary to capture the entire evolution of
the phenomenon of interest.
25

QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION


Data is collected in variety forms
The most frequently used technique is
interviews

face-to-face,
telephone, or
focus groups

26

A second technique is observation.

direct observation, where the researcher is a

neutral and passive external observer and is not


involved in the phenomenon of interest

participant observation, where the researcher is


an active participant in the phenomenon

e.g., her inputs or mere presence influence the


phenomenon being studied
27

A third technique is documentation- where


external and internal documents, such as
memos,
electronic mails,
annual reports,
financial statements,
newspaper articles,
websites,
may be used as independent data sources or for
corroboration of other forms of evidence.
28

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
A. CASE RESEARCH
is
an intensive longitudinal study of
phenomenon at one or more research sites
for the purpose of

deriving detailed,
contextualized inferences and
understanding
the dynamic process
underlying a phenomenon of interest

29

Case research has some unique distinctions from other

qualitative methods:

First, this method can be used for either inductive


theory building or deductive theory testing

Second, the researcher is a neutral observer

Please refer to the previous chapter for further

details on this method.


30

B. ACTION RESEARCH

is an interactive method of inquiry that


assumes complex social phenomena are best

understood
interventions,

by
or

introducing
actions

changes,
into

those

phenomena and observing the effects of


those actions on the phenomena of interest.

31

the researcher is usually a consultant or an organizational


member embedded into a social context (such as an
organization),

the researcher initiates an action in response to a social


problem,

He/she examines how his/her action influences the


phenomenon

while also learning and generating insights about the


relationship between the action and the phenomenon.
32

Examples include

organizational change programs, such as

the introduction of new organizational processes,

procedures,

people, or

technology or replacement of old ones,

initiated with the goal of improving an


organizations profitability or performance
33

The researchers choice of actions must be


based on theory,

which should explain why and how such


actions may bring forth the desired social
change
34

The theory is validated by the extent to which the


chosen action is successful in relieving the targeted
problem.
Simultaneous problem solving and insight
generation is the central feature that distinguishes
action research from all other qualitative research
methods.
Hence, action research is an excellent method for
bridging research and practice.

35

Action research cycle

36

A. DIAGNOSING PHASE
involves identifying and defining a problem in
its social context
B. ACTION PLANNING
involves identifying and evaluating alternative
solutions to the problem and
deciding on a future course of action (based
on theoretical rationale)
C. ACTION TAKING
is the implementation of the planned course of
action
37

D. EVALUATION STAGE
examines the extent to which the initiated
action resolves the original problem
i.e., whether theorized effects are indeed
realized in practice
E. LEARNING PHASE

the experiences and feedback from the action


evaluation phase are used to generate insights
about

the

problem

and

suggest

future

modifications or improvements to the action


38

The problem is then re-examined based on


the outcomes of the previous action, and

the action research cycle is repeated with a


new or modified action sequence.

learning from the first cycle can be


implemented in the second cycle

39

the primary mode of data collection is


participant

observation,

although other techniques such as

interviews and

documentary

evidence may be used to support


the researchers observations
40

C. ETHNOGRAPHY

emphasizes studying a phenomenon within the


context of its culture

The researcher must be deeply immersed in the


social culture over an extended period of time
(usually 8 months to 2 years) and

should engage, observe, and record the daily


life of the studied culture and social actors in
the within their natural setting

41

The primary mode of data collection is


participant observation,
data analysis involves a sense-making
approach
the researcher must take extensive field notes,
and narrate her experience in descriptive
the researcher has two roles:
rely
on her unique knowledge and
engagement to generate insights (theory),
convince the scientific community of the
trans-situational nature of the studied
phenomenon
42

D. PHENOMENOLOGY

emphasizes the study of conscious

experiences as a way of understanding the


reality around us

It is based on the ideas of German


philosopher Edmund Husserl in the early
20th century who believed that human
experience is the source of all knowledge.

43

It is concerned with the systematic reflection and analysis


of phenomena associated with conscious experiences,
such as

human judgment,
perceptions, and
actions,

with the goal of


appreciating and describing social reality from the
diverse subjective perspectives of the participants
involved, and
understanding
the symbolic meanings (deep
structure) underlying these subjective experiences.
44

45

E. GROUNDED THEORY

is an inductive technique of building theories

about a social phenomenon based on (or


grounded in) qualitative data about that

phenomenon such as:

interviews,

focus groups,

narratives, or

audio/video recordings

46

F. HERMENEUTICS

Derived from religious studies and linguistics,


is the study of interpretation as an art and the
theory and practice of interpretation
Traditional hermeneutics, such as biblical
hermeneutics, refers to the interpretation of

written texts,
especially in the areas of literature,
religion and law (such as the Bible)
47

RIGOR IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative interpretation is subjective, and is


therefore often considered less rigorous by many
functionalistic researchers
functionalist research employs a reductionist
approach by simplifying social reality into
parsimonious theories and laws,
interpretive or qualitative research attempts to
interpret social reality within the context in
which the reality is situated and from the
subjective viewpoints of the embedded actors.
48

A. DEPENDABILITY

Qualitative research can be viewed as


dependable or authentic

if two researchers assessing the same


phenomenon using the same set of evidence
independently arrive at the same conclusions

or same researcher observing the same/


similar phenomenon at different times arrives

at similar conclusions.

49

To

ensure

dependability,

interpretive

researchers must provide adequate details

about their phenomenon of interest and

the social context in which it is embedded


so as to allow readers to independently
authenticate their interpretive inferences.

50

B. CREDIBILITY
Qualitative
research
can
be
considered credible if readers find its
inferences to be believable
Credibility can be improved by:
providing evidence of the researchers
extended engagement in the field,

51

by demonstrating data triangulation across subjects


or data collection techniques, and

by maintaining meticulous/care
management and analytic procedures,

full

data

such as

verbatim transcription of interviews,

accurate records of contacts and interviews,


and

clear notes on theoretical and methodological


decisions, that can allow an independent audit
of data collection and analysis if needed
52

C. CONFIRMABILITY

refers to the extent to which the findings


reported in qualitative research can be
independently confirmed by others (typically,
participants)
conformability is demonstrated in terms of
inter-subjectivity,
i.e., if the studys participants agree with the
inferences derived by the researcher
53

D. TRANSFERABILITY

refers to the extent to which the findings can


be generalized to other settings
The researcher must provide rich, detailed
descriptions of the research context and
thoroughly
describe
the
structures,
assumptions, and processes revealed from
the data
so that readers can independently assess
whether and to what extent the reported
findings are transferable to other settings.
54

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Unlike quantitative analysis, which is statistics


driven

and

largely

independent

of

the

researcher,

qualitative analysis is heavily dependent on the


researchers analytic and integrative skills and

personal knowledge of the social context where


the data is collected
55

emphasis in qualitative analysis is sense


making or understanding a phenomenon,

rather than predicting or explaining

creative and investigative mind set is


needed for qualitative analysis
56

CHAPTER SIX
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Quantitative research is the systematic and


scientific investigation of quantitative properties

and phenomena and their relationships

The

objective

is

to

develop

and

employ

mathematical models, theories and hypotheses


pertaining to natural phenomena
57

It usually starts with a theory or a general


statement proposing a general relationship

between variables.

With this approach it is likely that the

researchers will take an objective position and


their approach will be to treat phenomena as

hard and real.

58

CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Characteris Qualitative Research


tics
Typical Data
Collection
Methods
Formulation
of
Questions
and

Answers

Quantitative Research

Participant observation, semi- Laboratory observ.,


structured
interviews, questionnaire, schedule
introspection
or structured interviews

Open loosely specified


questions and possible
answers.
Questions and answers
are exchanged in two way
comm. b/n researcher and

Closed questions
and answer
categories to be
prepared in advance.

participant.
59

Selection of Infn. maximization


Responden guides the selection
of respondent.
ts
Every respondent
may be unique (key
person).

Representativeness as proportion
of population N. Sample
selection, sample size according
to assumptions about distribution
in population N. Respondents

Timing of Parallel with data


Analysis
collection

After data collection

Application
of
Standard
Methods of
Analysis

should be directly comparable.

Are rarely used.


Standard statistical methods are
Methods of analysis
frequently used
are formulated
during the data
collection process.
60

Typical
forms
Of
Analysis

The Role
of
Theories
in the
Analysis

Critical analysis and


interpretation of source
materials.
Selection, systematizing and
summarizing interview
transcripts and observations
Existing theories are typically used
only as point of departure for the
analysis. Theories are further
developed by forming new
concepts and relations.
The contents of the new concepts
are studied and illustrated.
Practical application of theory is

Cross tabulations,
correlation
analysis and tests of
significance on
numerical data
A-priori deducted
theories are
operationalised and
tested on
data. The process of
analysis is
basically deductive.

illustrated by cases.
61

CH APTER - SEVEN

MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH

62

62

5.1 DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS /


CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL
INTRODUCTION:

A manager has to take many decisions in his dayto-day life.

decisions may relate to:


the manufacturing or
marketing of products,
hiring or firing of employees, and so on.
63

Some

of these decisions depend on the


quantitative data for which the units of
measurement can be subjected to a statistical
analysis.
However, there are decisions, which depend on
behavioural data, which is not suitable for direct
statistical analysis.
Thus, for management purposes the manager has
to measure physical objects as well as abstract
concepts.
Measurement is a relatively difficult when it
concerns qualitative or abstract phenomena.
64

MEASUREMENT
may be defined as the process

of assigning
numbers to objects or observations,
is a process of mapping aspects of a domain
on to other aspects of a range according to
some rule of correspondence.
It is easy to assign numbers in respect of
characteristics of some objects, but it is
relatively difficult in respect of others.
65

DEFINITION OF CONCEPT:
A concept or a construct is a generalized idea about a class
of

objects,

attributes,

occurrences, or

processes.

Some concepts are concrete and quantifiable while others are

abstract and qualitative

The nature of concepts calls for clearly defining them


conceptually and operationally.
66

Operational Definition:
Specifies what the researcher must do to

measure the concept under investigation


A concept must be made operational in order

to be measured.
An operational definition gives meaning to a

concept by specifying the activities or


operations necessary to measure it.
67

Concepts like grievances may be difficult to


operationalize,

whereas a concept like personnel turnover is less


difficult.

An operational definition is like a manual of

instructions or a recipe.
For Example: Media Skepticism: Conceptual definition

Media skepticism - the degree to which individuals are


skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass

media.

68

Media

skepticism

varies

across

individuals,

who are mildly skeptical and accept most


of what they see and hear

who

completely discount and disbelieve

the facts, values, and portrayal of reality


69

Media Skepticism: Operational definition


Please tell me how true each statement is about
the media. Is it very true, not very true, or not at
all true?
1. The program was not very accurate in its
portrayal of the problem.
2. Most of the story was staged for entertainment
purposes.
3. The presentation was slanted and unfair.
70

7.2 TYPES OF SCALES

SCALE

may be defined as Series of items arranged


according to value for the purpose of
quantification.
is a continuous spectrum or series of categories.
The purpose of scaling is to represent, usually
quantitatively, an item's, a person's, or an event's
place in the spectrum.
71

Thus a scale is

measuring instrument, intended to

measure and record the extent to which test products,


possess characteristics

In the process of measurement one has to devise


some form of scale in the range and,

then map the properties of objects from the


domain

onto

this

scale.

The

scales

of

measurement can be considered in terms of their


mathematical properties.

72

The primary scales of measurement are:


(a) Nominal Scale
(b) Ordinal Scale
(c) Interval Scale
(d) Ratio Scale

73

A. NOMINAL SCALE :

is simply a system of assigning numbers


symbols or letters to events in order to label
them.
These numbers are just convenient labels for
the particular class of events and as such have
no quantitative value.
Thus the nominal scale simply allows the
categorization of responses into a number of
mutually exclusive categories.
74

We cannot do much with the numbers involved.

