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Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Logic

Logic is commonly known as the science of


reasoning.
Logic as a working tool in proving theorems
or solving problems, creativity and insight
are needed, which cannot be taught.
Reason to study logic:
Hardware level the design of logic
circuits to implement instruction
Software level a knowledge of logic is
helpful in the design of programs.
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Chapter 2:Fundamentals of Logic-Outline

2.1: Logical Form


2.2: Truth Tables
2.3: The Law of Logic
2.4: Valid and Invalid Arguments
2.5: Rule of Inference
2.6: Quantified Statements

2.1: Logical Form


Basic connectives:
Primitive statements(propositions): declarative
sentences that are either True or False; but not
both.
Eg: Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.
Eg: 2 + 3 = 5
Not statements:
Eg: What a beautiful morning!
Eg: Get up and do your exercises.

2.1: Logical Form


use lowercase letters, such as p, q, r,. to
represent propositions.
Eg:
p : It is raining
The truth value of a proposition is true, denoted by
T or 1 whereas the truth value of a proposition is
false, denoted by F or 0.

2.1: Logical Form


Exercise:

Proposition with truth value (F)


2+3=7
Not a proposition
X+1=5
Not a proposition
3+1
Not a proposition
Go away!
SSK3003 is course code for Discrete Structures
Proposition with truth value (T)

I wear a red shirt Proposition with truth value (F)


2 + 2 = 4 Proposition with truth value (T)
5

2.1: Logical Form


Proposition represented by p, q, r. are
considered as primitive proposition no way to
break to anything simpler.
Two ways to obtain new proposition:1.Transform proposition p that is given to p,
which denotes its negation and is read NOT
p.
2.Combine two or more propositions into
compound proposition using logical
connectives.
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2.1: Logical Form


Logical connectives:
Compound statements: combined primitive
statements by logical connectives or by
negation.
Logical connectives:
a) conjunction(AND): p q
b) Disjunction(inclusive OR): p q
c) Exclusive OR:
d) Implication: p q (if p then q)
e) Biconditional: p q (p if only if q , or p iff q)
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2.1: Logical Form


conjunction(AND): p q

Let p and q be propositions. The conjunction of p


and q is denoted by p ^ q, which is read p and q
True only both p and q are true and false otherwise.
Eg:
x : I am a man
y : I have five children

I am a man and I have five children


8

2.1: Logical Form


Disjunction(inclusive OR): p q
Disjunction of p and q, is denoted by p v q which
is read p or q.
or is used in inclusive way The proposition is
false only when both p and q are false, otherwise it
is true.
Sometimes write and/or to point this out.
The exclusive or is denoted by p v q.
The compound proposition is true only p or q is
true but not both are true or false.
p : I am a girl
q : I am a boy
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2.1: Logical Form


Implication: p q (if p then q)
We say p implies q
pq
Alternatively
If p, then q
p is sufficient for q
p is a sufficient condition for q
q is necessary for p
q is necessary condition for p
p only if q
10

2.1: Logical Form


Implication:(continue)
pq
The proposition p is called hypothesis of the
implication whereas q is called the conclusion.
This compound proposition does not need any
causal relationship between the primitive
proposition for the implication to be true.
Example:
y : I go to school everyday.
q : I score A
yq
If I go to school everyday then I score A
11

2.1: Logical Form


Biconditional: p q (p if only if q , or p iff q)

Is denoted by p q or p iff q
: which is read if and only if
p q (p q) ^ (q p)
Example:
y : I go to school everyday.
q : I score A
yq
I go to school everyday if and only if I score A
12

2.1: Logical Form


Eg 1: Negation
p: Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores.
p: Combinatorics is not a required course for sophomores.
Eg 2: conjunction(AND)
p: Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores.
q: Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.
p q:Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores and
Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.

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2.1: Logical Form


Eg 3: Disjunction(inclusive OR)
p: Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores.
q: Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.
p q: Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores or
Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.

