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Crude Oil

How crude oil was formed

Microscopic plants and animals die and fall to the sea bed
Layers of sand and mud form on top
Pressure and high temperature cause oil to form
Oil obtained by drilling

The Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil


Fraction
Liquid petroleum gas
40oC

350oC
Heated
Crude
Oil

Petrol (gasoline)

Boiling pt.
< 25oC
25 60oC

Average number of
C atoms in chain

3
8

Naphtha

60 180oC

10

Paraffin

180 220oC

12

Diesel

220 250oC

20

Fuel oil

250 300oC

40

Lubricating oil

300 350oC

80

> 350oC

120

Bitumen

Properties of the fractions

The compounds produced by


the distillation of crude oil
are all hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons are compounds


which contain the elements
hydrogen and carbon.

Naming hydrocarbons
Alkanes

Methane
CH4

Ethane
C2H6

Propane
C3H8

These hydrocarbons are said to be saturated.


(They have single bonds between carbon atoms).

Fuels
Most alkanes are used as fuels to produce useful forms
of energy.
When completely burned alkanes form carbon dioxide
and water.

Equations for combustion


CH4

methane

2 O2

CO2

oxygen

carbon
dioxide

2 H2O

water

C3H8

+ 5 O2

3 CO2

+ 4 H2O

C2H4

+ 3 O2

2 CO2

2 H2O

Combustion of hydrocarbons
When burned with sufficient oxygen, hydrocarbons form
carbon dioxide and water

Alkenes

Ethene
C2H4
Alkenes are said to be unsaturated

Test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon (an alkene)


Add unsaturated compound

Shake

Global dimming

Particulates in soot come from the incomplete


combustion of fuel leaving carbon particles. These
particles cause Global Dimming by reflecting
sunlight away from the Earth.

Global Warming
main cause: carbon
dioxide from burning
fossil fuels causing a
greenhouse effect
(also methane).
Effect on the environment?

Reducing the Problem?

Acid rain
Main cause: sulfur compounds
in fuels burning to form sulphur
dioxide which dissolves in
rainwater to produce an acidic
solution ( also causes nitrogen
oxides from car exhausts.
Effect on the environment?

Reducing the problem?

Hydrogen: produced by passing an electric


current through water and the process
therefore requires lots of energy.
Hydrogen is highly flammable and would
have to be stored under special conditions.
Only product is water, therefore no
pollution.
Hydrogen + Oxygen

Water + Energy

Ethanol is made by fermentation of sugar


(this process is used to make alcoholic
drinks).
It is made from sugar cane which comes from
countries such as Brazil. Ethanol burns more
cleanly than petrol but produces less energy.
It also form carbon dioxide (but it is carbon
neutral since the plants absorbed it in the first
place.

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