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REGIONAL MODERN ARCHITECTURE

IN ASIA
SITI NUR FARHAIN BINTI MOHD YUSRI

1120347

GEOFFREY BAWA

MOHAMAD ADILAH BIN MOHAMAD HAINI

1121190

KEN YEANG

SITI NAJIBAH BINTI IBRAHIM@YUSOF

1120348

KISHO KUROKAWA

MOHAMAD FARIZAL BIN ZULKEFLI

1121184

SHIGERU BAN

MUHAMMAD AIMAN BIN MEFTAHUDDIN

1121185

TADAO ANDO

PUTRI NUR SARAH SYAHIRAH BINTI SULAIMAN

1120349

I M PEI

WORKS OF
GEOFFREY BAWA

INTRODUCTION
Born in 1919
Educated at Royal College and Middle Temple, London and became a
Lawyer.

Studied architecture in Architectural Association, London in 1956


In 1957, at the age of 38 , returned to Sri Lanka qualified as an architect to
take over Reid's practice.

A building can only be understood by moving around and


through it and by experiencing the modulation and feel the
spaces one moves through- from the outside into verandah,
than rooms, passages, courtyards.
Architecture cannot be totally explained but must be
experienced.
Geoffrey Bawa

PHILOSOPHY
Highly personal in his approach, evoking the
pleasures of the senses that go hand in hand
with the climate, landscape, and culture of
ancient Ceylon(Present day Sri Lanka).
Brings together an appreciation of the
Western humanist tradition in architecture
with needs and lifestyles of his own country.

The principal force behind TROPICAL


MODERNISM.

He soon realised that white cubist architecture was


unsuited to the humid tropics and shifted towards a
regionalist position, borrowing from vernacular forms and
adopting local materials and technologies

-David Robson

KEYWORDS
SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE
REGIONAL MODERNIST
INSIDE OUT
TROPICAL MODERNIST
COURTYARDS AND GARDENS

PHILOSOPHY
1.RESPECTED THE SITE AND CONTEXT

2.BUILDINGS HAD A PLAY OF LIGHT AND SHADE.


3.FLOW OF SPACES
4.FUSED VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE WITH THE MODERN
CONCEPTS TO SATIATE THE NEEDS OF THE URBAN POPULATION
5.USED SALVAGED ARTIFACTS
6. ROOF FORMS AS ELEMENTS

7. WATERBODY AN ESSENTIAL PART OF BAWAS ARCHITECTURE

THE GARDEN LUNUGANGA

Street Address

Dedduwa Lake

Location

Bentota, Sri Lanka

Architect/Planner

Geoffrey Bawa

Date

1949-1998

Building Types

landscape,
residential

Building Usage

garden,
private residence

AT THE BEGINNING

A small rubber plantation consisting of


a house and 25 acres of land.
A low hill planted with rubber and fruit
trees and coconut palms with rice fields.

NOW

The Italian inspired garden with


spectacular views over lakes and
tropical jungle
The original bungalow survive
within its cocoon of added
verandas , courtyards and loggias.

Plan of the house & garden in 1985

Juts out into a brackish lagoon lying off the estuary of the Bentota River.

PLANTATION HOUSE
A collection of courtyards, verandahs and loggias create a
haven of peace and inspiration.
Suites are individual and beautifully decorated to provide a
relaxing and memorable environment.

STUDIO
Set at the edge of a cinnamon plantation
high on the hill overlooking the lake to the south thus giving the privacy.