Eg 4:Implication(if p then q)
p: Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores.
q: Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.
p q: If Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores
then Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.
Note: p is the hypothesis of the implication.
Note: q is the conclusion.
14

2.1: Logical Form


Eg 3: Biconditional (p if only if q , or p iff q)
p:Combinatorics is a required course for sophomores.
q: Susanna wrote Discrete Mathematics book.

p q: Combinatorics is a required course for


sophomores if and only if Susanna wrote
Discrete Mathematics book.

15

2.1: Logical Form


The number x is an integer
Is not a statement because its truth value cannot be
determined until a numerical value is assigned
for x.

16

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 1:
s: David goes out for a walk.
t: The moon is out.
u: It is snowing.

(t u) s :

17

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 2:
s: David goes out for a walk.
t: The moon is out.
u: It is snowing.

(u t) s :

18

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 3:
s: David goes out for a walk.
t: The moon is out.
u: It is snowing.

t ( u s) :

19

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 4:
s: David goes out for a walk.
t: The moon is out.
u: It is snowing.

(s (u t)) :

20

2.1: Logical Form


Translating English Sentences to logical
expression:
Why?
Reasons:
a. English (and every other human language) is often
ambiguous. Translating removes the ambiguity.
b. Easy to analyze logical expressions to determine their truth
values, easy to manipulate.

21

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 5: Translating from English to logical
expression
Write each of the following sentences symbolically:
a. It is not hot but it is sunny.
b. It is neither hot nor sunny.
Answer:
Let h: It is hot.
s: It is sunny.
a. h s
b. h s
22

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 6: Searching on the Internet
Internet search engines allow you to use some form of
and , or , not to refine the search process.
If you want to find web pages about careers in mathematics or
computer science but not finance or marketing, how you
want to quote your search?
Ans: Careers AND (mathematics OR computer science)
AND NOT (finance OR marketing)

23

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 7: And, or and Inequalities
Suppose x is a particular real number. Let p, q and r
symbolize as 0 < x , x < 3 and x = 3
respectively.
Write the following inequalities symbolically:
a. x < 3
b. 0 < x < 3
c. 0 < x < 3

Ans:
a.

qr

b. p q

c. p (q r)
24

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 8: Translate English sentence into a logical
expression
You can access the Internet from campus only if you are a
computer science major or you are not a freshman.
Ans:
Let a: You can access the Internet from campus.
c: You are a computer science major.
f: You are a freshman
a (c f)

25

2.1: Logical Form


Ex 9: Translate English sentence into a logical
expression
You cannot ride the roller coaster if you are under 4 feet tall
unless you are older than 16 years old.
Ans:
Let r: You cannot ride the roller coaster.
s: You are under 4 feet tall.
q: You are older than 16 years old.
(r s) q

26

2.1: Logical Form


Converse, contrapositive and inverse:
pq
The converse of p q is
The contrapositive of

qp

p q is q p

The inverse of p q is

pq

27

2.1: Logical Form


Eg: Converse, contrapositive and inverse:
What are the contrapositive, the converse and the inverse of
the implication
The home team wins whenever it is raining. ?
Contrapositive:
If the home team does not win, then it is not raining.
Converse:
If the home team wins, then it is raining.
Inverse:
If it is not raining, then the home team does not win.

28

2.1: Logical Form


Precedence of Logical operator:
Operator

Precedence

2
3
4
5

29

2.2: Truth Tables


A truth

table displays the relationship between the


truth values of propositions
p q p q p q pq pq

1
30

2.2: Truth Tables


Eg:Construct a truth table for the following compound proposition,
where p, q, r are denote primitive propositions: p ^ q q v r
p

p^q

q v r

p ^ q q v r

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

31

2.2: Truth Tables


Def: A compound statement is called a
tautology (T0) if it is true for all truth value
assignments for its component statements.
If a compound statement is false for all such
assignments, then it is called a
contradiction(F0).