For example, one cannot usefully average the numbers on


the back of a group of football players and come up with a
meaningful value.

Neither can one usefully compare the numbers assigned to


one group with the numbers assigned to another.

The typical applications of nominal scale is in

classification of responses by a social class, like of dislike,


yes or no, male or female and so on.
75

The counting of members in each group is the


only possible arithmetic operation when a
nominal scale is employed.
Accordingly, we are restricted to use mode as the
measure of central tendency.
There is no generally used measure of dispersion
for nominal scales.
Chi--square test is the most common test of
statistical significance of association and for the
measures of correlation we calculate the
contingency coefficient.
76

Nominal scale is the least powerful level of


measurement.
It indicates no order or distance relationship and has
no arithmetic origin.
nominal scale simply describes differences between
units by assigning them to categories.
In spite their limitations, nominal scales are very
useful and widely used in surveys when data are
being classified by major sub-groups of the
population.

77

A Scale in which the numbers or letters are assigned


to objects serve as labels for identification or
classification.
Yakob kebede # 21
- Tomas Tariku # 25
Male : 1
- Female : 2
Numerical Operation: Counting
Typical Statistics: Descriptive :

Frequencies in each category


Percentages in each category
Mode & Cross tabulation
For Analyzing: Chi-Square test.
78

B. ORDINAL SCALE :

allows the respondents to rank some alternatives


by some common characteristics.
It simply places events in order, but there is no
attempt to make the intervals of the scale equal in
terms of some rule.
Rank orders represent ordinal scales and are
frequently used in research relating to qualitative
phenomena.
For example, a group of consumers may rank the
three brands of toothpaste on the basis of the
perceived taste.
79

only permit the ranking of items from highest to


lowest.
Ordinal measures have no absolute values, and
the real differences between adjacent ranks
may not be equal.
All that can be said is that one person is higher
or lower on the scale than another,
but more precise comparisons cannot be made.
Thus, the use of an ordinal scale implies a
statement of greater than or less than.
80

However, the magnitude of difference in ranks


cannot be determined.

The real difference b/n ranks 1 & 2 may be more


or less than the difference between ranks 5 & 6.

Since the numbers of this scale have only a rank


meaning, the appropriate measure of central
tendency is the positional average i.e. median.

A measure of dispersion can be based on the


percentiles or quartiles of the distribution.
81

Correlations are restricted to various rank


order methods.
Statistical significance is tested through the
use of non-parametric methods.
Numerical Operation: Rank ordering
Typical Statistics:
For Describing: Median, Mode and Percentile.
For Analyzing: Rank order correlation, Sign test,
Multi dimensional scaling.

82

C. INTERVAL SCALE :

In the case of interval scale, the intervals are


adjusted in terms of some rule that has been
established as a basis for making the units equal.
Interval scales can have an arbitrary zero point
with numbers placed at equally appearing
intervals.
It Measures strength of the equality of
differences between ranks.
Interval scale takes care of the limitations of the
nominal and the ordinal scales.
83

Interval scale also incorporates the concept of


equality of interval and so provides more

powerful measurement than ordinal scales.

A number of mathematical and statistical

operations including addition, subtractions and


computations of the mean can be performed on

the interval-scaled data.

84

Mean is the appropriate measure of central


tendency, while standard deviation is the most
widely used measure of dispersion.
The generally used tests for statistical
significance are the Z, t test and F.
Correlation is studied by the product moment
correlation coefficient.
The primary limitation of the interval scale is the
lack of an absolute or true zero of measurement.
That is it does not have the capacity to measure
the complete absence of a characteristic.
85

For example;
How important is price to you while buying furniture?

Numerical Operation: Intervals between numbers.


Consumer Price Index (Base 100)
Typical Statistics:
For Describing: Mean, Standard Deviation, Variance.
For Analyzing: Correlation analysis, Discriminate analysis,
ANOVA and multi dimensional scaling.

86

D. RATIO SCALE :

We can conceive of an absolute zero of length or


that of time.
For example, the zero point on a centimetre scale
indicates the complete absence of length or
height.
But an absolute Zero of temperature is
theoretically unobtainable.
Ratio scale has an absolute or true zero of
measurements.
It represents the actual amounts of variables.
Measures of physical dimensions such as weight,
height, distance etc. come under this category.
87

In general, all statistical techniques are


applicable with ratio scales and
all mathematical operations that one can
carry out with real numbers can also be
carried out with ratio scale values.
Multiplication and division can only be
used with the ratio scale, but not with other
scales.
Geometric and harmonic means can be
used as measures of central tendency and
coefficients of variation may also be
88

Ratio scale measurements are the most powerful


measurement discussed so far

as they possess all the properties of the measurement

scales which we have discussed.

Ratios of the numbers on these scales have meaningful


interpretation.

They possess an unambiguous starting point.

The number of minor traffic-rule violations and the

number of incorrect letters in a page of type script


represent scores on ratio scales.
89

Both these scales have absolute zeros and as such all


minor traffic violations and all typing errors can be
assumed to be equal in significance.

With ratio scales involved one can make statements like

Dawits typing performance was twice as good as that of


Rebka.

The ratio involved does have significance and

facilitates a kind of comparison which is not


possible in case of an interval scale.
90

Numerical Operation: Actual Quantities


Typical Statistics:
For Describing: Geometric Mean, Coefficient of
variation.
For Analyzing: Correlation analysis, Discriminate
analysis,
ANOVA and multi dimensional scaling.

Sources of Error in Measurement:


(a) Respondent
(b) Situation
(c) Measurer
(d) Instrument
91

92

7.3 CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT:


VALIDITY, RELIABILITY AND PRACTICALITY

Sound measurement must meet the tests of


validity, reliability and practicality.

In

fact,

these

are

the

three

major

considerations one should use in evaluating


a measurement tool.
93

Validity refers to the extent to which a test


measures what we actually wish to measure.

Reliability has to do with the accuracy and


precision of a measurement procedure ...

Practicality is concerned with a wide range of


factors

of

economy,

convenience,

and

interpretability ...
94

1. TEST OF VALIDITY:

is the most critical criterion and,

indicates the degree to which an instrument

measures what it is supposed to measure.

But the question arises:

how can one determine validity without direct


confirming knowledge?
95

The answer may be that we seek other relevant


evidence that confirms the answers we have
found with our measuring tool.
What is relevant, evidence often depends upon
the nature of the research problem and the
judgment of the researcher.
But one can certainly consider three types of
validity in this connection:

(i) Content validity;


(ii) Criterion-related validity and
(iii) Construct validity.
96

A. CONTENT VALIDITY

is the extent to which a measuring instrument provides


adequate coverage of the topic under study.

If the instrument contains a representative sample of


the universe, the content validity is good.

Its determination is primarily judgmental and intuitive.

It can also be determined by using a panel of persons


who shall judge how well the measuring instrument
meets the standards,

but there is no numerical way to express it.

97

B. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY

relates to our ability to predict some outcome or


estimate

the

existence

of

some

current

condition.

This form of validity reflects the success of


measures used for some empirical estimating
purpose.

98

The concerned criterion must possess the following qualities:

Relevance: A criterion is relevant if it is defined


in terms we judge to be the proper measure.

Freedom from bias: Freedom from bias is


attained when the criterion

gives each

subject an equal opportunity to score well.

Reliability: A reliable criterion is stable or


reproducible

Availability: The information specified by the criterion must


be available

99

Criterion validity is using some standard or


benchmark that is known to be a good
indicator.
There are different forms of criterion validity:

Concurrent validity is how well


something estimates actual day-by-day
behavior;
Predictive validity is how well something
estimates some future event or
manifestation that hasnt happened yet.
It is commonly found in criminology.

100

Criterion-related validity is expressed as


the coefficient of correlation between test

scores and some measure of future


performance or

between test scores and scores on another


measure of known validity.

101

C. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

is the extent to which your items are tapping


into the underlying theory or model of behavior

Its

how

well

the

items

hang

together

(convergent validity) or distinguish different

people

on

certain

traits

or

behaviors

(discriminant validity)
102

Its the most difficult validity to achieve.

You have to either do years and years of

research or find a group of people to test that


have the exact opposite traits or behaviors

youre interested in measuring.


103

For determining construct validity, we associate a set

of other propositions with the results received from


using our measurement instrument.

If measurements on our devised scale correlate in a


predicted way with these other propositions, we can
conclude that there is some construct validity

104

If the above stated criteria and tests are met


with, we may state that our measuring

instrument is valid and will result in correct


measurement;

otherwise we shall have to look for more


information and/or resort to exercise

of

judgment
105

2. TEST OF RELIABILITY:

A measuring instrument is reliable if it provides


consistent results.

Reliable measuring instrument does contribute to


validity, but a reliable instrument need not be a valid
instrument.

For instance, a scale that consistently overweighs


objects by five kgs., is a reliable scale, but it does not

give a valid measure of weight.

But the other way is not true i.e., a valid instrument is


always reliable.
106

Accordingly reliability is not as valuable as


validity, but it is easier to assess reliability

in comparison to validity.

If the quality of reliability is satisfied by an


instrument, then while using it we can be

confident that the transient and situational


factors are not interfering.
107

Two aspects of reliability viz., stability and


equivalence deserve special mention.

The stability aspect


is concerned with securing consistent
results with repeated measurements of
the same person and with the same
instrument.
We usually determine the degree of
stability by comparing the results of
repeated measurements.

108

The equivalence aspect


considers how much error may get
introduced by different investigators or
different samples of the items being
studied.
A good way to test for the equivalence of
measurements by two investigators is to
compare their observations of the same
events.

109

Reliability can be improved in the


following two ways:
(i) By

standardizing the conditions under


which the measurement takes place
i.e., we must ensure that external
sources of variation such as boredom,
fatigue, etc., are minimized to the
extent possible. That will improve
stability aspect.
110

(ii) By carefully designed directions for


measurement with no variation from group to
group,
by using trained and motivated persons to
conduct the research and
also by broadening the sample of items used.
This will improve equivalence aspect.
111

3. TEST OF PRACTICALITY:

The practicality characteristic of a measuring instrument


can be judged in terms of economy, convenience and
interpretability.

From the operational point of view, the measuring


instrument ought to be practical

i.e.,

it

should

be

economical,

convenient

and

interpretable.
112

Economy consideration

suggests that some trade-off is needed between the ideal


research project and that which the budget can afford.
Length of measuring instrument is an important area
where economic pressures are quickly felt.
Although more items give greater reliability as stated
earlier, but in the interest of limiting the interview or
observation time, we have to take only few items for our
study purpose.
Similarly, data-collection methods to be used are also
dependent at times upon economic factors.
113

Convenience test

suggests that the measuring instrument should be


easy to administer.
For this purpose one should give due attention to
the proper layout of the measuring instrument.
For instance, a questionnaire, with clear
instructions (illustrated by examples), is certainly
more effective and easier to complete than one
which lacks these features.
114

Interpretability consideration

is specially important when persons other than


the designers of the test are to interpret the
results.
The measuring instrument, in order to be
interpretable, must be supplemented by

detailed instructions for administering the test;


scoring keys;
evidence about the reliability and
guides for using the test and for interpreting
results.
115

7.4 ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT SCALES

Attitude may be defined as the degree of positive


or

negative

affect

associated

with

some

psychological object.

It is a pre-disposition of the individuals to

evaluate some object or symbol or aspect of his


world in a favorable or unfavorable manner.
116

Attitude comprises of three components.


1. A cognitive component - a person's belief or
information about the object.
2. An affective component - a person's feeling
about the object such as "like" or "dislike",
`"good" or "bad"
3. A behavioral component - a person's readiness
to respond behaviorally to the object.
117

The study and measurement of attitudes is important


since it is assumed that there is a relationship between
attitude and behavior.

The research, however, indicates that such a


relationship hold more at aggregate level than at the
individual level.

