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Chapter 5

Solids & Fluid

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Contents

Solids, Liquids and Gases


Characteristics of Solid, Liquid and Gas
Density and relative density
Pressure

Pascal Principle
Archimedes Principle
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Three states of matter


At room temperature most substances exist in one of three
physical states.

solid

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liquid

gas

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The particle model


The difference between solids, liquids and gases can be
explained by the

All substances are made up of particles.


The particles are attracted to each other. Some particles
are attracted strongly to each other and others weakly.
The particles move around. They are described as
having kinetic energy.
The kinetic energy of the particles increases with
temperature.
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Particles in a solid

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Particles in a liquid

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Particles in a gas

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click

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Properties of solids, liquids and gases

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How do smells spread out?


Where is the smell coming from and how does it spread out?

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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the movement of
particles that allows them to spread
out and mix with other particles.
For example, the smell of aftershave
or perfume diffuses and is detected by
people on the other side of the room.
Use the particle model to explain these facts about diffusion:
Diffusion occurs in liquids and gases but hardly at all in
solids.
Diffusion happens more quickly for gases than for liquids.
Diffusion happens more quickly at warm temperatures
than at cooler temperatures.
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Crossword
Across:
2. Change from liquid to solid
5. Force caused by collisions of
particles
6. Arranged in a 3-dimensional
pattern
9. Spacing of particles in solids
and liquids
10. All substances are this state
at very low temperatures
11. Only liquids and gases do this

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2

3
4

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9

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Down:
1. Closely packed particles
6. Particles are close but disorganised
3. Change from gas to liquid 7. Particles widely spread out
4. Change from solid to liquid 8. Change from liquid to gas
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DEFINE DENSITY,

Density is defined as ratio of the mass of substance to its


volume. It is a measure of how tightly packed and how heavy the
molecules are in an object. Density is the amount of matter within a
certain volume.

Proof that water and ice have


different densities
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DEFINE DENSITY
To find the density

Find the mass of the


object
Find the volume of
the object

= m (kg)
V (m3)
Units for density usually express
in kg/m3

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Example 1:
A big box has mass of 20N and size 30cmx30cmx30cm,
Using all the information, calculate the density of the box.
Solution:
W = mg
20 N = m (9.81)
m = 20 / 9.81
= 2.04 kg
Volume = 30cm x 30cm x 30cm
= 0.3m x 0.3m x 0.3m
= 0.027m3

30cm

30cm
30cm

= m = 2.04 kg = 75.57 kg/m3


V
0.027m3

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DEFINE RELATIVE DENSITY, b


Also known as Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is ratio of the density of a sunstance to the
density t of water.

substance

water

(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)

No unit

1000 kg/m3

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Example 2:
If the density of an object is 4000 kg/m3 ,calculate the
specific gravity of the object. ( Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 )

b = substance (kg/m3)
water (kg/m3)
b = 4000(kg/m3)
1000 (kg/m3)

=4

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PRESSURE, P
Pressure is defined as Force per unit Area acting on a surface.

P = F (N)
A (m2)

Unit in N/m2 or Pascal (Pa)

Factors that affect the pressure acting on a surface


Contact area ( Smaller contact area greater pressure)
Force acting on the surface ( Large force greater pressure)
F

A
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A
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APPLICATION OF PRESSURE

High Pressure

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Low Pressure

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Example 3:
How many Pascals are exerted by an elephant of weight
50 000 N standing on his feet of total area 0.8m2 ?
Solution:

F = 50000 N
Area = 0.8m2
P=F/A
= 50000 / 0.8
= 62 500 Pa

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Example 4:
What Pressure is exerted by an apple of weight 1 N sitting
on area 20mm2

Solution:
F=1N
Area =20 mm2 = 0.00002m2
P=F/A
= 1 / 0.00002
= 50 000 Pa

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PRESSURE IN LIQUID
A liquid in a container exerts pressure because of it weight (Force).

