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CONCEPTS OF SPORTS COMPETITIVE

& NON COMPETITIVE SPORT

CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION TO SPORTS

COMPETITIVE SPORTS AND


ITS CRITERIA

NON-COMPETITIVE SPORTS
AND ITS CRITERIA

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THE ADVANTAGES OF
SPORTS

INTRODUCTION TO SPORTS
Sport (or sports) is all forms of usually competitive physical activity which, through
casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills
while providing entertainment to participants, and in some cases, spectators. Hundreds of
sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of
simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognised as activities which are based in physical athleticism or
physical motor skills, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games
admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of
Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification
as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim to be
classified as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF)
recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international
sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports, although limits the
amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
Sports are usually played by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair
competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by
physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first, or by the determination of
judges of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as
technical performance or artistic impression.
In organised sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports,
this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. In addition, sport is a
major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large
crowds to venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.

HISTORY OF SPORTS
The history of sports probably extends as far back as the existence of people as
purposive sportive and active beings. Sport has been a useful way for people to increase
their mastery of nature and the environment. The history of sport can teach us a great deal
about social changes and about the nature of sport itself. Sport seems to involve basic
human skills being developed and exercised for their own sake, in parallel with being
exercised for their usefulness. It also shows how society has changed its beliefs and
therefore there are changes in the rules. Of course, as we go further back in history, the
dwindling evidence makes the theories of the origins and purposes of sport difficult to
support.

Ancient Sumo wrestling competition from the Heian or Kamakura period

SPORTS IN PREHISTORY
Cave paintings have been found in the Lascaux caves in France that have been
suggested to depict sprinting and wrestling in the Upper Paleolithic around 17,300 years
ago. Cave paintings in the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia dating back to Neolithic
age of 7000 BC show a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Neolithic Rock art found at
the Cave of swimmers in Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya has shown evidence of
swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC. Prehistoric cave paintings have
also been found in Japan depicting a sport similar to sumo wrestling.

Paintings of humans in the cave of swimmers

SPORTS IN ANCIENT EGYPT

An Egyptian burial chamber mural, from the tomb of Khnumhotep and


Niankhkhnum dating to around 2400 BC, showing wrestlers in action.

Monuments to the Pharaohs found at Beni Hasan dating to around 2000 BC indicate that a
number of sports, including wrestling, weightlifting, long jump, swimming, rowing,
flying, shooting, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games, were welldeveloped and regulated in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin
throwing, high jump, and snooker. An earlier portrayal of figures wrestling was found in
the tomb of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum in Saqqara dating to around 2400 BC.

ANCIENT GREECE
Depictions of ritual sporting events are seen in the Minoan art of Bronze Age Crete,
such as a fresco dating to 1500 BC of gymnastics in the form of religious bull-leaping and
possibly bullfighting. The origins of Greek sporting festivals may date to funeral games of
the Mycenean period, between 1600 BC and c. 1100 BC. In the Iliad there are extensive
descriptions of funeral games held in honour of deceased warriors, such as those held for
Patroclus by Achilles.
Engaging in sport is described as the occupation of the noble and wealthy, who have
no need to do manual labour themselves. In the Odyssey, king Odysseus of Ithaca proves
his royal status to king Alkinos of the Phaiakes by showing his proficiency in throwing the
javelin. It was predictably in Greece that sports were first instituted formally, with the first
Olympic Games recorded in 776 BC in Olympia, where they were celebrated until 393 AD.
The games were held every four years, or Olympiad, which became a unit of time in
historical chronologies.
Initially a single sprinting event, the Olympics gradually expanded to include several
footraces, run in the nude or in armor, boxing, wrestling, pankration, chariot racing, long
jump, javelin throw, and discus throw. During the celebration of the games, an Olympic
Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the games in safety.
The prizes for the victors were wreaths of laurel leaves.
Other important sporting events in ancient Greece were the Isthmian games, the
Nemean Games, and the Pythian Games. Together with the Olympics, these were the most
prestigious games, and formed the Panhellenic Games. Some games, e.g. the Panathenaia of
Athens, included musical, reading and other non-athletic contests in addition to regular
sports events. The Heraean Games were the first recorded sporting competition for women,
held in Olympia as early as the 6th century BC.

The Colosseum in Rome, Italy

Stadium at the sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, Greece

COMPETITIVE SPORTS
CRITERIA OF A COMPETITIVE SPORT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

have an element of competition


be in no way harmful to any living creature
not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such
as arena football)
not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport
have an objective to be completed
marking system

EXAMPLE OF A COMPETITIVE SPORT


FOOTBALL
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played
between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million
players in over 200 countries, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played
on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting
the ball into the opposing goal.

A full squad of 25-man team photo


The goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or
arms while it is in play and then only in their penalty area. Outfield players mostly use their
feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use their head or torso to strike the ball instead. The
team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end
of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty
shootout depending on the format of the competition. The Laws of the Game were
originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is
governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA;
French: Fdration Internationale de Football Association) which organises a World Cup
every four years.

Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of


whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players
required to constitute a team, which is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players
allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty
area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield
(non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined
or required by the Laws.
The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks,
footwear and adequate shin guards. An athletic supporter and protective cup is highly
recommended for male players by medical experts and professionals.Headgear is not a
required piece of basic equipment, but players today may choose to wear it to protect
themselves from head injury. Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is
dangerous to themselves or another player, such as jewellery or watches. The goalkeeper
must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the
match officials.
A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game.
The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and
domestic league games is three, though the permitted number may vary in other
competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury,
tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised
game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further
part in a match. IFAB recommends that "that a match should not continue if there are fewer
than seven players in either team." Any decision regarding points awarded for abandoned
games is left to the individual football associations.
A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the
Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose
decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level
games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official
should the need arise.