Attitude may only be one of the factors influencing


behavior - there could be other factors beside attitude

which may be more powerful in influencing behavior.

118

For example, an individual having a favorable


attitude towards a product may not buy it
because of economic considerations.

For the purpose of marketing decision the

attitude

behavior

measuring

of

relationship
cognitive

and

relates

to

affective

components and being able to predict future


behavior.
119

Many of the questions in a questionnaire are designed


to measure attitudes.
Attitudes are a persons general evaluation of
something.

Customer attitude is an important factor


for the following reasons:
Attitude helps to explain how ready one is to
do something.
Attitudes do not change much over time
Attitudes produce consistency in behavior.
Attitudes can be related to preferences.

120

Attitudes can be measured using the


following procedures / approaches:

Self-reporting:

subjects are asked directly about their


attitudes.

Self-reporting is the most common


technique used to measure attitude.
121

Observation of behavior:
assuming that ones behavior is a result of ones
attitudes, attitudes can be inferred by observing
behavior.
For example, ones attitude about an issue can be
inferred by whether he/she signs a petition related
to it.
Indirect techniques:
use unstructured stimuli such as word association
tests.
Multiple measures:
a mixture of techniques can be used to validate the
findings;
122
especially worthwhile when self reporting is used.

Performance of objective tasks:

assumes that ones performance depends on


attitude.
For example, the subject can be asked to memorize
the arguments of both sides of an issue.
He/she is more likely to do a better job on the
arguments that favor his/her stance.

Physiological reactions:

subjects response to a stimulus is measured using


electronic or mechanical means.
While the intensity can be measured, it is difficult to
know if the attitude is positive or negative.
123

Scale: While measuring attitudes and opinions,


we face the problem of their valid measurement.
Similar problems are faced while measuring
physical and institutional concepts.
Thus we need procedures, which may enable us
to measure abstract concepts more precisely.
A scale is a continuum consisting of the highest
point and lowest point along with several
intermediate points between the extreme points.
124

The scale-point positions are so related to each


other that when the first point happens to be the
highest point, the second point indicates a
higher degree in terms of a given characteristics
as compared to the third point and so on.

Scaling describes the procedures of assigning

numbers to various degrees of opinion, attitudes


and other concepts.
125

Scaling can be done in the following two ways:


i) Making a judgment about some characteristic of
an individual and then placing him directly on a
scale that has been defined in terms of that
characteristic.
ii) Constructing questionnaires in such a way that
the score of individuals responses assigns him a
place on a scale.
126

In

practice

the

commonly

used

attitude

measurement scales are ordinal in nature.

These

scales

are

basically

self-report

inventories, with a list of favourable and

unfavourable statements towards the subject


under study.

The different types of attitude measurement


scales are:
127

Scaling Techniques

Scaling techniques are broadly classified as


comparative and non-comparative.
Comparative scales

involve the direct measurement of stimulus objects


and
data have only ordinal or rank-order properties.
These scales are further classified as
paired comparisons,
rank-order and
Q-sort procedures.
128

Main advantage of comparative


scales is that they are easily
understood, easy to apply and involve
fewer theoretical assumptions.

Non-comparative scaling
is the most widely used scaling technique in
marketing research.
each object is scaled independently of the
others and the resulting data generally have
interval or ratio scales properties.
129

Non-comparative scales include:

continuous rating and


itemized rating scales.

Itemized rating scales are further


classified as:
Likert Type and
Semantic Differential scales.
130

The Attitude Measuring Process


Ranking - Rank order preference
Rating - Estimates magnitude of a characteristic
Rating is a measurement task that presents respondents with
several concepts and requires the respondent to
estimate the magnitude of a characteristic or
quality that an object possesses.
Sorting - Arrange or classify concepts
Choice - Selection of preferred alternative
131

1. Comparative scaling techniques:


The following scaling techniques are used to do a
comparative study among different sets of
variables
i. Paired Comparisons :
In this method the respondent can express his
attitude by making a choice between two objects,
say between Coke and Pepsi according to some
criterion.
In general, if there are n stimuli to judge, the
number of judgements required in a paired
comparison is N= n (n1)/2.

132

Paired comparison provides ordinal data,


but the same may be converted into an interval
scale by the method of the Law of
Comparative Judgement developed by L.L.
Thurstone.
This technique involves the conversion of
frequencies of preferences into a table of
proportions which are then transformed into Z
matrix by referring to the table of area under
the normal curve.

133

For instance, consider the paired comparison data


obtained to assess a respondents shampoo preferences
for the 5 popular brands denoted as A, B, C, D and E.

Since n=5, so the respondent has to make the 5(51)/2

= 10 comparisons to evaluate 5 brands.

The respondent was given a pairs of shampoo brands

and he was asked to record his preference for each


pair.
134

The following data were obtained:


* means that the brand in that column
was preferred over the brand in the
corresponding row.
0 means that the row brand was preferred
over the column brand.
Total number of times a brand was
preferred is obtained by summing the 1s
in each column.
135

Brand

1*

Total of times
referred

136

Limitations :
Paired
comparisons techniques are
useful when the number of brands is
limited.
The order in which the objects are
presented may introduce bias in results.
It
does not reflect a true market
situation, which involves selection from
multiple alternatives.
137

ii. Rank Order Scaling:

is commonly used to measure preferences for


brands as well as attributes.

respondents are presented with several objects


simultaneously

and

asked

to

rank

them

according to some criterion.

138

Ranks are obtained by asking the respondents to


assign a rank of :
1 to the most preferred brand,
2 to the second most preferred and so on until a
rank n is assigned to the least preferred brand.
is also comparative in nature, and
it is possible that the respondent may dislike the
brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense.
The data obtained in rank-order scaling are also
ordinal.
As compared to paired comparisons, rank-order
scaling process takes less time and resembles more
closely to the real market environment.
139

iii. Q-Sort and Scaling :

Q-Sort scaling discriminate among a


relatively large number of objects quickly.

This technique uses a rank-order procedure


in which objects are sorted into piles based
on similarity with respect to some criterion.
140

For example, respondents are given 100 attitude


statements on individual cards and asked to
place them into 11 piles, ranging from most
highly agreed with to least agreed with.
The number of objects to be placed in each pile
is pre-specified,
often to result in a roughly normal distribution
of objects over the whole set.
We can see examples for comparative scaling
techniques:
141

142

143

2. Non-comparative scales

each object is scaled independently of the others


and the resulting data generally assumed to be
interval or ratio scaled.
include continuous rating and itemized rating
scales.
The rating scale gives a qualitative description
of a number of characteristics of an individual.
An object is judged in absolute terms against
some specified criteria
i.e. properties of objects judged without
reference to other similar objects.
144

The ratings may be in the forms as:

like. Dislike,
above average, average, below average, or
other classifications with more categories such as
excellent- good- average- below average- poor,
and so on.

There is no specific rule whether to use a twopoints scale, three-points scale or scale with still
more points.
Since more points on a scale provide an
opportunity for greater sensitivity of
measurement so in practice, three to seven
points scales are generally used.
145

i. Graphic Rating Scale: Stressing Pictorial


Visual Communications

A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a


graphic continuum.
How do you rate the product?

1
Very Good

3
Very Poor

146

147

ii. Itemized Rating Scales

also known as numerical scale,


presents a series of statements from which a
respondent selects one as best reflecting his
evaluation.
These statements are ordered progressively in
terms of more or less of some property.
The respondents are required to select the
specified statement that best describes the
object being rated.
148

Suppose, a manager wish to inquire as to how


well does a worker get along with his fellow

workers?

In such a situation, he may ask the respondent

to select, one of the following statements to


express his opinion:
149

i)

He is almost always involved in some friction


with a fellow worker.

ii) He is often at odds with one or more of his


fellow workers.
iii) He sometimes gets involved in friction.

iv) He infrequently becomes involved in friction


with others.

v) He almost never gels involved in friction with


fellow workers.
150

Itemized rating scales are widely used in


marketing research and
form the basic components of more complex
scales, such as multi-item rating scales.
The commonly used itemized rating scales are
the Likert and Semantic differential scales. For
Example;
151

152

Attitude Rating Scales Construction Techniques


1.

Simple Attitude Scaling:

In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that


an individual agree with a statement or respond to a
single question.

This type of self-rating scale merely classifies


respondents into one of two categories;
For Example: THE GUTTMAN SCALE
Simplified Scaling Example

THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION


_______ AGREE
______ DISAGREE
153

2. Category Scales:

A category scale is a more sensitive measure


than a scale having only two response
categories

it provides more information.

Questions working is an extremely important


factor in the usefulness of these scales.
154

How important were the following in your decision to visit San


Diego (check one for each item)
VERY

IMPORTANT

SOMEWHAT

IMPORTANT

NOT TOO

IMPORTANT

CLIMATE

___________

___________

___________

COST OF TRAVEL

___________

___________

___________

FAMILY ORIENTED

___________

___________

___________

HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________

___________

___________

___________

___________

EDUCATIONAL/

FAMILIARITY WITH
AREA

___________

155

Method of Summated Ratings:


3.The Likert Scale:

An extremely popular means for measuring


attitudes.
Respondents indicate their own attitudes by
checking how strongly they agree or disagree
with statements.
Response alternatives:
strongly agree,
agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly
disagree.
156

Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward


Tennis:
It is more fun to play a tough, competitive
tennis match than to play an easy one.
___Strongly Agree
___Agree
___Not Sure
___Disagree
___Strongly Disagree

157

4. Semantic Differential Scale:

A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales.

Bipolar adjectives, such as good and bad,


anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale.

A weight is assigned to each position on the rating


scale.

Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3,


+2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.

158

Semantic Differential Scales for


Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis

Exciting

___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm

Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull

Simple___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex

Passive

___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active


159

The semantic differential consists of identification of


a company, product, brand, job, or other concept
followed by a series of seven-point bipolar rating
scales.

The subject makes repeated judgments of the concept

under investigation on each of the scales related to


measuring attitudes.
160

The scoring of the semantic differential can be


illustrated by using the scale bounded by the
anchors "modern" and "old-fashioned."
extremely modern,
very modern,
slightly modern,
both modern and old fashioned,
slightly old-fashioned,
very old-fashioned, and
extremely old-fashioned.
A weight is assigned to each position on the
161
rating scale.

CH APTER EIGHT

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

162

Information expressed in appropriate quantitative


form are known as data.

In

short,

neither

business

decision

nor

governmental decision can be made in a casual


manner

It is through appropriate data and their analysis that


the decision maker becomes equipped with proper tools
of decision making.
163

The foremost important part of any research


process is to collect the data relevant to research
objectives.

The accuracy of data depends upon the


methods used for data collection and

it affects the final decision to be made in any


research.
164

The collection of data refers to purposive


gathering of information relevant to the subject
matter of study and as per requirement of
research.
The method to be selected for data collection
depends upon the :
nature,
purpose and
scope of enquiry on the one hand and
the availability of resources and time on the
other hand.
165

Types and Sources of Data:


Data can be obtained from primary or secondary
sources.
Primary data refer to information obtained first hand
by the researcher on the variables of interest for the
specific purpose of the study.
Secondary data refer to information gathered from
sources already existing.

DATA

PRIMARY

SECONDARY
166

Sources of primary data are:


individuals,
focus groups,
panels of respondents
The internet could also serve as a
primary
data
source
when
questionnaires are administered over it.
167

Sources of secondary data:


company records or archives,
government publications,
industry analyses offered by the media,
web sites,
the internet, and so on.