P = gh

Unit in N/m2 or Pascal (Pa)

Volume, V = Ah
Density, = m
V
Mass, m = V

A
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Weight,w = Force,F = mg
= Vg
= Ahg
Pressure = F = Ahg = hg
A
A
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CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE IN A LIQUID

Depth to pressure in liquid


Liquid pressure increase
with depth
The pressure of water is
the lowest at the highest
point of the cylinder and
the pressure of water is
highest at the lowest
point of the cylinder.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE IN A LIQUID

Density to pressure in liquid


Pressure of liquid is increases with density.

Water

Oil

x1
x1 > x2
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x2

Density of cooking oil is less than water


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CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE IN A LIQUID

Fluid exerts forces in many directions. Try to submerse a


rubber ball in water to see that an upward force acts on the
float.

Fluids exert pressure in


all directions.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE IN A LIQUID


Independence of Shape and Area
Water seeks its own
level, indicating that Water
fluid pressure is
level
independent of area
and shape of its
container.
At any depth h below
the surface of the
water in any column,
the pressure P is the
same. The shape and
area are not factors.
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Example 5:
The figure shows a cross section of a dam. Calculate;
a.The pressure exerted by the water at X, if the density of
water is 1000kg/m 2
b.Explain why the bottom of the dam is built with thick
wall?
c.If there is air exerted and given that Patm is 101.3Kpa.
What is absolute pressure at point x?

6.5m

0.5m

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Solution:
a) Px = watergh
= (1000)(9.81)(6.5-0.5)
= 580860 Pa

b) This is because the water pressure increase as the


depth of water increases. So, a grater pressure is
exerted at the bottom of the dam.
c) Pabsolute = Patm + Px
= 101.3 kPa + 580860 Pa
= 682.16 kPa

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APPLICATION OF PRESSURE IN LIQUIDS


Public water supply
systems ( Water Tank)

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The wall of a dam

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PASCAL PRINCIPLE
Pascals principle states that pressure exerted on an
enclosed fluid is transmitted equally to every part of the
fluid.

Pressure in Pascal can be


expressed:
P1 = P2
F1 = F2
A1 A2

A1d1 = A2d2

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Transmitting force
A common application of this is a hydraulic lift used to raise
a car off the ground so it can be repaired at a garage.
Hydraulic press

F1 F2
P

A1 A2

An applied force F1 can be


amplified:

A2
F2 F1
A1

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Example
The cylindrical piston of a hydraulic jack has a cross-sectional
area of 0.06 m2 and the plunger has a cross-sectional area of
0.002m2.
a.The upward force for lifting a load placed on top of the large
piston is 9 000 N. calculate the downward force on the
plunger required
b.If the distance moved by the plunger is 75cm, what is the
distance moved by the large piston?

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Solution:
a) F1
A1
F1

=
=

=
=

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F2
A2
F2 A1
A2
0.002 x 9 000
0.06
300 N

b) A1d1 = A2d2
d2 =
A1 d1
A2
=
0.002 x 75
0.06
=
2.5cm

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APPLICATION OF PASCAL PRINCIPLE

Hydraulic Jack

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Hydraulic Brake

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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Archimedes' principle is the law of buoyancy.
It states that "Any object partially or completely
submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the
weight of the fluid displaced by the body."

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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Buoyant force = Weight of fluid displaced
Buoyant force = Weight object in air weight in water

Buoyant force = Vg
Volume of the submerged
object

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Volume of the liquid


displaced

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ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
Related buoyant force with the actual weight and
apparent weight
Buoyant force makes things
seem to be lighter.
The weight of an object is its
actual weight.
The weight measured when
the object is immersed in fluid is
its apparent weight.
The apparent weight loss of
the object is due to buoyant
force
Buoyant force = Apparent
weight Loss
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Law of Floatation
A floating object displaces its own weight of fluid in
which it floats.
Buoyancy explains why some objects sink and others
float.

Objects that are less density than water will float.


Objects that are more density than water will sink.
Objects that are the same density as water will neither
sink nor float.
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Law of Floatation

Which ball will sink in water?


Which ball will float in water?

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APPLICATION OF ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

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