32

2.2: Truth Tables


Eg: A Tautology and a contradiction

p p

p p

33

A compound statement is called a tautology


if it is true for all truth value assignments
for its component statements.
If all false --- contradiction.
p

pvq

p (p v q)

p ^ q

p ^ ( p ^ q)

34

2.2: Truth Tables


Logical Equivalence:
Def: Two statements forms are called logically equivalent if,
and only if, they have identical truth values for each
possible substitution of statements for their statement
variables.
P logically equivalent to Q is denoted by P = Q .

35

2.2: Truth Tables


Logical Equivalence:
Eg 1: Show that the propositions p q and p q are
logically equivalent.
p

pq

pq

T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F

F
F
T
T

T
F
T
T

T
F
T
T

36

2.2: Truth Tables


Logical Equivalence:
Eg 2: Show that the propositions p(qr) and (pq)(pr) are
logically equivalent.
p

0
0

0
0

0
1

qr

p(qr) pq pr

(pq)(pr)

37

Exercise
1. Verify that [p (q r)] [(p q) (p r)] is a
tautology.
2. Show that (p (p q)) and p q are logically
equivalent.
3. Show that (p q) (p q) is a tautology.

38

2.3: Law of Logic


Logical Equivalence:
Two propositions p1 and p2 are said to be logically
equivalent and we write p1 p2 when the
proposition p1 is true if and only if the p2 is true.

39

2.3: Law of Logic


Def: Logically equivalent

p
0
0
1
1

q
0
1
0
1

p
1
1
0
0

p q
1
1
0
1

pq
1
1
0
1

s1 s2
40

2.3: Law of Logic


De Morgan's Laws:

( p q ) p q
( p q ) p q
Note: p and q can be any compound statements.
Augustus De Morgan
1806-1871

41

2.3: Law of Logic


(1) p p
( 2 ) ( p q ) p q
( p q ) p q
( 3) p q q p
pq q p
( 4) p ( q r ) ( p q) r
p ( q r ) ( p q) r

Law of Double Negation

Demorgan's Laws

Commutative Laws
Associative Laws

42

2.3: Law of Logic


( 5) p ( q r ) ( p q ) ( p r )

Distributive Law

p ( q r ) ( p q) ( p r )
( 6) p p p , p p p
( 7 ) p F0 p , p T0 p
( 8) p p T0 , p p F0
( 9 ) p T0 T0 , P F0 F0

Idempotent Law
Identity Law
Inverse Law
Domination Law

(10) p ( p q ) p , p ( p q ) p Absorption Law

43

2.3: Law of Logic


Exercise:
Negate and simplify the compound statement ( p q) r

[( p q ) r ] [ ( p q ) r ]
[( p q ) r ] ( p q ) r
( p q ) r

44

2.3: Law of Logic

contrapositive of
p
0
0
1
1

pq

q p q q p q p p q
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
converse
inverse
45

2.3: Law of Logic


Ex: simplification of compound statement
( p q ) (p q )
( p q ) (p q ) Demorgan's Law
( p q ) ( p q )
Law of Double Negation
p ( q q )
Distributive Law
p F0 p
Inverse Law and
Identity Law
46

2.3: Law of Logic


Ex: Show that (p ( p q)) = ( p q) are logically
equivalent.

47

2.3: Law of Logic


Ex: Show that ( p q) ( p q) is a tautology.

48

2.3: Law of Logic


Ex: statements: p: Roger studies. q: Roger plays tennis.
r: Roger passes discrete mathematics.
premises: p1: If Roger studies, then he will pass discrete math.
p2: If Roger doesn't play tennis, then he'll study.
p3: Roger failed discrete mathematics.
Determine whether the argument below is valid

( p1 p 2 p 3 ) q

p1: p r , p 2 : q p , p 3 : r
( p1 p 2 p 3 ) q
[( p r ) ( q p ) r ] q

which is a tautology,
the original argument
is true
49

2.3: Law of Logic


Def. : If p, q are any arbitrary statements such that
is a tautology, then we say that p logically implies q and we
write

pq

to denote this situation.

p q means p q is a tautology.

p q means p q is a tautology.

