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Cold Spray

Spraying of Composites
Zhou coated a carbon fibre polymer matrix composite with pure
Al and Al/Cu bi-metallic (with Al as a binding layer)
Copper, zinc, tin was also tried but unsuccessfully deposited
Found that gas heating softened the substrate better bonding
Parameters for spraying pure Al:
standoff distance 20mm
Nitrogen gas = 1.2MPa
temperature of 300C

Parameters for spraying Cu:

standoff distance 15mm
pressure 1.9 MPa
temperature 450 C

Spraying of Plastic Substrate

Zhang investigated the effects of spraying Al powder onto
plastic (ABS).
Coating was thin and not continuous and that only relatively
small particles adhered to the surface.
Heavy erosion of the plastic substrate was also reported.

Spraying of Plastic Substrate

Lupoi experimented using low density powder so as to reduce
Experimented with Al, Cu and tin
Al: slight erosion, no deposition
Cu: heavy erosion
Found that tin was most suitable for spraying a variety of
plastics (ABS, polypropylene, polystyrene)
Use of tin proved successful in reducing erosion
Parameters for spraying Tin:
pressure 5-30 bar, air
standoff distance: 103 mm
temperature not stated

Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)

Why? Improved strength, toughness, conductivity
CNT Composites:

CNT/polymer: improves matrix tensile strength
CNT/silica: improved bending strength and fracture toughness
CNT/copper: improved yield strength, tensile strength

Dispersing CNT

Spray drying
Ball milling
Turbula mixer

Cold Sprayed CNT

Bakshi prepared (spray drying):

5% CNT in Al-Si eutectic powder

Mixed with pure Al in proportions of 10wt% and 20wt%
Substrate 6061 Al alloy

CNT - Bakshi
Temperature not stated but below 600K

CNT - Bakshi

Bakshis Results

High density coating

Porosity due to splats disintegration of spray dried particles
Length of CNTs reduced as they fractured due to impact
Cold spraying of Al/CNT resulted in coatings of the order of
500 m in thickness
Cold spraying of Al-Si/CNT resulted in coatings of the order of
80 m due to poor deposition efficiency of Al-Si powders
Fracture surfaces of deposits show that the nanotubes were
uniformly distributed in the matrix

CNT/Cu (Used Sintering & hot

pressing processes)
Used to enhance the strength of CNTs (carbon nanotubes)
with reinforced Al matrix composites by introducing Cu into
the composite material
The nano-sized Cu powder and CNTs were mixed into
composite powder through high energy ball milling process
Used sintering and hot extrusion process
The weight percent of CNT is 1.0 for 5 vol.% of CNT/Cu
nanocomposite and 2.2 for 10 vol.% of CNT/Cu

Measurement Methods
Density measurement (water displacement)
Optical microscopy (microstructure)
Scanning Electron Microscope (morphology, particle size
distribution, fracture surfaces)
Tensile testing

Possible ideas:
Glass fibre substrate
Al powder
Cu powder

Why? Applications for structural, electronic or thermal


Carbon nanotubes
Al powder (perhaps Al-Si)
Cu powder (hasnt been done before using cold spray process)

Plastic powders
Used in South Africa: Nylon and polyethelene

Metallic Powder Properties

Relatively low density, good electrical conductor and thermal
conductor, corrosion resistant, high yield strength

Corrosion resistant, thermal conductor

Good electrical conductor and thermal conductor, corrosion
resistant, ductile, non magnetic

Good electrical conductor and thermal conductor, corrosion

Corrosion resistant, easily magnetised