Sectional elevation of the house

South facade of the house

Drawing room

Exterior view of entrance to foyer

Exterior view through oversized doorframes reinforced and supported by


central columns

Exterior detail showing lattice windows

Interior view showing rustic seating


area with views to garden

Arecanut palms, Jars


& pool

Statue of leopard

Mask of Hindu Pan

Exterior view showing


a sculpture

Mouth of hell, villa park, Italy

The entry steps up to the south terrace

Aerial view showing retaining wall's


scalloped layout design

View from the sitting room across the


north terrace

2 substantial tree grow within house


"houses are inseparable from trees
Open-to-sky bathroom with a tree
we have traditionally lived outdoors
Furnished in natural timber, simple white fabric, sturdy wrougt iron lighting
fittings.
A HOUSE IS A GARDEN

This is not a garden of colorful flowers , neat borders and curling


fountains
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

it is a civilized wilderness
an assemblage of tropical plants of different scale and texture
a composition of green on green
an ever changing play of light and shade
a succession of hidden surprises and vistas
a landscape of memories and ideas

In 1948, a young man dreamt of making a garden. Today


the garden is in its prime but, after the passage of over fifty
monsoons, the young man has grown old. As he sits in his
wheelchair on the terrace and watches the sun setting
across the lake it may be that he reflects on his
achievement.

A.S.H DE SILVA HOUSE, Galle


Variant Names

Geoffrey Bawa's House

Location

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Architect/Planner

Geoffrey Bawa

Date

1960

Building Type

Residential

Building Usage

Private residence

Keywords

courtyard house

Tropical Modernism favoured white abstract forms


and horizontal rooflines, though Bawa was soon
forced to admit that overhanging pitched roofs
offered the best protection against tropical sun
and rain.
His first essay in roof architecture was a house for
a doctor called A.S.H. de Silva which was
commissioned for a steeply sloping site in Galle

House for a doctor in


galle, on a sloping site,
with the house in the
upper part of the site,
with a corridor leading
down to the dispensary
by the roadside.
The house is modernist &
traditional at the same
time.
At the very heart of the
house is a planted court,
fountain and pool

PLAN

SECTION

CENTRAL COURT AND LIVING ROOM

APPROACH DRIVEWAY

ENTRANCE WITH REFLECTING POOL

CENTRAL POOL COURT

PLAN OF COUNTRY HOUSE. MIES VAN


DER ROHE, ARCHITECT, 1923

PLAN OF A.S.H. DE SILVA HOUSE, 1960

In plan the Plan of De silva house recalls the pin-wheel layout of Rohes
brick country house (1923)
At the very heart where Bawa has placed a planted court, fountain
and pool, Wright would have put the chimney there

33RD LANE HOUSE, COLOMBO


Variant Names

Geoffrey Bawa's House

Street Address

33rd lane, Bagatelle


Road

Location

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Architect/Planner

Geoffrey Bawa

Date

1960-1998

Building Type

Residential

Building Usage

Private residence

Keywords

Adaptive re-use;
courtyard house

Main entrance to the house

The house in 33rd Lane is an essay in


architectural bricolage.
Elements salvaged from old buildings in
Sri Lanka and South India were artfully
incorporated into the evolving
composition.

Columns at the end of the hallway.


Door painted by D. Friend

1958 Bawa bought the third house in


a row of four small houses.
He converted it into a pied--terre
(lodging for occasional use) with
living room, bedroom, tiny kitchen
and room for a servant.
After some time he bought the fourth
and this was colonized to serve as
dining room and second living room.
Ten years later the remaining
bungalows were acquired and
added into the composition and the
first in the row was converted into a
four-storey tower.

Patio with bench adjacent


to central seating room

Over a period of forty years the houses


were subjected to continual change.
Although the plan form of the whole
might at each stage have been
thought to be simply the result of an
arbitrary process of stripping away and
adding, any accidental or picturesque
quality has always been tempered by a
strong sense of order and composition.
It was here that Bawa developed his
interest in architectural bricolage.

Roof terrace

The final result is an introspective labyrinth of rooms and garden courts


which together create the illusion of limitless space. Words like inside and
outside lose all meaning: here are rooms without roofs and roofs without
walls, all connected by a complex matrix of axes and internal vistas.

