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Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Elektrolisis

Factors Affecting Electrolysis


Ada 3 faktor utama yang mempengaruhi hasil elektrolisis
There are 3 main factors that can affect the electrolysis
products, there are:

1. Kedudukan ion dalam siri elektrokimika


position of ion in the electrochemical series

2. Kepekatan larutan
the concentration of solution

3. the type of electrode


jenis elektrod

The Position Of Ions In The Electrochemical Series

Ion yang terletak di atas akan lebih sukar di nyahcas. Semakin ke


bawah, ion akan semakin mudah dinyahcas
The ions at the top of the list is more difficult to be discharged,
but as we go down the table, they become easier to be
discharged. For example, Cu2+ easier to be discharged compare
with H+ and OH- is easier to be discharged compare with I-.

Elektrolisis Larutan Kuprum(ll) Sulfat


The Electrolysis Of Copper(ll) Sulphate Solution
Apakah yang terjadi semasa proses tersebut?
What happen during the process?
Ikuti langkah-langkah di bawah: Steps you have to follow:
1. Kenal pasti apakah ion-ion yang hadir?
Determine what kind of ions present?
2. Pergerakan / tarikan ion ke elektrod
Movement / attraction of ions to the electrodes

3. Pemilihan ion (berdasarkan siri elektrokimia)


Selection of ion (based on the elecrochemical series)
4. Nyahcas ion persamaan)
Discharged of ions ( equation)

Elektrolisis Larutan Kuprum(ll) Sulfat


The Electrolysis Of Copper(ll) Sulphate Solution
Dalam larutan kuprum(ll) sulfat, CuSO4 ion-ion yang
hadir ialah:
In copper(ll) sulphate solution, CuSO4, ions that
present are:

Ion kuprum(ll), Cu2+ dan ion sulfat, SO42- dari dari


kuprum(ll) sulfat, CuSO4
Copper(ll) ion, Cu2+ and sulphate ion, SO42-

(from the copper(ll) sulphate)

Ion hidrogen, H+ dan ion hidroksida, OH- (dari


air, H2O)
Hydrogen ion, H+ and hydroxide ion, OH- (from
water)

Seterusnya, ion akan tertarik ke elektrod yang


berlawanan cas
Ions will attract to the opposite charged electrode

+
SO42- and OH-

_
Cu+ and H+

Berdasarkan SE, Based on ES,

Ion Cu+ berada di


bawah ion H+
Dan

Ion OH- berada di


dibawah SO42So,
Ion Cu+ dan OHakan dinyahcas

Anod / Anode 4OH- - 4e

O2 + 2H2O

Katod / Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e

Cu

Thats why bubbles (colourless gas) released at anode


(oxygen) and brown layer deposited at cathode
(copper) .. And the cathode became thicker
Jika dibiarkan berterusan, keamatan
warna biru larutan kuprum(ll) sulfat
akan berkurang
If the process being kept for a while, the
intensity of the blue colour decrease /
blue colour become paler

Faktor Kepekatan

Concentration

Jika kepekatan ion tertentu adalah tinggi (banyak), ia


akan dipilih untuk dinyahcas walaupun
kedududukannya dalam SE adalah lebih tinggi.
If the concentration of a particular ion is high, it will be
selected to be discharged even though it is higher in
the electrochemical series.

Contoh: jika asid hidroklorik cair di elektrolisis, gas


hidrogen akan dibebaskan di katod dan gas oksigen
akn dibebaskan di anod..
For example, if dilute hydrochloric acid is electrolysed,
hydrogen gas is given off at the cathode and oxygen
gas at the anode
Tetapi jika asid pekat digunakan, , gas hidrogen akan
dibebaskan di katod, tetapi dan gas klorin akan
dibebaskan di anod..

However, when concentrated acid is used, hydrogen


gas is still given off at the cathode, but chlorine
rather than oxygen gas will be released at the anode,
even though chloride ion is in a higher position in ES.

