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MICROELECTRONICS

AND PHOTONICS

MICROELECTRONICS

MICROELECTRONICS

from a Greek word micro means


small and -ics noun-forming
suffix that means science, study, or

practice of; properties of; practices


pertaining to

the branch of electronics dealing


with the development of miniature
electronic circuits and their uses.

MICROELECTRONICS

relates to the study and


manufacture
(or microfabrication) of very
small electronic designs and
components. Usually, but not
always, this means micrometrescale or smaller

Is defined as that area of technology


associated with and applied to the
realization of electronic systems made of
extremely small electronic parts or
elements.
Term microelectronics is normally
associated with integrated circuits(IC).
It include active (transistors & diodes)
and passive (R,L,C) components.

MICROELECTRONICS

As techniques improve, the scale of


microelectronic components continues to
decrease. At smaller scales, the relative
impact of intrinsic circuit properties such as
interconnections may become more
significant. These are called parasitic
effects, and the goal of the
microelectronics design engineer is to find
ways to compensate for or to minimize
these effects, while always delivering
smaller, faster, and cheaper devices.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microelectronics

EVOLUTION OF MICROELECTRONICS
The earliest electronic circuits were fairly
simple. They were composed of a few tubes,
transformers, resistors, capacitors, and wiring.
As more was learned by designers, they began
to increase both the size and complexity of
circuits. Component limitations were soon
identified as this technology developed.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC)


-consists of elements inseparably associated and formed on or
within a single SUBSTRATE (mounting surface). In other
words, the circuit components and all interconnections are
formed as a unit.

There are three types of integrated circuit :


- Monolithic
- Film
- Hybrid

MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT


- are those that are formed completely within a semiconductor
substrate. These integrated circuits are commonly referred
to as SILICON CHIPS.

FILM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS


- Film components are made of either conductive or
nonconductive material that is deposited in desired patterns on
a ceramic or glass substrate. Film can only be used as passive
circuit components, such as resistors and capacitors.
Transistors and/or diodes are added to the substrate to
complete the circuit. It is broken down into two categories :
THIN FILM and THICK FILM

HYBRID INTEGRATED CIRCUITS


- combine two or more integrated circuit
types or combine one or more integrated
circuit types and DISCRETE (separate)
components

BASED ON APPLICATION

Digital integrated circuits (ICs) consist


mostly of transistors. Analog circuits
commonly contain resistors and capacitors as
well. Inductors are used in some high
frequency analog circuits, but tend to occupy
large chip area if used at low
frequencies; gyrators can replace them in
many applications.They require only digital
input and not any other component for
operation

Linear integrated circuits (ICs)


- These are discrete circuits which need external
components like resistor and capacitor for
satisfactory performance apart from the input.
They work on analog signals rather than digital
signals.

HISTORY OF MICROELECTRONICS
a replica of the point-contact
transistor created by John
Bardeen and Walter Brattain ,
under the supervision of William
Shockley in 1947.

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

INTRODUCTION TO IC AND HISTORY

. Vacuum tubes, discrete


components
1947 The first integrated
transistor (Bell telephone
laboratories)
1958 The first integrated
circuit available as a monolithic
chip (flip-flop)

INTRODUCTION TO IC AND HISTORY

1959 The first Bipolar planar


transistor

1965 The first op-amp


1971 The first 4bit
microprocessor (intel 4004)
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

INTRODUCTION TO IC AND HISTORY

1971 The first 4bit


microprocessor (intel 4004)
1972 The first 8bit
microprocessor (intel 8008)
1981 The first IBM PC
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

FLIP FLOP

TRANSISTOR INVENTION

on December 23, 1947 (point contact)


on June 30, 1948, press was almost
indifferent (bipolar)
Inventors of the transistor are William
Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter
H. Brattein. They received the noble
prize in physics in 1956
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

TRANSISTOR INVENTION

Bell Laboratories licensed it freely and


publicized it extensively in seminars and
papers
in 1935 , a patent is issued to O. Heil for
a field effect triode
1945 , Bell Labs decided to limit their
research to germanium to silicium and
simplest semi conductors
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