Ground floor plan

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

SECTION

Lobby

View from the garage down


the entrance hallway

Courtyard in lobby area

2nd Courtyard in lobby area

Dinning area

Room on Ground Floor

View from bedroom towards the garden

Decorated door to upstairs seating room

Upstairs seating room

TRITON HOTEL ,AHUNGALLA,1979


THE TRITON HOTEL WAS COMMISSIONED BY HOTEL DEVELOPMENT FIRM AITKEN
SPENCE IN 1979.

AERIAL VIEW OF THE ENTIRE HOTEL AND BEACHSCAPE

MAIN ENTRANCE FROM


COLOMBOGALLE ROAD

LONG APPROACH DRAMATIZING


THE ARRIVAL

ENTRANCE
THROUGHT THE
COCONUT TREE
POOL

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

THE BASIC UNIT OF THE HOTEL IS A SINGLE-NODED CORRIDOR.


LINKED OPEN PAVILLIONS

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

The Triton Hotel


features a very
simple and
clean
architectural
detailing with
minimal
ornamentation
VIEW FROM MAIN LOBBY

INTERIOR SPACES ARE LIGHT


AND AIRY, WITH EITHER PALE
TILED FLOORS OR CARPETS IN
NEUTRAL TONES.
PLANTERS IN THE OPEN-AIR
LOBBIES AND HALLWAYS BLUR
THE LINES BETWEEN INTERIOR
AND EXTERIOR SPACE

VIEW OF BAR AREA AND POOL

RUHUNU UNIVERSITY, MANTARA

Street Address

Ruhunu University

Location

Matara, Sri Lanka

Architect/Planner

Geoffrey Bawa

Client

Ministry of Education

Date

1980-1988

Century

20th

Decade

1980s

Building Type

Educational

Building Usage

University

SITE PLAN

ELEVATIONS

DESIGN OF THE UNIVERSITY


BAWAS DESIGN DEPLOYED OVER
FIFTY SEPARATE PAVILIONS LINKED BY
A SYSTEM OF COVERED LOGGIAS
ON A PREDOMINANTLY
ORTHOGONAL GRID
USED A LIMITED VOCABULARY OF
FORMS AND MATERIALS BORROWED
FROM THE PORTO-SINHALESE
BUILDING TRADITIONS OF THE LATE
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
BUT IT EXPLOITED THE CHANGING
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SITE TO
CREATE AN EVER VARYING
SEQUENCE OF COURTS AND
VERANDAHS, VISTAS AND CLOSURES.
THE RESULT WAS A MODERN
CAMPUS, VAST IN SIZE BUT HUMAN IN
SCALE.

MASSING
BAWA PLACED THE VICE
CHANCELLOR'S LODGE AND A
GUEST HOUSE ON THE WESTERN
HILL AND FLOODED THE
INTERVENING VALLEY TO CREATE A
BUFFER BETWEEN THE ROAD AND
THE MAIN CAMPUS.
WRAPPED THE BUILDINGS OF THE
SCIENCE FACULTY AROUND THE
NORTHERN HILL AND THOSE OF THE
ARTS FACULTY AROUND THE
SOUTHERN HILL, USING THE
DEPRESSION BETWEEN THEM FOR
THE LIBRARY AND OTHER CENTRAL
FACILITIES.

Central valley with library

BUILDINGS WERE PLANNED


ORTHOGONALLY ON A NORTHSOUTH GRID BUT WERE
ALLOWED TO 'RUN WITH SITE'.
NATURAL FEATURES SUCH AS
ROCKY OUTCROPS WERE
INCORPORATED INTO THE
BASES OF BUILDINGS OR
BECAME FOCAL FEATURES OF
THE OPEN SPACES.
THE LIMITED ARCHITECTURAL
VOCABULARY CLEARLY
DERIVES FROM PORTOSINHALESE TRADITIONS

Exterior view showing terraces and


juxtaposition of buildings with each other
and landscape

PAVILIONS, VARYING IN SCALE


AND EXTENT, ARE CONNECTED BY
COVERED LINKS AND SEPARATED
BY AN EVER-CHANGING
SUCCESSION OF GARDEN
COURTS.
EVERYWHERE THERE ARE PLACES
TO PAUSE AND CONSIDER, TO SIT
AND CONTEMPLATE, TO GATHER
AND DISCUSS.
THE MAIN ROUTES EITHER CUT
UNCOMPROMISINGLY ACROSS
THE CONTOURS OR MEANDER
HORIZONTALLY ALONG THEM.