50

2.4: Valid & Invalid Arguments


An argument a sequence of statements and are called premises.
Testing an argument for validity:
1.

Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument form.

2.

Construct a truth table showing the truth values of all the premises
and the conclusion.

3.

Identify the critical rows:


If all the premises are true and the conclusion is false. Therefore,
the argument is invalid.
If all the premises are true and the conclusion is true. Therefore,
the argument is valid.
51

2.4: Valid & Invalid Arguments


An Invalid Argument Form:

Eg: Show that the following argument form is invalid.


pqr
qpr
pr

52

2.4: Valid & Invalid Arguments


From the table, we conclude that this argument form
(p q r) ( q p r) ( p r) is invalid.
p

qr

pr

pq

qpr

pr

T
F
T
T
F
F
T
T

T
F
T
F
T
T
T
T

r
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

F
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

T
T
F
T
T
T
F
T

T
F
T
F
F
F
F
F

T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T

premises

conclusion

53

Alternatively, from the table below, we conclude that this


(p q r) ( q p r) ( p r) is NOT a tautology and
therefore the argument form is invalid

p
qr

q (p q
p r) ( q
r

T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T

T
F
T
T
F
F
T
T

( p r)

(p q r) ( q p r)
( p r)

T
F
T
F
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
F
T
T
T
T

p r)

T
F
F
T
F
F
T
T

54

2.4: Valid & Invalid Arguments


From the table, we conclude that this argument form
(p q r) ( r) ( p q) is valid.
p

T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

qr pqr
T
T
T
F
T
T
T
F

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
F

premises

pq

F
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
F
F

conclusion

55

Alternatively, from the table below, we conclude that this


(p q r) ( r) ( p q) is a tautology and therefore
the argument form is valid
p

r pq
r

T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
F

pq

(p q r) ( r) ( p q)

F
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
F
F

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

56

2.5: Rule of Inference


rule of inference - use to validate or invalidate a logical implication without
resorting to truth table (which will be prohibitively large if the number of
variables are large).
- a form of argument that is valid.
- Modus Ponens & modus Tollens are both rule of inference.
Modus Ponens :
Syllogism An argument form consisting of two premises and a conclusion.
The first and second premises are called the major and minor premises,
respectively.
Modus Ponens The most famous form of syllogism in logic.
-(the method of affirming) or the Rule of Detachment

[ p ( p q )] q

p
pq
q
57

2.5: Rule of Inference


Modus Ponens:
p

pq

T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F

T
F
T
T

T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F

premises

[ p ( p q )] q

p
pq
q

conclusion

58

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Ponens

[ p ( p q )] q

p
pq
q

If the sum of the digits of 371,487 is divisible by 3, then


371,487 is divisible by 3.
The sum of the digits of 371,487 is divisible by 3.
371,487 is divisible by 3.

59

2.5: Rule of Inference


Modus Tollens - (method of denying) the conclusion
is a denial.

[( p q ) q ] p

pq
q
p

60

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Tollens
[( p q ) q ] p

pq
q
p

If Zeus is human, the Zeus is mortal.

Zeus is not mortal.


Zeus is not human.

61

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Ponens
a. Lydia wins a ten million dollar lottery.

If Lydia wins a ten million dollar lottery, then Kay will


quit her job.

b. If Ali vacations in Paris, then she will have to win a


scholarship.
Ali vacations in Paris.

62

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Tollens
a. Lydia wins a ten million dollar lottery.

If Lydia wins a ten million dollar lottery, then Kay will


quit her job.

b. If Ali vacations in Paris, then he will have to win a


scholarship.
Ali vacations in Paris.

63

2.5: Rule of Inference


Recognizing Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens:
Use Modus Ponens or modus Tollens to fill in the blanks:-

a. If there are more pigeons than there are pigeonholes, then


two pigeons roost in the same hole.
There are more pigeons than there are pigeonholes.

b. If 870,232 is divisible by 6, then it is divisible by 3.