168

8.2 Data Collection Techniques


Primary Data

We collect primary data during the course of doing


experiment in an experimental research.
But in case of non-experimental research a researcher
conducts survey to obtain primary data either through:

Observation

Direct communication with respondent in one form


or another
Personal interview

169

There are several method of collecting primary


data particularly in survey and descriptive
research.
Commonly used methods of collecting primary
data are discussed below:

Observation method
Interview
Self administered Questionnaires
Schedule (Interview Questionnaires)
Focus Group Discussion (FDG)
In-depth interview
Other methods / Etc.
170

1. INTERVIEW METHOD:

the researcher meets people and discusses


his/their social, economic or some other problem
with them.
During the courses of discussion, he gathers facts.
An interview is different from Schedules
(interview questionnaires).
A schedule includes some predetermined
questions asked by the researcher in a definite
order with out change.
171

But the interview has no such definite form or


order of question.

The researcher may ask any question on the


basis of his insight into the problem.

Interview can be either

personal interview or

interview through telephone.

172

A. Personal Interview:

requires interviewer-asking question in face-toface contact to respondent.


The interviewer has to be on the spot and has to
meet people from whom the data are collected.
is suitable for intensive investigation.
But in certain cases it may not be possible or
worthwhile to contact direct the person
concerned
173

can be of two type

structured and
unstructured

STRUCTURED INTERVIEW:

involves the use of a set of predetermined


questions and has highly standardized technique
of recording.
It is not possible for interviewer to change even
the sequences of the questions.
The recording formats also are standardized.

174

UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW:

is characterized by a flexibility of questions to


questioning.
It does not follow a system of pre-determined
question and standardize techniques of recording
information.
The researcher is allowed much greater freedom
to, if it is needed, supplementary questions or at
times he may omit certain questions.
Interviewer can change the sequences of question
and he has also freedom in recording the response
to include some aspects and exclude the other.
175

is much more difficult and time consuming


than that of the structured one.
It also demands deep knowledge and greater
skill on the part of interviewer.
is used in exploratory research where as the
structured interview is used in descriptive
research.
Because it is more economical, provide a safe
basis for generalization and requiring
relatively lesser skill on the part of the
interviewer.
176

Merits of the personal interview method :

More information in greater depth can be


obtained
Interviewer by his own skill can over come the
resistance, in any, of the respondent
There is greater flexibility and the opportunity
to restructure questions specially in
unstructured interview
Personal information can be obtained easily
177

Sample can be controlled more effectively


and non-response is minimum under this
approach
The interviewer can control which person
will answer the question
Misinterpretation of the answer for questions
is easily avoided
It is possible to collect supplementary
information about the respondent and
environment, which is often of great value in
interpreting result.
178

Weakness of the personal interview:

It is very expensive method specially when large and


wide spread geographical sample is taken
There is still the possibility of the bias of interviewer as
well as that of the respondent. Because the supervision
and control of interview is still problem
Certain group of respondent (such as important
official) may not be easily approachable under this
method.
179

This method is relatively more time consuming


specially when the sample is large

The presence of the interviewer may over


stimulate the respondent, sometimes he even

give

imaginary

information

to

make

the

interview interesting.
180

B. Telephone Interview:

involves contacting respondents on telephone


itself..

Strength of such method:

It is flexible compared to mailing method


It is faster than other method
It is relatively cheaper than personal interview
Recall is easy and callback are simple and
economical
There is a higher rate of response
181

Replies can be recorded without causing


embarrassment to respondent

Easy access to those respondent who are highly


officials and can not be contacted personally

No field staff is required


Wider distribution of sample is possible.
182

Weakness of this method:

Little time is given to respondent for considering


possible answer. Mostly the interview will not exceed
five minutes at most
Surveys are restricted to respondents having
telephone
Cost
consideration
may
restrict
extensive
geographical coverage
There is high possibility of biasedness from the side
of the interviewer

Since questions have to be sort and to the


point, probes are difficult to handle.
183

Prerequisites of interview:

For successful implementation of the


interview method;

interviewer should be:

carefully selected,
trained and
briefed.
184

Interviewer should be:

honest,

sincere,

hardworking,

impartial and

must posses the technical competence and necessary


practical experience.
185

Interviewer has to try to create friendly


atmosphere of trust and confidence

Interviewer must ask question properly and


completely.
interviewer must answer legitimate questions if
any asked by the respondent.
The interviewer should not show surprise or
disapproval of a respondents answer, instead he
must keep the direction of interview in his own
hand.
186

Basic principles of Interviewing:

Interviewers should follow the following


principles while conducting interview
Ask only one question at a time
Repeat the question if necessary
Listen carefully to the subjects answer
Observe the subjects facial-expression, gesture
and tone of the voice
Allow the subject sufficient time to answer the
question.

187

2. QUESTIONNAIRES

is a list of structured questions, which will be


present, mailed or e-mailed to selected
respondents to obtain reliable response from them.
The objective is to find out what a selected group
of respondents do, think or feel.
is used when the subject of study is very wide and
direct observation is not possible.
It is also used for such things, which cannot be
known through direct observation (ideas,
preference, motive, and so on).
188

Types of Questionnaires:
Questionnaires can be of the following
type:
Interview Questionnaires (Schedules)
Mail Questionnaires (Self administered
questionnaires)
Questionnaires
through
Internet
(Through electronics media).
189

A. MAIL QUESTIONNAIRES:

is very popular especially for large study.


The questionnaires are sent by post to the
person concerned with a request to answer the
question and return them back.
Questionnaires are mailed to respondents who
are expected to read and understand the question
and write down the answer.
190

Advantage (strength)

Low cost even for larger sample size and widely


spread geographically

It is free from bias of the interviewer. Answers are


in respondents word.

Respondents have adequate time to give well


though answers

Respondents, who are not approachable, can be


reached conveniently (especially, in mail and email).
191

Limitations:

Low rate of return

It can be used only for literate respondents

The control over the questionnaire may be

lost once it is sent

There is inbuilt inflexibility

The slowest method of all.


192

Guide to questionnaire
construction:

The questionnaires should be very carefully


constructed.
In constructing questionnaires both questions and
statements can be used to get information about the
problem from respondents.

A) Forms of questions

Questions in a questionnaire can have either open


or closed end form.
193

Open-end questions:

The respondent is asked to provide his own


answer to the question.
His answer is not in any ways limited.
E.g., the respondent might be asked, What
do feel the most important issue facing your
community?
The problem associated with such form of
questioning is that, it is not possible to get
uniform answers and hence is difficult to
process.
194

Closed ended questions:

The respondent is asked to select his answer


from among a list provided by the researcher
(yes, no, I dont know, etc).

Are very popular in survey research since they


provide a great uniformity response and

because they are easy to process.


195

major shortcoming is checklist or the provided


list of answers may not include all possible
answers.
For example: In asking about The most
important issues facing your country? the
researcher may provide a checklist of issues, but
in doing so he might overlook certain issues that
respondent would have said were important.
196

To limit this shortcoming the following


guidelines are helpful.
The response categories provided should be
exhaustive
they should include all the possible response
that might be expected.
Often the researchers support this effort by
adding a category leveled like others
(please specify)
The answer categories must be mutually
exclusive; the respondent should not feel
compelled/ obliged to select more than one.
197

B) Make items clear


i. Make questionnaires item clear:

Questionnaire items should be clear and


unambiguous.
opinion and perspective are clear to the
researchers but may not be clear to his
respondent.
So question items should be precise so
that the respondent knows exactly what
the researcher want to an answer to be.
198

ii. Avoid double questions:

Researcher often asks respondent for a single


answer to combination of question.

E.g., What do you think about the services like food


and transportation provided by CBE office during

the second phase of your CBTP program?"

Some respondent may want to answer as good to

the transportation service and bad to the food


service.
199

iii. Respondent must be competent to answer

The researcher should ask himself whether


the respondents are able to answer the
desired questions.

Question should be relevant to most of


respondents.

Short items are commonly considered as the


best (long and complicated item should be
avoided).

200

iv. Avoid Negative items:

The researcher should avoid negative


items as much as possible:
The appearance of negative on in a
question creates condition to easy
misinterpretation.

E.g., Ethiopia should not recognize the new


Government of Somalia. Large portion of
respondents will read over the word not
and answer on that basis. Some will agree
the statement when they are in favor of
recognition, while others will disagree when
they oppose it.
201

C) General questionnaire format

The format of a questionnaire is as important


as the nature and wording or the question
asked.

If the lay out of the questionnaire is not


appropriate it can confuse respondents and in

the extreme, can lead respondents throwing


the questionnaire away.
202

Therefore, as a general rule, the questionnaire


should be spread out and organized.
The researcher should maximize the white space
in his instrument.
Putting more than one question in one line,
leads to the probability of skipping the second
question in case of some respondents.
203

i. Format for responses


A variety of methods are available for
presenting
response
categories
for
respondents to check in answering a given
question.
For closed-ended question:
From experience boxes adequately spaced are
the best.
Most of the time closed-ended questions are
followed by contingent/dependent.
That is, the second question (contingent)
imposed up on the response to the first one.

204

E.g., Have you ever.


[ ] Yes [ ]
No
If yes: How you. (Open end question) or
Have you [ ] Yes [ ] No
The proper use of contingent questions can
facilitate the respondents task in answering
questionnaires and
can also improve the quality of the data
produced.
205

For open-end question:


Enough space should be provided so that
the respondent could write in all his
answers and thoughts.
This will avoid ambiguity in interpreting
the response.
206

ii. Ordering questions in questionnaires

The order in which questions are asked can


affect response as well as the overall data
collection activity.
The appearance of one question can affect
the answers given to the subsequent ones.
Some researchers attempt to overcome this
effect by randomizing the order of the
questions.
The researcher should be in a position to
estimate what effect it will have on the next
question.
207

iii. Opening question:

Opening question is also very important.


The researcher should avoid the following
type of question as opening question in a
questionnaire.
Question that put too great strain on the
memory or intellect of the respondent
Question of personal character
Question related to personal wealth etc.
208

iv. Questionnaire format

Different research can have different Questionnaires


formats.
Commonly used formats of questionnaires contains
the following parts:
Instruction:
Every questionnaire, whether it is self administered
or schedules should contain clear instruction and
introductory comment.
If a questionnaire has different parts it needs to have

general instruction for the whole questionnaire and


specific instruction for each parts of a questionnaire.
209

Introduction:

If the questionnaire is arranged into content


subsections then it is useful to introduce each

section with short statement concerning its


content and purpose.

Here the researcher will instruct (tell) the


respondent to indicate their answer by
putting a check mark in the box or his
appropriate answer if needed.
210

V. Mail distribution and return

The basic method for data collection through the mail


has

been

transmission

of

questionnaires

accompanied by a letter of explanation and a return


envelope.

The respondents then complete the questionnaire and


return it to the research office through the mail, using
the envelope provided for that purpose.
211

Alternative method is that in some cases it is


possible to further facilitate this process through
the use of a self-mailing questionnaire.
The questionnaires are constructed in such a way
that the research offices return address and
postage are printed on the questionnaire itself.
Up on completion, then it can be dropped in the
mail without requiring an envelope.
212

However, the post office has special requirement


regarding the form of materials that can be mailed; thus,
researcher should plan this approach properly and count

with it.

These methods simplify the assembly of mailing pieces


since it is unnecessary to include a return envelope and
the respondent cannot lose the return envelope.

It has a certain TOY VALUE.


To some extent the respondent may want to complete the
questionnaire so that he can then play with a cover.
213

vi. Monitoring the return

As questionnaires are returned to the

researcher, he should under take a


careful recording of methodological data.

He should label a return rate graph.

The day on which questionnaires were


mailed should be labeled day one on the

graph.

214

It is usually best to complete two graphs. One


should show the number returned each day
raising then dropping.

Another should report cumulative number or

percentage. This will show the picture of his


successful data collection.
215

vii. Follow-up-mailing

Following
up
mailings
is
strongly
recommended, as it is an effective approach for
increasing return rate in mail survey.
Follow up will be done by sending another mail
to the respondents.
In practice, three mailing (one original and
two follow-ups) seems the most efficient.
The timing of follow-up mailings is also
important- two or three weeks are a reasonable
gap between mailings.
216

Follow-up mailings may be administered


in a number of ways

Respondents are simple sent a letter of


additional encouragement to participant

Better method is to send a new copy of the


survey questionnaire with the follow-up letter
to all respondents
217

viii. Acceptance response rate

The percentage return rate that should be


achieved in a mail survey is:

A response rate 50% is adequate for analysis


and reporting

A return rate at least 60% is good and a


response rate of 70% or more is very good.