EXTERIOR VIEW FROM STREET LEVEL


SHOWING USE OF STONE AND
CONCRETE IN FAADE

BUILDINGS ARE ALIGNED


CAREFULLY TO MINIMIZE
SOLAR INTRUSION AND
MITIGATE THE EFFECTS OF THE
SOUTH-WEST MONSOON.
FEW OF THE SPACES ARE AIRCONDITIONED AND THE
BUILDINGS RELY FOR THE MOST
PART ON NATURAL
VENTILATION.

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING LARGE


DIMENSIONS AND TRIPLE STORY
COVERED ENTRANCE PORTICO

EXTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING


PASSAGE TO PLANTED
COURTYARD

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING


BUILDING'S WRAPPING TERRACES
AND POSITION ON A HILL

EXTERIOR VIEW OF FAADE


SHOWING STILT SUPPORT FRAME

SRI LANKAN PARLIAMENT,KOTTE,1979

PLAN

SECTION

ARIEL VIEW OF THE ISLAND SITE

DETAILING OF EXTERNAL FACADE

FIRST SKETCH OF MAIN CHAMBERS

ELEVATION

MAIN CHAMBERS

MEMBERS GARDEN

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Geoffrey Bawa by Taylor, B. B.

www.geoffreybawa.com
Remembering Bawa David Robson

http://www.archdaily.com/tag/geoffrey-bawa/

KEN YEANG
Regional Modern Architecture: Contexts of Asia

General

Ken Yeang (born 1948) is a Malaysian architect, ecologist and


author known for his signature ecoarchitecture and ecomasterplans

An early pioneer of ecology-based green design and


masterplanning, carrying out design and research in this field since
1971

General

He is named by the Guardian as "one of the 50 people


who could save the planet".
Yeangs operating headquarters Hamzah and Yeang is
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with other offices in London
as Ken Yeang Design International and Beijing (China)
as North Hamzah Yeang Architectural and Engineering
Company.

Early Life and Education

Born in Penang, Malaysia, attended Penang Free


School. In 1961, Yeang attended Cheltenham Boys
College, a British public school in Gloucestershire

He obtained his qualifications in architecture from the


Architectural Association School in London (AA)

Post-graduate at Cambridge University Department of


Architecture. His doctoral dissertation, "A Theoretical
Framework for Incorporating Ecological
Considerations in the Design and Planning of the Built
Environment" earned him a PhD in ecological design
and planning

Early Life and Education

Yeang took ecology courses at the Department of


Environmental Biology at Cambridge University

Attended (partially) the ecological land use planning


course at University of Pennsylvania, Department of
Landscape Architecture under Ian McHarg

Registered as a professional architect with

ARB (Architects Registration Board) (UK)


RIBA (Royal Institute of Architects) (UK)
PAM (Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia)
SIA (Singapore Institute of Architects)

Bioclimatic Skyscraper

Yeang's early work applies bioclimatic (climate-responsive) principles to


building design, to create low-energy passive-mode buildings

This climate-responsiveness approach engenders critical regionalist


features in his work, where climatic responses of the design provide the
links to its locality

The bioclimatic approach subsequently became the underlying armature for


his ecological design agenda

Aesthetics of Eco-architecture

Pursuit of eco-architecture and eco-master planning theories,


concepts and ideas have been carried out in parallel with an
exploration for an 'ecological aesthetic