870,232 is not divisible by 3.

64

2.5: Rule of Inference


Law of the Syllogism:

[( p q ) ( q r )] ( p r )

pq
qr
pr

Eg:

1) If the integer 35244 is divisible by 396, then the integer


35244 is divisible by 66.
2) If the integer 35244 is divisible by 66, then the integer
35244 is divisible by 3.
3) Therefore, if the integer 35244 is divisible by 396, then the
integer 35244 is divisible by 3.
65

2.5: Rule of Inference


Law of the Syllogism:
Eg:
1) Rita is baking a cake.

2) If Rita is baking a cake, then she is not practicing her


flute.
3) If Rita is not practicing her flute, then her father will
not buy her a car.
4) Therefore Ritas father will not buy her a car.

p
p q
q r
r

66

2.5: Rule of Inference


Law of the Syllogism: How to establish the validity of the
argument?

p
p q
q r
r
Steps:

Reasons

1) p q

Premise

2) q r

Premise

3) p r

steps 1 and 2 and the Law of syllogism

4) p

Premise

5) r

steps 4 and 3 and the Rule of Detachment 67

Law of the Syllogism: How to establish the validity of the


argument?

p
p q
q r
r
Steps:

Reasons

1) p

Premise

2) p q

Premise

3) q

steps 1 and 2 and the Rule of Detachment

4) q r

Premise

5) r

steps 3 and 4 and the Rule of Detachment68

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Tollens

pr
rs
t s
t u

ps
s t
tu

pu

s u
p

u
p
69

2.5: Rule of Inference


Eg: Modus Tollens(Another reasoning)

pr
rs
t s
t u
u
p

ps
p

s
t

70

2.5: Rule of Inference

Ex : Rule of Conjunction
p
q
pq
Ex : Rule of Disjunctive Syllogism
pq
p
q
71

2.5: Rule of Inference


Exercise: Establish the validity of the given argument
pq

q (r s)
r ( t u)
pt
u

72

Steps

Reason

1) p q

Premise

2) q (r s)

Premise

3) p (r s)

Steps 1 and 2 and the Law of Syllogism

4) p t

Premise

5) p

Step 4 and the Rule of Conjunctive Simplification

6) r s

Step 5 and 3 and the Rule of Detachment

7) r

Step 6 and the Rule of Conjunctive Simplification

8) r ( t u) Premise
9) ( r t) u Step 8, the associative Law of , De Morgans Law

10) t

Step 4 and the Rule of Conjunctive Simplification

11) r t

Step 7 and 10 and the Rule of Conjunction

12) u

Steps 9 and 11, the Law of Double Negation,


and the Rule of Disjunctive Syllogism

73

2.5: Rule of Inference


Exercise: Establish the validity of the given argument:
If the band could not play rock music or the refreshments were
not delivered on time, then the New Years party would have
been canceled and Alicia would have been angry. If the party
were cancelled, then refunds would have had to be made. No
refunds were made.

Therefore the band could play rock music.


( p q) (r s)
rt
t
u
74

Steps

Reason

1) r t

Premise

2) t

Premise

3) r

Step 1 and 2 and Modus Tollens

4) r s

Step 3 and the Rule of Disjunctive


Amplification

5) (r s)

Step 4 and De Morgans Law

6) ( p q) (r s)

Premise

7) ( p q)

Steps 6 and 5 and Modus Tollens

8) p q

Step 7, De Morgans Law, the Law of


Double Negation

9) p

Step 8 and the Rule of Conjunctive


Simplification
75

2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Def. : A declarative sentence is an open statement if
(1) it contains one or more variables, and
(2) it is not a statement, but
(3) it becomes a statement when the variables in it are replaced
by certain allowable choices.
universe

examples: The number x+2 is an even integer.