Jika asid hidroklorik cair digunakan,


hasilnya ialah:
If dilute hydrochloric acid is used,
the product:
Gas oksigen, O2

Gas hidrogen, H2

Jika asid hidroklorik pekat digunakan,


hasilnya ialah:
If concentrated hydrochloric acid is
used, the product:
Gas klorin, Cl2
Gas hidrogen, H2

Jika asid hidroklorik cair digunakan:


If dilute hydrochloric acid is used:

Gas oksigen, O2
Gas hidrogen, H2
Ion yang hadir :
ion hidrogen, H+ dan ion klorida, Cl- (daripada asid hidroklorik,
HCl) ion hidrogen, H+ dan ion hidroksida, OH- (daripada air)
Ions that present:
Hidrogen ion, H+ dan chloride ion, Cl- (from hydrochloric acid,
HCl) Hidrogen ion, H+ dan hydroxide ion, OH- (from water)
Ion H+ tertarik ke katod dan ion Cl- dan OH- akan tertarik ke anod

Di katod: Ion H+ akan dinyahcas 2H+ + 2e


Di anod: Ion OH- akan dinyahcas 4OH- - 4e

H2
2H2O + O2

Jika asid hidroklorik pekat digunakan:


If concentrated hydrochloric acid is used:

Gas klorin, Cl2


Gas hidrogen, H2
Ion yang hadir :
ion hidrogen, H+ dan ion klorida, Cl- (daripada asid hidroklorik, HCl)
ion hidrogen, H+ dan ion hidroksida, OH- (daripada air)
Ions that present:
Hidrogen ion, H+ dan chloride ion, Cl- (from hydrochloric acid, HCl)
Hidrogen ion, H+ dan hydroxide ion, OH- (from water)
Ion H+ tertarik ke katod dan ion-ion Cl- dan OH- akan tertarik ke
anod

Di katod: Ion H+ akan dinyahcas


Di anod: Ion Cl- akan dinyahcas

2H+ + 2e
2Cl- - 2e

H2
Cl2

Type of Electrode

Jika elektrolisis menggunakan elektrod logam yang direndam


di dalam larutan garamnya, anod akan melarut / terhakis
terion / semakin kecil / nipis
When the electrolysis using the electrodes that is immersed in
its salt solution, anode will ionize/dissolve / corrode
Anode: Cu - 2e
Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e

Cu2+
Cu

Keamatan warna biru larutan kuprum(ll) sulfat kekal


tidak berubah Mengapa?
The intensity of the blue colour of the copper(ll)
sulphate solution remain unchanged
Why?

Contoh lain: Jika elektrolisis larutan zink nitrat


dengan menggunakan elektrod zink, maka anod akan
melarut / terhakis terion / semakin kecil / nipis
Example: If electrolysis using zinc nitrate solution
with zinc electrodes, anode will ionize / dissolve /
corrode
Anode : Zn 2e
Zn2+

Cathode : ion hidrogen, H+


dan ion zink, Zn2+ tertarik ke
katod dan ion H+ akan dipilih
untuk dinyahcas
2H+ + 2e
H2

Elektrolisis Dalam Industri Electrolysis In Industry

Aplikasi Elektrolisis Dalam Industri


Industrial Applications of Electrolysis
Electrolysis has many varied industrial applications.
The major applications of electrolysis in industry are
Pengekstrakan Logam

Penulenan Logam
Penyaduran

Extraction of Metals

Purification of Metal

Electroplating

Extraction of Aluminium From Its Ore


Aluminium is the most abundant metal found in the
earths crust.
It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earths solid
surface.
It is also a very useful metal due to its low density and
ability to resist corrosion.
The main source of aluminium is bauxite (Aluminium
Oxide, Al2O3).
In industry, aluminium is extracted by electrolysis from
bauxite, (aluminium oxide, Al2O3)