There are a few rules to abide by while playing the game, which are categorised:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Law 1: The Field of Play


Law 2: The Ball
Law 3: The Number of Players
Law 4: The Players' Equipment
Law 5: The Referee
Law 6: The Assistant Referees
Law 7: The Duration of the Match
Law 8: The start and restart of play
Law 9: Ball in and out of play
Law 10: The Method of Scoring
Law 11: Offside
Law 12: Fouls and Misconduct
Law 13: Free kicks (direct and indirect)
Law 14: The Penalty Kick
Law 15: The Throw-in
Law 16: The Goal Kick
Law 17: Corner kick

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Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out
of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the
playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of
play, or play is stopped by the referee. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted
by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.
Throw-in: when the ball has crossed the touchline; awarded to the opposing team to that
which last touched the ball.
Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored
and having last been touched by a player of the attacking team; awarded to defending team.
Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been
scored and having last been touched by a player of the defending team; awarded to
attacking team
Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, certain
technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution or dismiss an opponent without
a specific foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly (without the ball first
touching another player) from an indirect free kick.
Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed "penal" fouls. A goal may
be scored directly from a direct free kick.
Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a direct
free kick but that has occurred within their opponent's penalty area.
Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason, such as a
serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective.

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HANDBALL

Handball (also known as team handball, Olympic handball, European team handball,
European handball, or Borden ball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players
each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other
team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores
more goals wins.
Modern handball is played on a court 40 by 20 meters (131 by 66 ft), with a goal in the
center of each end. The goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone where only the defending
goalkeeper is allowed; the goals must be scored by throwing the ball from outside the zone
or while "diving" into it. The sport is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in
the forms of field handball and Czech handball (which were more common in the past) and
beach handball (also called sandball). The game is quite fast and includes body contact, as
the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Goals are scored quite
frequently; usually both teams score at least 20 goals each, and it is not uncommon for both
teams to score more than 30 goals.

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RULES

Two teams of seven players (six field players plus one goalkeeper) take the field and
attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling
the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble (similar to a basketball dribble), or can take up
to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling.
No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch
the floor of the goal area (within six metres of the goal). A shot or pass in the goal area is
valid if completed before touching the floor. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area,
but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands.
The ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper when they are positioned in the goal
area.
Notable scoring opportunities can occur when attacking players jump into the goal area. For
example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, and
then shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs when a diving attacking
player passes to another diving team-mate.

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NON COMPETITIVE SPORTS


CRITERIA OF A NON COMPETITIVE SPORT
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

CAN HAPPEN ANY TIME: Non competitive sports can happens


any time in anywhere. People mostly do it any time they think
suitable and basically there is no time limit for this sports. For
example football, everyone plays football any time and they has no
specific time.
UNIVERSAL: Non Competitive sports usually an universal sports
which take part in any parts in the world. There is no specific place
or region to organized the sports. For example badminton has no
specific place to be held. People play it in every country.
NO SPECIFIC RULES: There is no specific rule in non
competitive sports like a competitive sports that have been held by
the organizer. Which mean there is no official rules and players are
freely to play the sport without bounding with the rules.
NO TIME LIMITS: It has no specific time. People play it any
time. Regardless of any seasons.
NOT A CAREER: Non competitive sports are not for a career.
Everyone can play it. Its also do not have specific age limit to join
this sports.
DID NOT INVOLVE HIGH MOTOR SKILL AND MENTAL
SKILL: These sports do not involve any high motor skill or mental
skill. It is mostly a freely sports without bounding with any rules or
organizer.
MORE TO RECREATION.

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SOME BENEFITS OF NON-COMPETITIVE SPORTS COMPARED TO


COMPETITIVE SPORTS
1.

SELF-ESTEEM: Getting physical can be embarrassing for those who are out of shape or
un-coordinated, and there are too many people out of shape these days to let there be
obstacles like embarrassment. The thought of gasping and tripping your way to learning to
take a shot or play defense discourages people from even starting a team sport.

2.

RESOURCES: Competitive sports need equipment, referees, a team of players and another
team to play against. You dont need anyone or anything to do non competitive sport except
a small open space all the other props in these kinds of sports are just extras.

3.

PARTICIPATION: In competitive sports only a few people make the team and the rest are
spectators. In non competitive sports, everyone participates, there are no spectators.

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EXAMPLE OF NON COMPETITIVE SPORTS

SKATEBOARDING

(Figure 1: Skateboarding activity by amateurs)


Skateboarding basically is not a competitive sport. It can be happens any time.
Skateboarding is very universal sport with no specific rules (except for the competitive) It is
also has no time limit. People can freely play it whenever they like and it would not be a
problem how much time it takes. It is not for a career and did not involve high motor or
mental skills. People are usually skateboarding with very simple moves and it is more to a
recreation. Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks
using a skateboard. Skateboarding can also be considered a recreational activity.

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CYCLING

(Figure 2: Cycling activities participated by children)


Cycling is a non competitive sport and also can define as competitive sport. Cycling is
very universal and very close to people. People cycling no matter what time and it can
happen anywhere. There is no specific rule of cycling and everyone can cycling regardless
of age limits. It is also not a career and no need to be involves high motor skill or mental
skill. It is also can define as a recreation activity or sport.

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ADVANTAGES OF SPORTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

promotes self confidence


the feeling of being alive
converts adrenaline into energy
need for speed
strength
provide suppleness to the body
keeping heart disease at bay
maintaining lower body weight

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REFERENCE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

http://sportsethicist.com/2013/08/05/defining-competition/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competition#Sports
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_sport
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_football#Laws

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