Yeang contends that an ecological architectural aesthetic should

resemble a living system

looking natural

verdant and hirsute with nature and its processes visible in the bio-integration of
the synthetic builtform's physical constituents (abiotic) with the native fauna, flora
(the biotic constituents) and the environmental biological processes of the land

Theory of Ecological Design

Yeang applies concept of 'designing architecture as constructed


ecological habitats' to all his work

Explores the concept of 'eco-mimicry' as designing the built


environment as constructed ecosystems that mimic the processes,
structure and attributes of ecosystems

ecosystem biological structure

ecosystem materials recycling

ecosystems increasing efficient energy use

Theory of Ecological Design

Yeang believes that our existent built environment is


regarded as having alienated humans from nature

He defines eco-design as 'achieving a benign and


seamless bio-integration of our built environment and
human activities with the natural environment

He regards this bio-integration function to include:

Theory of Ecological Design

the use of eco-cells for internal integrating of


builtforms, repairing ecologically fragmented territory
by ecological corridors and fingers to provide an
ecological nexus to connect to the landscape and
hinterland

minimising disruptions with adjoining ecosystems,


maintaining sensitive eco-balance within habitats

Theory of Ecological Design

enhancing biodiversity, repairing human-caused


fragmented ecosystems, enhancing ecological nexus
(through devices such as eco landbridges, eco
undercrofts, vertical green walls and landscaping)

Theory of Ecological Design


enhancing

reducing

existent urban greenery

or having zero dependency on nonrenewable sources of energy

Theory of Ecological Design

designing for water conservation and management,


providing sustainable drainage systems (including
sustainable drainage and use of constructed
wetlands)

using green building materials that are recyclable,


reusable and re-integrateable benignly back into the
natural environment

PROJECT | Solaris, Fusionopolis (Phase 2B), One North


Singapore

Project Name
Solaris, Fusionopolis (Phase 2B), One North Singapore
Location
1 Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore
Client
SoilBuild Group Holdings
Start Date
2008 (Design)
Completion Date
Dec 2010

PROJECT | Solaris, Fusionopolis (Phase 2B), One North


Singapore

PROJECT | Solaris, Fusionopolis (Phase 2B), One North


Singapore

PROJECT |DIGI Technology Operation Centre, Malaysia


Project Name
DIGI Technology Operation Centre, Malaysia
Location
Subang High Tech Park, Shah Alam, Selangor
Client
DIGI Telecommunications Sdn. Bhd.
Start Date
April 2009
Completion Date
July 2010

PROJECT |DIGI Technology Operation Centre, Malaysia

PROJECT |DIGI Technology Operation Centre, Malaysia

KISHO KUROKAWA

BIOGRAPHY

BIOGRAPHY
Born in Kanie, Aichi
Kurokawa studied architecture at Kyoto
University, graduating with a bachelor's degree
in 1957.
Attended University of Tokyo, under the
supervision of Kenzo Tange.
Received A master's degree in 1959.
Went on to study for a doctorate of
philosophy, but subsequently dropped out in
1964

KEY ARCHITECTURAL
CONCEPTS
IMPERMANENCE
MATERIALITY
RECEPTIVITY
DETAIL
SUSTAINABILITY

IMPERMANENCE
Kurokawa noted that, with the exception of Kyoto and Kanazawa, most Japanese cities
were destroyed during World War II. When Western cities are destroyed, brick and
stone remained as proof of their past existence. Sadly, remarks Kurokawa, Japans cities
were mostly built of wood and natural elements, so they burnt to ashes and
disappeared completely.
He also noted that both Edo (now Tokyo) and Kyoto were almost entirely destroyed
during several battles of the Warring States period in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The shifting of power caused parts of Japan to be destroyed. On the same note,
historically speaking, Japans cities have almost yearly been hit with natural
disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons,
floods and volcanic eruptions. This
continuous destruction of buildings and
cities has given the Japanese population,
in Kurokawa's words, an uncertainty about
existence, a lack of faith in the visible, a
suspicion of the eternal.