218

2. Interview Questionnaires (Schedule):

Schedules are particular types of questionnaire.

These methods are very much like collection of


data

through

questionnaires,

with

little

difference,

The difference lies in the fact that schedules are


being filled in by enumerators (interviewers)
who are specially appointed for the purpose.
219

Enumerator

along

with

schedule

(questionnaires), goes to the respondent, put to


them the questions from the Performa in the
order of the questions are listed and record.

Here we consider both schedule and interview


questionnaires are similar and the same.

220

The questionnaires are either delivered by hand


to be answered by respondents or the trained
interviewer will read the question to respondent
and record the answer given.

But mostly the interviewer read the question and


records the answers given by respondent.
221

Differences between questionnaires and schedules


Mail Questionnaires

Schedules

Generally sent through They are filled out by a research

mail to respondents
Data

collection

relatively cheap

worker or enumerators
is It is more expensive, since money

has to be spent in appointing, train


the enumerators

Non response is usually Non-response is generally low


high
222

It is not always clear who The identity of the respondent is


replies

known

It is very slow method

Information is collected well in


time

Personal
impossible

contact

is Direct

personal

contact

is

established

Useful only for literate Information can be gathered

respondent

even form illiterate respondent

223

Wider

and

representative

more It

is

difficult

to

sent

sample enumerator to wider area

distribution is possible

The success of this method Success

of

this

method

depend up on the quality of depends on the honesty and


the questionnaires

competence of enumerator

No observation

Observation method can also


be used
224

Example of a Questionnaire:

A questionnaire with an objective to collect


information concerning the loanees who have taken
loan from a bank during the last five years under the
Self Employment to Educated Unemployed Youth
Scheme is presented below.
Note that the first few questions make the interviewer
familiar with the subject.
The substantive information commences from
question 9 but the two embarrassing questions 11 and
12 is followed by a Sympathetic question 13.
Although the questionnaire is structured an
unstructured part has been included in the answer of
225
question 14 to record the diversity of replies.

BANK OF XYZ

Self Employment to Educated Unemployed Youth

Scheme

226

227

228

229

14. Your suggestions to overcome these difficulties

.
Signature of the
Investigator..
Name of the
Investigator
Date of
Interview

230

3. Focus Group Discussions:

is an unstructured, free flowing interview with


a small group of people.

It is flexible format

allow people to discuss their:

true feelings,

anxieties, and frustrations,

and to express the depth of their convictions in


their own words.
231

advantages

relatively brief,
easy to execute,
quickly analyzed, and
inexpensive.

It must be remembered, however, that a


small discussion group will rarely be a
representative sample, no matter how
carefully it is recruited.
The group consists of an interviewer or
moderator and six to ten participants who
discuss a single topic.
232

The flexibility of group interviews is an


advantage, especially when compared with the
rigid format of a survey.

Numerous topics can be discussed and many


insights can be gained, particularly those
involving the contingencies of behavior.

Responses that would be unlikely to emerge in a


survey often come out in a group interview.
233

Focus groups are often used for concept


screening and refinement.

The concept may be continually modified,


refined, and retested until management believes
that the concept is acceptable.
234

Advantages
SYNERGISM:

The combined effort of the group will produce a wider


range of information, insights, and ideas than will the
accumulation of separately secured responses of a number
of individuals.

SERENDIPITY:

It is more often the case in a group than in an individual

interview that some idea will drop out of the blue.

The group also affords the opportunity to develop the idea


to its full significance.
235

SNOWBALLING:

A movement effect often operates in a group interview


situation.

A comment by one individual often triggers a chain of


responses from the other participants.

STIMULATION:

Usually,

after

brief

introductory

period,

the

respondents want to express their ideas and expose their


feelings as the general level of excitement about the

topic increases.

236

SECURITY:

In the well-structured group, the individual can


usually find some comfort in the fact that his or
her feelings are similar to those of others in the
group.

237

The Moderator:

It is the moderator's job to make sure that


everyone gets a chance to speak
The moderator's job is to develop a rapport
with the group and to promote interaction
among its members.
The moderator should be someone:

who is really interested in people,


who listens carefully to what others have to say,
and
who can readily establish rapport and gain the
confidence of people and
make them feel relaxed and eager to talk.
238

SHORTCOMINGS

Without a sensitive and effective moderator, a single,


self-appointed participant may dominate the session.

Sessions that include a dominant participant may be


somewhat abnormal.

Participants may react negatively toward the dominant


member, causing a "halo" effect on attitudes toward
the concept or the topic of discussion.
239

8.3 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES


SECONDARY DATA

Are data which have been collected and


analyzed by some other agency or it is already
existed data.

The sources of secondary data could be :

240

I) Various publications of Central, State


and local governments :

The important official publications are Statistical

Abstract,

Ethiopia-Annual; Monthly Abstract of Statistics


(both published by Central Statistical Organization );
Ethiopian
Agricultural
Statistics
(Annual)
(Published by Ministry of Food and Agriculture );
Index Number of Wholesale Prices in Ethiopia
(Weekly) (Published by Ministry of Trade and
Industry);
National Bank of Ethiopia Bulletin (Monthly)
(Published by National Bank of Ethiopia).
241

ii) Various publications of foreign Gov.


or of international bodies :

The

important

publications

are

publications

of

international bodies like UNO, FAO, WHO, UNESCO,


ILO,

Statistical Year Book (Published by the Statistical


Office of the United Nations),

Yearbook of Labor Statistics (Published by ILO)


They provided authentic data
242

iii. Journals of trade, commerce,


economics, engineering etc.

published

by

responsible

trade

associations,

e.g. Chambers of Commerce provide


secondary

data

in

respect

of

some

important items.
243

iv. The other sources of secondary data are

books,

magazines and newspapers,

reports prepared by various universities,

historical documents,

diaries,

letters,

published/unpublished biographies and

autobiographies.

244

Scrutiny of secondary data:

Primary data are to be scrutinized after the


questionnaires
are
completed
by
the
interviewers.
Likewise, the secondary data are to be
scrutinized before they are compiled from the
source.
The scrutiny should be made to assess the
suitability, reliability, adequacy and accuracy of
the data to be compiled and to be used for the
proposed study.
245

CHAPTER TEN

DATA ANALYSIS &

INTERPRETATIONS
246

10.1. DATA PROCESSING

The goal of any research is to provide


information out of raw data.

The raw data after collection has to be processed


and analyzed in line with the outline (plan)

Response on measurement instruments (words,


check mark etc.) conveys little information as
such.

247

The compiled data must be classified, processed,


analyzed and interpreted carefully before their
complete meanings and implications can be
understood.

Data processing involves the transformation of


the raw data in to some processed form to
facilitate analysis.
248

includes editing, coding, classification and


tabulation

is an intermediate stage between the collection of


data and their analysis and interpretation.

249

A. EDITING:

Is a process of examining the collected raw data to

detect errors and omission (extreme values) and to


correct those when possible.

It

involves

careful

scrutiny

of

completed

questionnaires or schedules.
250

It is done to assure that the data are:


Editing For Consistency

The data are to be edited by editors for


consistency.

They should see whether answers to questions


supplied by informants are consistent or not.
251

Editing For Completeness

Checking whether all the questions in a


questionnaire are answered

Editing For Accuracy

The accuracy and the reliability of the


findings depend upon accuracy of the data
collected,
therefore, the editor has to examine whether
all questions are answered correctly or not.

252

Editing For Uniformity

The problem under study can be rationally


analyzed when there is uniformity in the
answers of the questions supplied by different
informants.
Uniformity of answers mean whether all
questions are interpreted in the same sense by
all informants or not.
If the questions are interpreted in different
ways by different informants then the data
supplied becomes heterogeneous.
Such data
should not be employed for
253
analysis.

Editing For Computations

It is advised not to ask the investigators or the


respondents supplying information to make

any computation.

This additional work may give risk to errors.

Computations, if necessary, should always be


made by editors or processors.
254

Editing can be either field editing


or
central editing

Field editing:

Consist of reviewing of the reporting forms by the


investigator
for completing what has been written
in abbreviation and/ or
in illegible form at a time of recording the
respondents response.
This sort of editing should be done as soon as possible
after the interview or observation.
255

Central editing:

It will take place at the research office.

Its objective is to correct errors such as entry in the


wrong place, entry recorded in month.

For

Example:

Birth

Year

Recorded

by

Interviewer.

1873?

1973 more likely


256

B. Coding

Refers

to

the

process

of

assigning

numerical or other symbols to answers

so that responses can be put into a limited


number of categories or classes.

Such classes should be appropriate to the


research problem under consideration.

257

There must be a class of every data items.

They must be mutually exclusive (a specific answer


can be placed in one and only one cell in a given
category set)

Coding is necessary for efficient analysis and


through it several replies may be reduced to a small
number of classes,

which contain the critical information required for


analysis.
258

For Example:

Closed end question


1 [ ] Yes
2 [ ] No
Or
Less than 200
201- 699
1500 and more

[ ] 001
[ ] 002
[ ] 003

259

1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a


regular basis?
Number of years: __________

b. What is your level of play?

Novice . . . . . . . . . .
Lower Intermediate .
Upper Intermediate .

-1
-2
-3

Advanced . . .
Expert . . . .
Teaching Pro .

-4
-5
-6

c. In the last 12 months, has your level of play


improved, remained the same or decreased?
Improved. . . . . . . . . .
Remained the same . .

-1 Decreased. . .
-2

-3

260

2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities?


Yes . . . . . . .
No . . . . . . .

-1
-2

b. How many people in your household - including


yourself - play tennis?
Number who play tennis ___________

3a. Why do you play tennis? (Please X all that apply.)


To have fun . . . . . . . . . .
-1
To stay fit. . . . . . . . . . . .
-2
To be with friends. . . . . .
-3
To improve my game . . .
-4
To compete. . . . . . . . . . .
-5
To win. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-6

b. In the past 12 months, have you purchased any


tennis instructional books or video tapes?
Yes . . . . . . .
No . . . . . . .

-1
-2

261

4. Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight, if


applicable.

Courtesy and Treatment from the:

Skycap at airport . . . . .. . . . . .
Airport Ticket Counter Agent . . .
Boarding Point (Gate) Agent . . .
Flight Attendants . . . . . . . . . . . .
Your Meal or Snack. . . . . . . . . . .
Beverage Service . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seat Comfort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carry-On Stowage Space. . . . . . .
Cabin Cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . .
Video/Stereo Entertainment . . . .
On-Time Departure . . . . . . . . . .

Excellent Good

Fair

Poor

262

I believe that people judge your


success by the kind of car you drive.
Strongly agree
Mildly agree

1
2

Strongly agree
Mildly agree

+1
+2

Mildly disagree
Strongly disagree

4
5

Mildly disagree
-1
Strongly disagree - 2

Neither agree nor disagree 3 Neither agree nor disagree 0

263

Rules for Coding:

Categories should be exhaustive

Categories

should

be

mutually

exclusive

and

independent

Code Book:

Identifies each variable

Provides a variables description

Identifies each code name and position on storage

medium

264

C. Classification:

Classifying the raw data or arranging data ingroups or classes on the basis of common

characteristics?

implies the processes of arranging data in

groups or classes on the basis of common


characteristics.
265

Data having common characteristics placed in


one class and in this way the entire data get

divided into a number of groups or classes.

Classification helps in making comparisons and

drawing meaningful conclusions.