Pengekstrakan Aluminium Extraction of Aluminium

Aluminium di ekstrak daripada aluminium oksida lebur, Al2O3


(bauksit)
Aluminium is extracted from molten aluminium oxide, Al2O3
(bauxite)
Apabila lebur, aluminium oksida akan terurai kepada ion-ion
aluminium, Al3+ dan oksida, O2When melted, aluminium oxide will decompose to form
aluminium ions, Al3+ and oxide ions, O2-

Al2O3

Al3+ + O2-

Takat lebur aluminium oksida sangat tinggi, oleh itu, sejenis


sebatian aluminium yang dinamakan krolit, Na3AIF6 digunakan
untuk menurunkan takat leburnya
The melting point of aluminium oxide is very high (<2 000oC), so
another aluminium compound called cryolite (Na3AIF6) is added to
lower down the melting point (about 980oC).

During electrolysis, the aluminium ions, Al3+ are attracted


towards the graphite cathode.
The ions are discharged and become molten aluminium metal.
The partial equation of this reaction is as follow:
Al3+ + 3e
Al
At the anode, oxygen gas is collected. The equation of this
reaction is as follow:
2O2- - 4e
O2

Penulenan Kuprum

+
Kuprum tak tulen
Impure copper

Purification Of Copper

_
Kuprum tulen
Pure copper
Larutan kuprum(ll)
sulfat, CuSO4

Kuprum tak tulen bertindak sebagai anod dan


kuprum tulen sebagai katod
impure copper will be the anode and a thin pure
copper plate is used as a cathode.
The electrolyte is the aqueous salt solution of the metal

Apabila arus elektrik mengalir, logam kuprum dari elektrod tak


tulen akan melarut / terion menjadi ion kprum(ll), Cu2+
Cu - 2e
Cu2+
When electricity flows, the copper dissolves from the impure
anode: Cu - 2e
Cu2+ and goes into solution as copper(ll)
ions.
Bendasing yang terdapat pada kuprum tak tulen tidak akan
melarut, sebaliknya ditinggalkan
Impurities in the copper do not dissolve, and instead fall off the
anode as anode sludge.

Di katod, ion kuprum(ll) akan terenap sebagai logam kuprum


tulen
At the cathode, the copper ions are deposited as pure copper
metal. Cu2+ + 2e
Cu

Penyaduran

Electroplating

Menyadur dengan lapisan logam pelindung


Coating with a thin protective layer of metal

Katod adalah logam yang hendak disadur (sudu)


Cathode is the object to be electroplated (spoon).
Anod adalah logam penyadur (kuprum) dan elektrolit adalah
larutan garam logam penyadur (kuprum(ll) sulfat)
The anode is the plating metal (copper), and the electrolyte
needs to be a solution of a salt of this metal (copper(II)
sulphate).

Di anod, atom kuprum, Cu akan terion


membentuk ion kuprum(ll), Cu2+
In anode, the copper atoms from the
electrode are ionised to form copper(II) ions.
Cu -2e
Cu2+ / Cu
Cu2+ + 2e

Di katod, ion-ion kuprum(ll), Cu2+ akan dinyahcas


membentuk atom (logam) kuprum, Cu dan terenap di
permukaan sudu.
In cathode, the copper ions are discharged to form
copper atom Cu2+ + 2e
Cu and then deposit on the
surface of the spoon

Sel Kimia

Chemical Cell

2 logam (elektrod) yang berbeza direndam dalam


elektrolit dan dihubungkan dengan wayar tanpa bekalan
kuasa
2 different metals (electrodes) immersed in an electrolyte
and connected by wire without a power source

Kuprum
Copper

Zink
Zinc

Beza keupayaan antara 2 logam ini akan menghasilkan arus


elektrik
The potential difference by the 2 different electrodes will
produce electricity

1.