The National Art Center, Tokyo

MATERIALITY
Kurokawa explains that the Japanese tried to exploit the natural textures and colors of materials used
in a building. The traditional tea room was intentionally built of only natural materials such as earth
and sand, paper, the stems and leaves of plants, and small trees. Trees from a person's own backyard
were preferred for the necessary timbers. All artificial colors were avoided, and the natural colors
and texture of materials were shown to their best advantage. This honesty in materials stemmed
from the idea that nature is already beautiful in itself. The Japanese feel that food tastes
better, wood looks better, materials are better when natural.
There is a belief that maximum enjoyment comes from the
natural state.
This tradition on materiality was alive in Kurokawas work
which treated iron as iron, aluminum as aluminum, and
made the most of the inherent finish of concrete. The
tradition of honesty of materiality is present in Kurokawas
capsule building. In it, he showed technology with no
artificial colors." The capsule, escalator unit, elevator unit
and pipe and ductwork were all exterior and exposed.
Kurokawa opened structures and made no attempt to hide
the connective elements, believing that beauty was inherent
in each of the individual parts. This bold approach created a
texture of elements that became the real materiality of the whole

The Museum of Modern Art, Wakayama

RECEPTIVITY
The notion of receptivity is a crucial Japanese ideapossibly a tradition." Kurokawa stated that Japan
is a small country. For more than a thousand years, the Japanese had an awareness of neighboring
China and Korea and, in the modern age, Portugal, Great Britain and America, to name a few. The only
way for a small country like Japan to avoid being attacked by these empires was to make continuous
attempts to absorb foreign cultures for study and, while establishing friendly relations with the larger
nations, preserve its own identity. This receptivity is the aspect that allowed Japan to grow from a
farming island into an imperial nation, first using Chinese political systems and Chinese advancement,
then Western techniques and knowledge. Japan eventually surpassed China and stumbled upon itself
during World War II. After the war, Japan, using this same perspective absorbed American culture and
technology.
Kurokawas architecture follows the string of receptivity but, at one point, tries to diverge and find its
own identity. At first, Kurokawa's work followed the Modern Movement that was introduced in Japan
by Tange, Isozaki and their peers. Tange showed the world that Japan could build modern buildings.
His peers followed and continued the style. Then at one point in the 1960s, Kurokawa and a small
group of architects began a new wave of contemporary Japanese architecture, believing that previous
solutions and imitations were not satisfactory for the new era: life was not present in Modernism.
They labeled their approach metabolism." Kurokawas work became receptive to his own
philosophy, the Principle of Life." (He saw architecture and cities as a dynamic process where parts
needed to be ready for change. He mostly used steel in open frames and units that were prefabricated
and interchangeable.)

DETAIL
Kurokawa explained that the attention paid to detail in Japanese work derived essentially
from the typical attempt to express individuality and expertise. In Japan the execution of
details was a process of working not from the whole to the parts but from the parts to the
whole. Every wood connection in a house was carefully crafted from the inside out.
Japan is a country that moved from a non-industrial country to a fully industrial nation in
less than 50 years, during the Meiji revolution. This sharp jump from producing goods by
craftsmen to industrially realized production was so rapid that the deep-rooted tradition of
fine craftsmanship as a statement of the creator did not disappear. As a result, the
Japanese maker continues to be instilled with a fastidious preoccupation for fine details,
which can be seen in contemporary architecture, art and industry. The attention to detail,
an integral part of Japan's tradition, forms a uniquely indigenous aesthetic.
Similarly, Kurokawas architecture features carefully detailed connections and finishes. He
confessed: This attention to detail is also an important key to understand my own
architecture. The belief in the importance of details also suggests the new hierarchy.
Kurokawa believed that, while Western architecture and cities have been organized with a
hierarchy from the infrastructure to the parts and details, his new approach to
contemporary Japanese architecture focused on the autonomy of parts.