x=y, x>y, x<y, ...
76

2.5:
2.6:Quantified
QuantifiedStatements
Statements
The Use of Quantifiers
notations:

p(x): The number x+2 is an even integer.

q(x,y): The numbers y+2, x-y, and x+2y are even integers.
p(5): FALSE, p( 7) : TRUE, q(4,2): TRUE
p(6): TRUE, p( 8) : FALSE, q(3,4): FALSE
Therefore,
For some x, p(x) is true.
For some x, p( x) is true.
For some x,y, q(x,y) is true.
For some x,y, q( x, y) is true.
77

2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
existential quantifier: For some x:
universal quantifier: For all x: x
x in p(x): free variable
x in x, p( x): bound variable

x, p( x) is either
true or false.

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Ex :
universe: real numbers
p ( x): x 0
q ( x): x 2 0
r ( x): x 2 3x 4 0
s( x): x 2 3 0

x[ p ( x) r ( x)]: TRUE x=4


x[ p ( x) q ( x)]: TRUE
x[ p ( x) q ( x)]: TRUE
x[ q ( x) s( x)]: FALSE x=1
x[ r ( x) s( x)]: FALSE
x=5,6,...
x[ r ( x) p ( x)]: FALSE x=-1
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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Ex : implicit quantification
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1 is

x(sin 2 x cos 2 x 1)

"The integer 41 is equal to the sum of two perfect squares."


is mn[ 41 m 2 n 2 ]

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Def.: logically equivalent for open statement p(x) and q(x)
x[ p( x) q( x)] , i.e., p( x) q( x) for any x

p(x) logically implies q(x)


x[ p( x) q( x)]

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Ex.: Universe: all integers
r ( x):2 x 1 5

then x[ r ( x) s( x)] is false

s( x): x 2 9

but xr ( x) xs( x) is true


Therefore, x[ r ( x) s( x)] xr ( x) xs( x)
but x[ p( x) q( x)] [xp( x) xq( x)]

for any p(x), q(x) and universe

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
For a prescribed universe and any open statements p(x), q(x):
x[ p ( x) q ( x)] [xp ( x) xq ( x)]
x[ p ( x) q ( x)] [xp ( x) xq ( x)]
x[ p ( x) q ( x)] [xp ( x) xq ( x)]
[xp ( x) xq ( x)] x[ p ( x) q ( x)]

Note this!

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
How do we negate quantified statements that involve a single
variable?

[xp ( x)] xp ( x)
[xp ( x)] xp ( x)
[xp ( x)] xp ( x)
[xp ( x)] xp ( x)

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Ex.

p(x): x is odd.
q(x): x2-1 is even.

Negate

x[ p( x) q( x)]

(If x is odd, then x2-1 is even.)

[x( p ( x) q ( x)] x[ ( p ( x) q ( x))]


x[ ( p ( x) q ( x))] x[ p ( x) q ( x)]
There exists an integer x such that x is odd and x2-1 is odd.
(a false statement, the original is true)
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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
multiple variables

xyp ( x, y) yxp ( x, y)
xyp ( x, y) yxp ( x, y)

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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
BUT
Ex. 2.48 p(x,y): x+y=17.

xyp ( x, y) : For every integer x, there exists an integer y such


that x+y=17. (TRUE)

yxp( x, y) : There exists an integer y so that for all integer x,


x+y=17. (FALSE)
Therefore, xyp( x, y ) yxp( x, y )
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2.6: Quantified Statements


The Use of Quantifiers
Ex

[xy[( p ( x, y) q ( x, y)) r ( x, y)]]


x[ y[( p ( x, y) q ( x, y)) r ( x, y)]]
xy[( p ( x, y) q ( x, y)) r ( x, y)]
xy[ [ p ( x, y) q ( x, y)] r ( x, y)]
xy[( p ( x, y) q ( x, y)) r ( x, y)]

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End of Part 1 of Chapter 1


Next Predicate Calculus n Logic Circuits

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