Classification can either be according to

attributes

or

according

to

class

interval/numerical characteristics.
266

Classification according to attributes:

Data are classified on the basis of common


characteristics,

which can either be descriptive (such as


literacy, sex, honesty, etc) or

numerical (such as, weight, age height,


income, expenditure, etc.).

267

Descriptive characteristics refer to qualitative


phenomenon,

which

cannot

be

measured

quantitatively:

only their presence or absence in an


individual item can be noticed.

Data obtained this way on the basis of certain


attributes are known as statistics of attributes
and

their

classification

is

said

classification according to attributes.

to

be
268

Classification according to class interval:

When individual observations possess numerical


characteristics, such as height, weight, marks, income,
etc, they are classified on the basis of class intervals .
For example, persons whose monthly income is between

Rs. 1001 and Rs. 1500 may form one group


Rs. 1501 and Rs. 2000 may form another group, and so on.

In this manner, the entire data may be divided


into a number of groups or classes, which are
usually called class-intervals.
269

The number of items in each class is called the


frequency of the class.

Every class has two limits:

an upper limit and a lower limit, which are known as


class limits.

The difference between these two limits is called


the magnitude of the class or the class interval.
270

D. Tabulation

involves the orderly and systematic presentation


of numerical data in a form designed to
elucidate/explain
the
problem
under
consideration.
Tabulation is a process, which helps, in
understanding complex numerical facts.
The purpose of table is to summaries a mass of
numerical information
271

Objectives of Tabulation:
A. To clarify the objectives of investigation

to arrange in easily accessible form the

answer with which the investigation is


concerned.

The presentation of data in table makes the


problem under study simple.

272

B. To clarify the characteristics of data

A table presents facts clearly and concisely,


eliminating the need for wordy explanation.

It brings out the chief characteristics of data.

C. To present facts in the minimum of


space

A table presents facts in minimum of space and


communicates information in a far better way
than textual material.

273

D. To facilitate statistical process

It simplifies reference to data and facilitates


comparative analysis and interpretation of the
facts.

274

Rules for Tabulations


Rules relating to table structure
1. Number

Each table should be numbered so that it may be


easily identified.

The number of the table should be given at the top,


above the title of the table so that it may easily be
noticed.
275

2. Title

A table should have a complete title as it


helps in finding the information wanted.

A title should tell in concise language.

What is the nature of data?


Where the data are?
What time period do the data cover?
How are the data classified?

The titles of the table should be short because


long titles are not easy to read.
The wording of the title should be carefully
planned so that it may give only one
interpretation.
276

3. Stub

The titles of the horizontal rows or the data in

the table are called stub or stab items.

The complete column of this designation is

known as stab.

The stab items should be completed and clear.

It is always advisable to condense the stab items


so that they may be written in one line.
277

4. Caption

The heading of the column is called caption.

Caption should be carefully worded and written


in the center at the top of the column.

If the different columns are expressed in


different units the definition of the units should

be included in the caption

278

5. Body

The body of the table contains figures that the table is


designed to present to readers.

6. Source

The source of the data, embodied in the table should


be written so that whosoever uses the data may trace
the data to the source without any difficulty.

The source not should give information about the


place from which data were obtained.

It is written at the bottom of the table.


279

OF
DATA ANALYSIS

refers to seeing the data in the light of hypothesis of


research questions and the prevailing theories
and drawing conclusion that are as amenable to
theory formation as possible
is a task that calls for the researcher's own
judgment and skill
Proper analysis requires a familiarity with the
background of the survey and with all its stages
280

The steps imagined in the analysis of data vary


depending on the types of study

The more specific the hypothesis, the more


specific the action

By analysis we mean the computation of certain


files or measures along with searching for

patterns or relationship that exist among the data


groups
281

Analysis of data is one of the most important


aspects of research and

it is highly skilled and technical job,

it would be carried out by the researcher himself


or under his close supervision.

The researcher should also possess judgment


skill, ability of generalization and should be
familiar

with

the

background

objects

and

hypothesis of study.
282

Data, fact and figures are silent and they never


speak for themselves but they have complexities

It is only by organizing, analyzing and


interpreting the research data that we can know
their:

important features,
inter-relationship and
cause effect relationship

283

The data to be analyzed and interpreted


should
be reproducible
be readily disposed to quantitative treatment,
and
have significance for some systematic theory,
and can serve as a basis for broader
generalization.

284

The task of analysis in incomplete


without interpretation.

analysis of data and interpretation data are


complementary to each other.

The end product of analysis is the setting up


of certain general conclusions while the

interpretation

deals

with

what

these

conclusions really mean.


285

Since analysis and interpretation of data are


interwoven,

the interpretation should more properly


be conceived of as a special aspect of
analysis rather than a distinct operation

interpretation is the process of establish

relationship between variables, which are


expressed in the findings and why such

relationship exists

286

For any successful study the task of


analysis and interpretation should be

designed before the data are actually


collected.

Otherwise there is always a danger of


being too late and the chances of
missing important relevant data.
287

10.3 QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

It is concerned with generalization of data in


quantitative form.

Data analysis is further transformation of the


processed data to look for patterns and relations

among data groups.

Analysis particularly in case of survey or


experimental data involves estimating the values of
unknown parameters of the population and testing
of hypothesis for drawing inferences.
288

Data Analysis can be categorized as

Descriptive Analysis

Inferential (Statistical) Analysis


289

1. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS:
is
concerned
with
numerical
description of a particular group
observed
and any similarity to those outside the
group can not be taken for granted.
The data describe one group and that
one group only.

290

Provides valuable information about the


nature of a particular group or class.

is largely the study of distribution of one


variable
Analysis begins for most projects with some
form of descriptive analysis to reduce the data
into a summary format
refers to the transformation of raw data into a
form that will make them easy to understand and
interpret
291

Descriptive response or observation is typically


the first form of analysis.

The

calculation

of

averages,

frequency

distribution, and percentage distribution is the

most common form of summarizing data.


292

The most common forms of describing


the processed data are:

Tabulation
Percentage
Measurements of central tendency
Measurements of dispersion
Measurement of asymmetry
Data transformation and index number
293

Tabulation:

Refers to the orderly arrangement of data in a


table or other summary format.

It presents responses or the observations on a


question-by-question or item-by-item basis and
provides the most basic form of information.

It tells the researcher how frequently each

response occurs

294

This starting pint of analysis requires the


counting of responses or observations for

each of the categories.

E.g., Frequency tables,

295

Percentage:

Whether the data are tabulated by computer or


by hand, it is useful to have percentages and
cumulative percentage.

Table containing percentage and frequency


distribution is easier to interpret.

Percentages are useful for comparing the trend

over time or among categories.

296

Measure of central tendency:

Describing the central


distribution with the

tendency

of

the

mean,
median or
mode
is another basic form of
descriptive analysis.

297

These measures are most useful when the


purpose is to identify typical values of a variable

or the most common characteristics of a group.

Measure of central tendency is also known as

statistical average.

Mean, median and mode are most popular


298

Mean

Arithmetic mean is the common measure of


central tendency
defined as the value which we get by
dividing the total of
the values of various given items in a series
by the total number of items
299

300

Mode

is not commonly used but in such study like


estimating the popular size of shoes it can be
used

The mode in a distribution is that item


around

which

there

is

maximum

concentration.

In general, mode is the size of the item which


has the maximum frequency,
301

Median

is commonly used in estimating the average of


qualitative

phenomenon

like

estimating

intelligence

is the value of the middle item of series when it

is arranged in ascending or descending order of


magnitude
302

It divides the series into two halves;

in one half all items are less than median, whereas


in the other half all items have values higher than
median.

If the values of the items arranged in the ascending

order are: 60, 74, 80, 90, 95, 100, then the value of
the 4th item viz., 88 is the value of median.

Median(M) =Value of {n + 1} th item


2
303

Measurement of dispersion:

Is a measurement how the value of an item


scattered around the true value of the average.

Average value fails to give any idea about the


dispersion of the values of an item or a variable

around the true value of the average.


304

After identifying the typical value of a variable the


researcher can measure how the value of an item is
scattered around the true value of the mean.

It is a measurement of how far is the value of the


variable from the average value.

It measures the variation of the value of an item.


Important measures of dispersion are:
305

Range: Measures the difference between the


maximum and the minimum value of the
observed variable

Mean deviation: It is the average dispersion


of an observation around the mean value.

(Xi X)/n

Variance: It is mean square deviation.

It measures the sample variability.


306

Measurement of asymmetry
(skew-ness):

When the distribution of items is happen to be


perfectly symmetrical, we then have a normal
curve and the relating distribution is normal
distribution.

Such curve is perfectly bell shaped curve in this


case the value of
Mean = Median = Mode

307

Under this condition the skew-ness is


altogether absent.

Z=M=X

If the curve is distorted (whether on the right


or the left side), we have asymmetric

distribution this indicates that there is a


skew-ness.
308

If the curve is skewed on the right side we call it positive skewness


Positively skewed data

X M Z

X is mean, M median and Z is mode


In such case Z M X

But when the curve is skewed toward left, we call it negative


skew-ness. Negatively skewed data

M Z

And X M Z
309

Skew-ness is, thus a measurement of asymmetry


and shows the manner in which the items are
clustered around the average.

In a symmetric (normal distribution) the items show


a perfect balance on either side of the mode,

but in a skewed distribution the balance is skewed


one side or distorted.

The amount by which the balance exceeds on one


side measures the skew-ness.
310

2. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

When the population is consisting of more than


one variable it is possible to measure the
relationship between them

If we have data on two variables we said to have


a bivariate variable,

if the data is more than two variables then the


population is known as multivariate population.
311

If for every measure of a variable, X, we have


corresponding value of variable, Y, the
resulting pairs of value are called a bivariate
population

In

case

of

bivariate

or

multivariate

population, we often wish to know the


relationship between the two or more
variables from the data obtained
312

Inferential analysis is concerned with the


various tests of significance for testing
hypotheses in order to determine with what
validity data can be said to indicate some
conclusion or conclusions

E.g., we may like to know, Whether the

number of hours students devote for study is


somehow related to their family income, to

age, to sex, or to similar other factors.

313

There are several methods of determining the


relationship between variables.

Two questions should be answered to


determine the relationship between variables.

1. Is there exist association or correlation


between the two or more variables? If yes,

then up to what degree?

314

This will be answered by the use of


correlation technique. Correlation technique
can be different.
In case of bivariate population correlation
can be found using:

Cross tabulation
Karl Pearsons coefficient of correlation: It is
simple correlation and commonly used
Charles Spearmans coefficient of correlation

In case of multivariate population correlation


can be studied through:

Coefficient of multiple correlation


Coefficient of partial correlation

315

2. Is there any cause and effect (causal relationship)


between two variables or between one variable on
one side and two or more variables on the other
side?

This question can be answered by the use of

regression analysis

In regression analysis the researcher tries to

estimate or predict the average value of one


variable on the basis of the value of other variable.
316

For instance a researcher estimates the average


value score on statistics knowing a students
score on a mathematics examination.

There are different techniques of regression

In

case

of

bivariate

population:

causal

relationship can be studied through simple


regression.

In case of multivariate population: Causal


relationship can be studied through multiple

regression analysis.

317

Time series Analysis; Successive observations of


the given phenomenon over a period of time are

analyzed through time series analysis.

It measures the relationship between variables

and time (trend).

Time series will measure seasonal (seasonal

fluctuation), cyclical irregular fluctuation, and


Trend.
318

The analysis of time series is done to


understand the dynamic condition of
achieving the short term and long-term goal
of business firm for forecasting purpose
The past trend can be used to evaluate the
success or failure of management or any
other policy.
Based on past trend the future patterns can be
predicted and policy may accordingly be
formulated.

319

10.4 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

develop an appreciation of the underlying motivations that


people have for doing what they do
Underlying assumption is that

in order to understand human behavior,


a
researcher must first understand the
meanings that people have of the world
around them,
because these meanings tend to govern
their actions.
320

The emphasis given by qualitative researchers to


their studies therefore involves an examination

of the perspectives of the people or groups that


are of interest to them their ideas, attitudes,

motives, and intentions.