SUSTAINABILITY
In 1958, Kisho Kurokawa predicted a Transition from the Age of the Machine to the Age
of Life, and has continually utilized such key words of life principles as metabolism
(metabolize and recycle), ecology, sustainability, symbiosis, intermediate areas
(ambiguity) and Hanasuki (Splendor of Wabi) in order to call for new styles to be
implemented by society.
For four decades, Kisho Kurokawa created eco-friendly and sustainable architectural
projects. In 2003 he was awarded the Dedalo-Minosse International Prize (Grand Prix) for
his creation of the Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia and KLIA is the first and
only airport in the world to receive the United Nations' Green Globe 21 certification for
the airport's commitment to environmental responsibility each year since 2004. In 2008,
the Kisho Kurokawa Green Institute was founded in his honor.

PROJECTS

November 13, 2006 /The National Art Center


Kisho Kurokawa Tokyo, Japan
The National Art Center, Japan's largest exhibition
facility, connects with the Roppongi downtown as an
extension of the street. As the trees surrounding the
building grow the atrium will become a forested public
space.

October 26, 2001 /Big Eye


Kisho Kurokawa , Oita City, Japan

Stadium

The gentle curves of the spherical design


resemble the curves of the surrounding
landscape. The choice of a sphere, an
expression of abstract symbolism, enables the
retractable roof to move along its surface

November
25,
2002
/Technopolis
Kisho Kurokawa ,One-North, Singapore
Skyscrapers
The 123,000 square meter building, internally
referred to as "Technopolis", will be the first major
development in the Central Exchange - the cluster
for the Infocommunications & Media (ICM)
industries in One-North.

January 02, 2006 /Nakagin Capsule Tower


Kisho Kurokawa ,Tokyo, Japan
Hotels
The Nakagin Capsule Tower was the first capsule
architecture design, the capsule as a room inserted
into a mega-structure, built for actual use. The Capsule
Tower
realizes
the
ideas
of
metabolism,
exchangeability, recycleablity as the prototype of
sustainable architecture.

1970s (The Sony Tower)

Osaka-City, Osaka , Japan


Design / Construction19721976
The Sony Tower was designed as a solid
showroom for Sony Electronics. From the
beginning, Sony Tower was planned to be a realtime, on-line "information tree", connecting other
Sony Towers in New York, London, Paris and other
major cities by satellite. Along the outside of the
central display space, the stairs, elevator,
escalator, and toilet are capsulized.
The capsules are the same size as those of the
Nakagin Capsule Tower, but the exterior is made
of stainless steel. To connect the basement to the
public parking lot, the utility rooms are all placed
on the roof. The utility pipes are exposed, also like
those of the Nakagin Tower, to facilitate the
maintenance and recycling of the pipes. The Sony
Tower is another prototypical example of
sustainable architecture.

* The 11th Japan Sign Design Association Award,


Gold Prize, 1977
* Hiroba Award, 1977

1980s (Central Plaza One)


Central Plaza One is the fifth-tallest
skyscraper in the city of Brisbane,
Queensland, Australia.
At the time of its completion it was the
tallest building in Brisbane, holding this title
until Riparian Plaza's completion in 2005.
Located next to Central Plaza One is a
smaller version of the tower with a similar
design, Central Plaza Two, which has a
height of 110 m. In 2008, Central Plaza
Three was built to 57 metres, completing
the Central Plaza Complex.
Architectural Style : Modernism

1990s- Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)


The ground breaking ceremony for Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) took place on 1 June
1993[citation needed] when the government decided that the existing Kuala Lumpur airport, then
known as Subang International Airport (now Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport) could not handle future
demand. It was created as part of the Multimedia Super Corridor a grand development plan for the
nation.
Upon KLIA's completion, Subang Airport's Terminal 1 building was demolished. Malaysia Airports
agreed to redevelop the remaining Terminal 3 to create a specialist airport for turboprop and charter
planes surrounded by a residential area and a business park. The IATA airport code KUL was
transferred from Subang Airport, which currently handles only turboprop aircraft, general aviation and
military aircraft. Subang Airport's IATA code was changed to SZB.