Sel Voltan

Voltaic Cell

Magnesium
Magnesium

Kuprum
Copper

Dalam sel ini, tidak mempunyai bekalan elektrik. Oleh itu,


bagaimanakah kita akan menentukan yang mana anod dan
katod?
In this cell, theres no electricity provided. So, how we are
going to determine which electrode is anode, and which
electrode is cathode?

Perlu diingat:
Logam yang terletak di atas dalam siri elektrokimia akan
bertindak sebagai anod
Dalam kes ini, magnesium adalah anod dan kuprum
adalah katod
Anod ialah elektrod di mana elektron dibebaskan (logam
yang terletak di atas adalah lebih reaktif dan lebih mudah
menderma / membebaskan elektron
Anode is the electrode that situated at the higher
position in ES. In this case, magnesium acts as anode
and copper as cathode
Anode is the electrode where the releases / donate of
electrons occurs.

Apakah yang berlaku dalam sel kimia?


What happen in a chemical cell?

Magnesium
Magnesium

Kuprum
Copper

e
e

Magnesium
Magnesium

e
Kuprum
Copper
Larutan natrium klorida, NaCl

Magnesium (anod) membebaskan elektron Mg 2e


Magnesium (anode) release electrons

Mg2+

Elektron yang dibebaskan di anod akan bergerak melalui litar luar


/ wayar penyambung ke katod.
Electrons move through the external circuit to cathode
Di katod, elektron diterima oleh ion hidrogen, H+ (kedudukan
lebih rendah dalam SE) dan di nyahcas 2H+ + 2e
H2
At cathode, electrons received by hidrogen ions (lower position
in ES) and been discharged

Magnesium
Magnesium
(Anod)

Kuprum
Copper (Katod)

Oleh kerana elektron bergerak dari terminal negatif ke


terminal positif, maka magnesium / anod adalah terminal
negatif dan kuprum / katod adalah terminal positif
Instead of electrons move from negative terminal to positive
terminal, magnesium / anode is a negative terminal and
copper / cathode is a positive terminal

Dalam sel voltan, anod adalah elektrod negatif dan katod adalah
elektrod positif, berlawanan dengan sel elektrolisis.
In voltaic cell, the negative electrode is the anode whereas the positive
electrode is the cathode, which is the opposite of the electrolytic cell.
In a chemical cell;
- The more reactive metal acts as negative electrode while the less reactive metal acts as
positive electrode.
-The negative electrode is anode while the positive electrode is cathode.
- During the process, the more reactive metal (negative electrode) being ionized and
form ion. X - ne
Xn+ / X
Xn+ + ne
- At the same time, negative ions are discharged at positive electrode. (The ions are from
the solution )
- If there is more than one negative ion present, the ion situated at the lower position in
the electrochemistry series will be chosen to be discharged. Yn+ + ne
Y
- The greater the difference in reactivity, the bigger the voltage produced.

Sel Daniel Daniell Cell

2 logam yang berbeza (elektrod) direndam dalam larutan


garam masing-masing (elektrolit)
2 elektrolit yang berbeza dipisahkan oleh pasu berliang

Apakah fungsi pasu berliang?

2 elektrolit di masukkan dalam 2 bekas yang berbeza


Kedua-dua elektrolit dihubungkan oleh titian garam
(melengkapkan litar elektrik)

Apakah fungsi titian garam?

e
e
Zink
Zink nitrat,
Zn(NO3)2

e
+

Magnesium
Magnesium
sulfat, MgSO4

Elektrod manakah anod? Katod?


Elekrod manakah terminal positif? Negatif?
Arah pengaliran elektron?

Zink
Zink nitrat,
Zn(NO3)2

persamaan di anod

Magnesium

Magnesium
sulfat, MgSO4

Mg - 2e

persamaan di katod 2H+ + 2e

Mg2+
H2

Pemerhatian di anod
Anod (Mg) terion / terhakis / semakin kecil
Pemerhatian di katod
Gelembung gas terbebas (gas hidrogen)