321

Methods of analysis:
I. Content Analysis

is a popular approach to the analysis of qualitative


information.
Key phrases or words are counted and the
frequencies analyzed.
The selection of these depends on, for example, the
particular hypothesis to be tested.
This method may be useful in allowing the
researcher to present a picture of what the concepts
are
but it does not help in understanding why
322

In qualitative research, it is likely that you will


engage in some form of content analysis as it
is frequently used to analyze

text,

pictorial information,

interviews and web pages.

the purpose of content analysis is to describe


the content of your respondents comments
systematically and classify the various
meanings expressed in the material you have
recorded.
323

There are six main steps in content analysis.

1. Identify the Unit of Analysis

Often the unit of analysis is either an


individual or a company, but it may be
more generic like geographic region or
country.

324

2. Choose a Set of Categories

The categories must be relevant to the issue


being explored,
mutually exclusive (so that a unit can
only be placed under one category),
exhaustive (covering all possibilities) and
reliable
(someone else repeating the
analysis would categorize the unit in the
same way).
The categories are chosen based on either a
theory or rationale or on the usefulness of
the review of the material.
325

3. Coding

Read through the material and, within each context


unit, assign each assertion/numerical value to one of
the categories.

There may be more than one assertion within a


context unit.

4. Tabulate the Material

Count the number of assertions under each category

and present the material as a table.

326

5. Illustrate the Material

Present the categories and list all the assertions


under them or a representative set.

Illustration is very important and the construction


of schematic diagrams to indicate the relationships
between elements and the direction of influence is
very important to aid the researchers understanding

and to facilitate the dissemination of ideas to others.

327

6. Draw Conclusions from the Tabulations and

Diagram

Produce inferences as to the nature of effects


between elements in the data.

From views on how one element may


influence

another

and

complexity of the problem.

understand

the
328

II. Conversation analysis:

Conversation analysis (CA) was pioneered


by Harvey Sacks
has
its
roots
in
the
field
of
ethnomethodology.
It treats conversation as a series of
utterances /words/ sounds/ notes which are
intended to perform a particular function,
beyond that of simply reporting an
observation.
329

The conversation analyst seeks to


understand how the participants
in a conversation use and
interpret elements of conversation
known
as
speech
acts.
330

Speech acts are seen to have a performative


function, whereby tacit meaning is implied.
This meaning can often be dependent on the
interpretation of other speech acts, so context
becomes of primary concern to the analyst.
For example, saying Id like to take a different
route today could perform an action of
informing or asking, depending on the
relationship between the participants of the
conversation, and the context in which this
utterance occurred.
331

Analysis generally takes the form of using taperecordings as the source of data.

Conversations are described in terms of


performative

actions,

which

enables

the

complex structure of conversation to be


unwoven.
332

III. Discourse analysis

Discourse analysis (DA) shares many similarities


to CA in the sense that it is concerned with
extrication the complexities of the structure and
organization of language.

However, it has wider application since it is


concerned not only with spoken interchanges, but
also with textual documents which follow a
discursive pattern, such as letters, diaries, and
articles.
333

DA has developed associations with social


psychology, since it seeks to explore how
language choices are governed by and dictate
psychological responses.

As such, DA is particularly useful for


understanding how norms such as power
imbalances are perpetuated.

334

10.6 HYPOTHESIS TESTING CONCEPTS


AND PROCEDURES

Inferences on population characteristics (or


parameters) are often made on the basis of

sample observations

especially when the population is large and it

may not be possible to enumerate all the


sampling units belonging to the population
335

In doing so, one has to take the help of certain


assumptions (or hypothetical values) about the
characteristics of the population if some such
information is available

Such hypothesis about the population is


termed as statistical hypothesis and the
hypothesis is tested on the basis of sample
values.
336

The procedure enables one to decide on


a

certain

hypothesis

and

test

its

significance

A claim or hypothesis about the


population parameters is known as Null
Hypothesis and is written as, H0

337

This hypothesis is then tested with available


evidence and a decision is made whether to

accept this hypothesis or reject it

If this hypothesis is rejected, then we accept the


alternate hypothesis

This hypothesis is written as H1

338

Example

The average score in an aptitude test


administered at the national level is 80.
To evaluate a states education system, the
average score of 100 of the states students
selected on random basis was 75.
The state wants to know if there is a
significant difference between the local
scores and the national scores.
In such a situation the hypotheses may be
stated as under:
339

340

For testing hypothesis or test of significance


we

use

both

parametric

tests

and

nonparametric or distribution free tests.

Parametric tests assume within properties of


the population, from which we draw samples

Such assumptions may be about population

parameters, sample size, etc.

341

In case of non-parametric tests, we do not


make such assumptions.

Here we assume only nominal or ordinal


data.

Important parametric tests used for testing of


hypothesis are:

z-test
t-test
2
X test; and
f-test

342

When X2 test is used as a test of goodness of


fit and also as a test of independence, we use
non-parametric tests.

As has been stated earlier all parametric tests

used for testing of hypothesis are based on


the assumption of normally, i.e., population

is considered to be normally distributed

343

Procedure for testing of hypothesis:


1. State the null hypothesis as well as the
alternate hypothesis
For example, let us assume the population
mean = 50 and set up the hypothesis = 50
this is called the null hypothesis and is
denoted as;
Null hypothesis,
H0: = 50
Alternative hypothesis

H1: 50
Or
> 50
< 50

344

2. Establish a level of significance (prior to


sampling)

The

level

of

significance

signifies

the

probability of committing Type 1 error a and


is generally taken as equal to 0.05

Sometimes, the value a is established as 0.01,


but it is at the discretion of the investigator to

select its value, depending upon the sensitivity


of the study.
345

To illustrate 5 % level of significance


indicates that a researcher is willing to
take 5 per cent risk of rejecting the Null
Hypothesis when it happens to be true.

346

3. Choosing a suitable test statistic

Now the researcher would choose amongst


the various tests (i.e. z, t, c2 and f-tests).

Actually, for the purpose of rejecting or

accepting the null hypothesis, a suitable


statistics called test statistics is chosen.
347

This means that H0 is assumed to be really


true

Obviously due to sampling fluctuations, the


observed value of the statistic based on
random sample will differ from the
expected value

348

If the difference is large enough, one suspects


the validity of the assumption and rejects the

null hypothesis (H0).

On the other hand, if the difference may be

assumed due to sampling (random) fluctuation,


the null hypothesis (H0) is accepted.
349

4.Defining the critical rejection regions &


making calculations for test statistics

If we select the value of a = Level of


significance = 0.05, and

use the standard normal distribution (ztest) as our test statistic for testing the
population parameter u,
350

then the value of the difference between the


assumption of null hypothesis (assumed
value of the population parameter) and the
value obtained by the analysis of the sample
results is not expected to be more than 1.96 s
at a = 0.05

This relationship can be shown by the


diagram given below;
351

352

Mathematically we can state:


Acceptance Region A : Z < 1.96
Rejection Region R : Z > 1.96

353

If the significance level is 5 per cent and the


two-tailed test is to be applied, the probability of

the rejection area will be 0.05 (equally splitted


on both tails of the curve as 0.025)

and that of the acceptance region will be 0.95 as


shown in the above curve.
354

If we take = 100 and if our sample mean


deviates significantly from 100 in either
direction, then we shall reject the null
hypothesis;

but if the sample mean does not deviate


significantly from , in that case we shall

accept the null hypothesis.

355

MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION:

Research questions in business frequently


revolve around the study of relationship between
two or more variables.

Various objectives may be served by such an


analysis.

The strength, direction, shape and other

features of the relationship may be discovered.356

Or tactical and strategic questions may be


answered by predicting the values of one
variable from those of another.
With correlation, one estimates the degree and
nature of the relationship between variables
calculated.
With regression, an equation is developed to
predict the values of the dependent variable.
Both are affected by the assumptions of
measurement level and the distributions that
underline the data.
357

CHAPTER TWELVE
PRESENTING THE RESEARCH
RESULTS
358

12.1. Meaning of Research Report

Research reporting is the oral or written


presentation of evidence and the findings

Research report writing is the culmination

of the research investigation.

It is at the stage of reporting that the

researcher assembles the findings of the


study, draws conclusions and evaluates his

own findings.

359

Report writing is the end product of research


activity.

It is highly skilled work; it is an interesting,


fascinating,

challenging,

gruelling

and

sometimes even exasperating experience.

Writing a research report is a technical


activity that demands all the skills and
patience of the researcher.
360

Generally, there should be a section describing what


work was done.
This should cover the methods used, their selection
and any problems experienced in their application.
From this it is easy to move on to what was found
out, or the results.
In turn, these lead on to the conclusions, which are
a statement of what the researcher deduced from the
results,
and then on to the recommendations, which set out
what the researcher feels should be the action taken
as a result of the conclusions.
361

Writing is not an activity that can be


allocated an odd half-hour whenever it is
convenient.
It requires sustained concentration.
The amount of time needed to make real
progress in your writing depends on the way
you prefer to work.
Most people find that it takes a day to write
about 2,000 words.
But we all work in different ways.
362

SIGNIFICANCE OF REPORT WRITING

Research report is considered a major


component of the research

Study for the research task remains

incomplete till the report has been


presented and/or written.
363

As a matter of fact even

the most brilliant hypothesis,


highly well designed and conducted research study,
and the most striking generalizations and findings

are of little value unless they are effectively


communicated to others.
364

The purpose of research is not well served


unless the findings are made known to others.

Research results must invariably enter the


general store of knowledge.

All this explains the significance of writing


research report.

365

12.2. Report Format


The following outline may be adopted while preparing the
research report:
Outlines of the Research Project
Title Page
Approval Sheet
Declaration
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Acronyms
Abstract (Should be as brief as possible with one line
space)
366

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the Problem
Research Hypothesis/ Research Questions
Objective of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Organization of the Paper
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
367

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Description of the Study Area/Organization
Data Sources
Sampling Design
Data Collection Instruments
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
References
Appendices (Copy of Questionnaire)
368

Cover Page
Wollo University
College of Business and Economics
Department Of Marketing Management
(Use a brown color for the cover pages )

Place the Title of Your Research Here,


By: Your Name & Id.No

A Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for


the BA degree in Marketing Management
Type the name of your adviser(s) here

Month, Year
369

Approval Sheet
Wollo University
Department of Marketing Management
Project Title:______________________
By:
______________________________

Advisor
Signature
Co-advisor
Signature
Examiner(s)
Signature

College of Business and Economics


Department of Marketing Management
Approved by:
_____________
_______
________
370

Declaration
Declaration
I, the undersigned, declare that this research paper is my original work and that all
sources of the materials in the research paper have been duly acknowledged.
The matter embodied in this project work has not been submitted earlier for
award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Name: ____________________________
Signature: _________________________
Date: _____________________________
This research has been submitted for examination with my approval as a university
advisor.
Name of Advisor: _______________________________
Signature: _____________________________________
Date: _________________________________________
Name of Co-advisor: _____________________________
Signature: _____________________________________
Date: _________________________________________
371

12.3. Reporting Research findings


Once the analysis is over, the results can be depicted in a
tabulated form, with appropriate illustrations. A detailed
presentation of the findings of the study is a major part
of the research report. These can be supported in the
form of tables and charts together with a validation of
results. Since it comprises the main body of the report, it
generally extends over several chapters. It is advisable to
project summarised results rather than raw data. All the
results should be presented in logical sequence and split
into readily identifiable sections. All relevant results
must find a place in the report. All the results of the
report should address the research problems stated earlier
in the report, illustrating whether the results support or
reject the hypothesis. But ultimately the researcher must
rely on his own judgement in deciding the outline of his
report.
372