2000- (Astana Airport )


The airport traces its history to 1931 when Astana's first airfield was constructed. Airport infrastructure
has been continuously upgraded, making it possible to accept heavy aircraft by 1948, and starting 24hour operation in 1956.
Following the transfer of the country capital to Astana in 1997, the airport underwent a series of major
reconstructions which brought it up to international standards. A new passenger terminal designed by
the late Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa was officially opened in February 2005.

Currently Astana Airport accepts all types of aircraft without limitation of take-off weight. During 2012,
traffic increased to 2,303,143 passengers.

OTHER PROJECTS

Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo

ita Bank Dome, Japan

National Art Center, Tokyo

Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum

Zenit Stadium, Saint Petersburg, Russia

AWARD

AWARDS
Gold Medal, Acadmie d'Architecture, France (1986)
Richard Neutra Award, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (1988)
48th Art Academy Award, highest award for artists and architects in Japan (1992)
Renaming The Art Institute of Chicago to the Kisho Kurokawa Gallery of Architecture (1994)
Pacific Rim Award, American Institute of Architects, Los Angeles chapter (first awarded, 1997)
Honorary Fellow, Royal Institute of British Architects, United Kingdom
Honorary Member, Union of Architects, Bulgaria
Dedalo-Minosse International Prize (Grand Prix) for Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia (2003
2004)
Certification for a sustainable airport, Green Globe 21, United Nations, for Kuala Lumpur International
Airport (2003)
Walpole Medal of Excellence, United Kingdom (2005)
Shungdu Friendship Award, China (2005)
International Architecture Award, The Chicago Athenaeum Museum (2006)

TADAO ANDO
I was born and raised in Japan; I do my work
here [in Japan].

PUTRI NUR SARAH SYAHIRAH BT SULAIMAN


1120349

Ieoh Ming Pei (96y/o)


Born : April 26, 1917 , Guangzhou
Education:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
B. Arch. 1940
Harvard Graduate School of Design
M. Arch. 1946
Professional Experience:
National Defense Research Committee, 19431945
Harvard Graduate School of Design, Assistant Professor,
19451948
Webb & Knapp, Inc., Director of Architecture, 19481955
I. M. Pei & Associates, 19551966
I. M. Pei & Partners, 19661989
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, 19891990
Pei Partnership Architects, 1992-

modernist, with significant


cubist themes

National Gallery East Building, Washington, DC

"For me," he said, "the important distinction is between a stylistic approach


to the design; and an analytical approach giving the process of due
consideration to time, place, and purpose ... My analytical approach
requires a full understanding of the three essential elements ... to arrive
at an ideal balance among them - I.M PEI

combining traditional architectural


elements with progressive designs based
on simple geometric patterns

Pei felt that his design for the Bank of China


Tower in Hong Kong needed to reflect "the
aspirations of the Chinese people

JFK Presidential Library / I.M. Pei

I.M. Peis signature geometric


shapes of concrete steel and glass

The impressive list included Louis


Kahn, Mies van der Rohe, Alvar
Aalto, Franco Albini, Llucio Costa,
and five other relatively unknown
architects from around the world
including I.M. Pei.

"The talk about modernism versus post-modernism is unimportant. It's a


side issue. An individual building, the style in which it is going to be
designed and built, is not that important. The important thing, really, is
the community. How does it affect life? - I.M. PEI

include auditoria, temporary


exhibition galleries, staging areas,
storage, internal communications,
workshops, and
delivery/expedition areas.

"I think the transparency of the pyramid is very


important here. Not only to bring light into the
reception room, but also to see the entire
complex of the Louvre through it."

a shopping center beneath the Arc du Carrousel and the


famous Pyramide Inverse, was installed, an inverted pyramid
that brings light to the interior while dramatically hanging just
inches from a smaller stone pyramid