Interpretation of results some hints


To find the relationships among the variables that are
studied and observing the commonality, uniqueness,
diversity etc. among them.
To observe the role of extraneous variables. How they
affect the various phenomena studied.
To ensure validity; the results can be cross-checked with
others through consultation.
To consider all the relevant factors affecting the problem
before generalising it to the whole population.
The prime tasks of interpretation is to bring to the surface
the gist of the findings. A researcher should explain why
the findings are so, in objective terms.
373

He should try to bring out the principles involved in the


observations. He can also make reasonable prediction.
On the basis of interpretation of an exploratory study, a
new hypothesis can be formulated for experimental
research. During interpretation, unconnected, isolated
facts should not be discarded, but should be explained
properly. Interpretation leads to the establishment of
some explanatory concepts arising out of the connection
between the underlying processes and principles, and the
observed facts from a working model. A researchers
task is to identify and disengage such principles and
processes. Interpretation can also provide a theoretical
conception, which can be the basis of further researcher
and new knowledge. Thus, continuity in research can be
established and the quest for knowing the unknown can
be sustained.
374

Prerequisites for good interpretation: some guidelines


While drawing inferences from the analysis of data, the
researcher has to ensure that the inferences are free from
any biases and mistakes that may arise due to both
subjective and objective factors. This can be minimised
by: checking whether (a) the data are appropriate,
trustworthy and adequate for drawing inferences b) the
data reflect good homogeneity and (c) proper analysis
has been done through statistical methods.
The researcher should also check for personal bias
(subjective element) while interpreting the results. There
are so many pitfalls that have to be avoided while
observing and interpreting the results.
375

Some of them are: stereotyping (conforming with existing


results), preoccupation with set results, projecting his
own views on the subject, snap judgements, lack of
appreciation for others feelings, prejudicial treatment
and so on. The researcher must remain vigilant about all
such things so that false generalisations may not take
place. He should be well-equipped with statistical
measures and must know their correct use for drawing
inferences concerning his study.
The researcher must always keep in view that the task of
interpretation is very much intertwined with analysis
and cannot be separated. He should take precautions
about the reliability of data, computational checks,
validation and comparison of results.
376

The researcher should also pay attention to the hidden


factors underlying the results. Broad generalisations
should be avoided because the coverage may be
restricted to a particular time, area and conditions.
Originality and creativity are critical in interpreting the
results. While linking the relationship between
theoretical orientation and empirical observation, the
researcher has to make use of his originality and
creativity in developing concepts and models. He must
pay special attention to this aspect while engaged in the
task of interpretation.

377

8.4. Presentation of Data


There is no universally accepted set of standards for
evaluating a presentation of a data in research report.
However, the following checklist will serve as a general
guideline for a critical evaluation or analysis of a data in
research report:
1.
The appropriateness of the title
(a) Does it exactly indicate the core of the study?
(b) Is it clear and concise?
(c) Does it promise no more than what the study can
provide?

378

2. Importance of the problem


(a) Is the research problem topically important?
(b) Is it socially relevant in terms of its contribution to
knowledge and/or solution to the burning problem of the
day?
(c) Are the research questions (objectives) clearly stated?
(d) Are they specific and related to the selected theme?
(e) Are the hypotheses pertinent to the research questions?
(f) Are they clearly stated and testable?
(g) Are the concepts in the title, objectives and hypotheses
operationally defined?
(h) Are the operational definitions valid and reasonable?
(i) Are assumptions and limitations stated?
(j)
Does the problem formulation reflect the
researchers mastery of the subject matter of the study?
379

3. Review of related literature and earlier studies


(a) Is this review covered adequately?
(b) Is it well-organised and documented?
(c) Has the research gap been identified?
(d) Does the present study fill in the gap?
4. Soundness of the methodology:
(a) Are the type of research and sources and methods of
data collection described in detail?
(b) Are the above methods appropriate to the problem
under study and the respondents?
(c) Is the research design appropriate to test adequately
the hypothesised relationships?
(d) Is the sampling design appropriate and described in
detail?
(e) Are the methods adopted for sampling scientific?
(f)
Is the sample size adequate?
380

(g) Are relevant variables recognised, defined, inter-related


and measured?
(h) Are the data-gathering instruments appropriate?
(i)Are the validity and reliability of the instruments
established?
(j)Are the details of the methodology adequate for
replicability?
5. Data analysis
(a) Is the analysis objective and deep?
(b) Is the statistical treatment appropriate?
(c) Is appropriate use made of tables and charts?
(d) Is their format proper and complete?
(e) Have the hypotheses been adequately tested?
(f)
Is the analysis of data relationship logical and
perceptive?
381

(g) Is the significance of statistical results tested properly?


(h) Are the statistical results interpreted and presented
without any bias?

6. Contribution of the study and conclusions and


recommendations
(a) Are the findings of the study stated clearly?
(b) Are the findings generalisable?
(c) Does the study test a theory or develop a new theory, a
new model or new tool or contribute to methodology in
any other way?
(d) Are the conclusions logical and justified by the
empirical evidence?
382

(e) Are the implications of the results for policy and action
explicitly pointed out?
(f) Do the recommendatiosn flow from the findings?
(g) Are the recommendatiosn specific and practical?
7. Presentation
(a) Is the format of the report appropriate?
(b) Does the report have headings and sub-headings that
facilitate reading and understanding it?
(c) Is the chapter scheme based on the objective of the
study?
(d) Is the textual discussion clear, concise and convincing?
(e) Is the style of writing smooth and simple?
(f) Is it free from spelling and grammatical errors?
(g) Do the footnotes/references contain full details of the
sources?
(h) Is the bibliography exhaustive?
383

Some other Guidelines : Page Format


and Layout
Margin
The margins should be set at least 1.25 inches at the top,
bottom, left and right edges of the page.
Pagination
For the preliminary pages (abstract, table of contents, list of
tables, graphs, and acronyms), use small Roman
numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v ...). For the text, use Arabic
numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...) starting with page one (the first
page of the text itself).
384

Line spacing
Double-space all text throughout the manuscript
Fonts
Body text Fond Size: 12 pt, Times New Roman
Paragraph Heading Font Size: 14, Times New Roman,
Underlined, Left Aligned
Chapter Heading Font Size: 16, Times New Roman,
Centre Aligned.
Tables, Figures etc.,
It must be numbered according to the chapter (eg. Table
4.1) and the title must be placed at the top.
385

Citations
The citations should be made in a uniform style using the
American Psychological Association (APA) style with
author (s) names and year in parentheses
References
Every work cited in text must have a corresponding
reference. The references must be in ascending
alphabetic order and should conform to the American
Psychological Association (APA) style.
Appendices
The appendices are to be attached at the end of the report
and to be numbered as Appendix-A, Appendix-B
etc. right justified at the top of the page. Below the
world
386

Appendix write in parenthesis Refer Para No__. The


para number is to be the number in the body of text
where the reference of appendix is given. An appendix
may have annexure (s). If there are annexure, there are
to be attached immediately after the said appendix. The
annexure are to be numbered as Annexure-I, AnnexureII etc.
Guidelines for mentioning the references
Based on American Psychological Association (APA)
Style Manual:
I. Rules for citing the books on the reference lists:
1. Use the authors surrname and initial(s) only. Do not
use first names, degrees, and the like.
387

2. Cite all authors listed for the book in the order they are
listed.
3. Follow the authors name with the year of publication.
Year of publication will in parentheses.
4. The title of the book is next and it is italicized. Only the
first word in the title or any proper name should be in
upper case.
5. The place of publication follows.
6. The publisher of the book is listed last followed by a
period (.).
7. Space must be after periods that separate the parts of the
citation and after the periods of the initials in personal
names.
8. In edited books, pagination should be mentioned in
parenthesis immediately after the title of the book.
388

References: Books (Citation)


Zeithaml, V.A., Parasuraman, A. & Berry, L.L.
(1990).Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer
Perceptions and Expectations: p. 18. New York: The
Free Press.
Edited Book
Harrington, D.M. (1990). The Ecology of Human
Creativity: A psychological perspective. In Runco,
M.A., & Albert, R.S., (Eds).Theories of creativity(pp.
143-169).Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Book by a Corporate Author
Committee of Public Finance.(1979). Public finance.New
York: Pitman.
389

II. Rules for citing the periodical articles on the reference


list.
The reference section appears at the end of the paper and lists
all the research materials, which have been used.
1. Use the authors surname and initial(s) only. Do not use first
names, degrees, and the like.
2. Cite all authors in the Reference list in the order they are
listed with the source.
3. Following the author information, give the date of
publication in parentheses.
4. For weekly and daily periodical/ magazines, cite the year,
month and day. For monthly article/ magazine, cite the year
and the month. For the professional journals, cite only the
year.
5. The title of the article follows. Only the first letter of the
first word of the title or subtitle or any proper name
appearing in the title should be in upper case.
390

6. The title of the journal (in italic) comes next, followed


by the volume number, and if appropriate, the issue
number.
If the journal uses continuous pagination, i.e., it runs page
numbers throughout a year or volume; no reference to an
issue number is needed. In that case, the title of the
journal is italicized, as well as the volume number.
7. If the journal is re-paged issue by issue, i.e., each issue
has a page number 1, then the issue number must follow
the volume number. The issue number is in parentheses
but is not italicized.
8. The next part of the citation is the pagination. The page
designation p is not used except when citing newspaper
articles.
391

9. If the journal is from an electronic database, retrieval


information must be included which states the date of
retrieval and the proper time of the database.
10. For more than one publication in one year by the same
author, use small lower case letter to distinguish them.
References: Articles (Citation)
Weekly Magazine/ Article:
Singh, N. and Srinivasan T.N. (2005, May 21-27). Foreign
Capital, Deficits and Growth.Economic and Political
Weekly, XL, (21), 2196-2197.
Monthly Magazine/ Article
Gupta, K. (2005, May). Durables: On a Fast Track. Pitch 11(8),
42-50.
392

Professional Journal (continuous pagination)


Taylor, M.A. & Callahan, J.L. (2005).Bringing creativity
into being: Underlying assumptions that influence
methods of studying organizational creativity.Advances
in Developing Human Resources, 7, 247-270.
(Re paged issue)
Prasad, T. (2005).Mandi: A Field Sales Campaign for
Teaching Personal Selling Skills through Experiential
Approach. IIMB Management Review Advances in
Developing Human Resources. 17(1), 87-94.
III. Other References (Citation)
Newspaper article
Maira, A. (2005, February 25). Putting humanity into
capitalism.The Economic Times.P.16.
393

Computer Software
Soldan, T.J. & Spain J.D. (1984).Population growth
[Computer Software]. City, state (2 letters): Conduit.
Electronic Database
U.S. Department of Labor (1991). What work requires of
schools.
Retrieved
August
15,
24,
from
http://wdr.doleta.gov.SCANS/whatwork.pdf
Paper Presentation
McCollum, E.E. & Callahan, L.L. (22, November).The
narrative assessment interview: The use of a
psychoanalytic tool to evaluate a leadership
development program. Paper presented at the American
Evaluation Association Conference, Washington, D.C.
Ph.D.Thesis
Name of the Author, Year, Title, Ph.D.Thesis, University
Name and Place.
394

Finally, we come to a conclusion of our exercise of


familiarising you with the art of planning and organising
a research programme by describing various stages with
clarity of concepts and illustrations. We advise readers to
resort to IT-enabled techniques for exploring the various
possibilities and arriving at a final conclusion. In this
context, the author will extend all possible assistance,
especially for finalisation of tests, hypotheses, sample
size determination, mode of analysis and interpretation
by utilising his personal network of global consultants
and professors. Further, economic considerations i.e.,
cost of production prevents the author from presenting
the entire concepts fully. After all, the world of research
and business will always be dynamic, and it is
impossible for anyone to present it in a static mode.
395

THANK YOU
WISH YOU ALL THE BEST

396