EUROPEAN INVENTION OF THE >>TRANSISTRON<<

Strange and unknown story,


reported in Spectrum November
2005.
Transistron, very similar to the
bell labs transistor, was invented
at the end of WW II in Paris , by
two German scientists Herbert
Mater and Heinrich Welker
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

EUROPEAN INVENTION OF THE >>TRANSISTRON<<

they worked at Westinghouse ,


Paris
In 1948 , a small radio used this
>>transistron << (may 14, 1948)
But French government and
Westinghouse failed to capitalized
on transistron (nuclear physics more
important

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

TRANSISTRON
Two

metal wires
They contact germanium silver
Another electrode
It contacts the other face

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

GERMANIUM BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS AND TUBES

On the right are submini tubes used in a Zenith Royal hearing aid
On the left are examples of CK718 junction germanium trasistors
produced by Raytheon and used in the Zenith Royal T hearing aid ,
with 252 representing week 52 , 1952
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

TRANSISTOR COMMERCIALIZATION

In 1958, the first field effect transistor was working. It was


called tecnitron by its creator , S. Teszner, working in France
Sonotone in February 1953; it contained 5 transistor
in the mid 50s several companies were designing transistorRaython, gen electric, Sylvania , RCA and this was mass
production
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

GERMANIUM BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

RCA introduced the 2N109 in 1955


(Germanium PNP Alloy Junction)
as reliable germanium audio
transistor and used in many
transistorized radios. In 1956, the
2N109 cost a little over $2.

CK722 is one of the best known


transistors, introduced in early 1953
by Raytheon. The CK722 was the
first mass produced germanium alloy
junction transistor. Raytheon was the
major manufacturer of hearing aid
transistors.
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

SILICON VALLEY-FAIRCHILD

William Shockley, who left Bell Labs in


1954 to start its own company in Palo
Alto, CA. silicon Valley
young people , such as G.E Moore and
R.N. Noyce, joined Shockley Company
Moore and Noyce, the traitorous, as
Shockley came to call them , set up in
1957 Fairchild
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

SILICON VALLEY-FAIRCHILD

Fairchild: in 1959 new planar


technology
Jack Kilby nor Robert Noyce conceived
the integrated circuit in 1959
as the most significant development
by texas instrument since the
commercial silicon transistor
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

1958: INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

Simultaneously invented
by two different
people:
Jack Kilby (TI):
required wires
Robert Noyce
(Fairchild): used
evaporated
aluminum
(with Jean Hoerni,
a swiss guy)
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/Histo
ry-Electronics-part-1.pdf

1959 : PLANAR TRANSISTOR

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

1962 NPN TRANSISTOR

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

MOS TRANSISTOR

Even before Teszner in France has


produced a junction field-effect
transistor in 1958, many studies were
under way in the U.S. on the
possibilities of such a device. In 1959,
RCA was working on FETs
In 1962, RCA was fabricating
multipurpose logic block comprising 16
MOS FETs on a single chip

MOS TRANSISTOR

however extremely sensitive to


static charge, supply voltage, oxide
effects
Fairchild abandoned the process,
even RCA shifted its emphasis back to
bipolar
In mid-1965, only two companies
were producing MOS Ics, ---> PMOS, NMOS, CMOS

1967 MOS

TED HOFF, BOB NOYCE, GORDON MOORE

PHOTONICS

PHOTONICS

Refraction of waves of photons (light) by a prism

PHOTONICS

The science of photonics includes the generation


, emission , transmission , modulation, signal processing,
switching , amplification, and detection/sensing of light.
Emphasizes that photons are neither particles nor waves
they have both particle and wave nature. It covers all
technical applications of light over the whole spectrum from
ultraviolet over the visible to the near-, mid- and farinfrared.
Developed as an outgrowth of the first practical
semiconductor light emitters invented in the early 1960s
and optical fibers developed in the 1970s.

HISTORY OF PHOTONICS

Derived from the Greek word photos


meaning light
it appeared in the late 1960s to describe
a research field whose goal was to use
light to perform functions, that
traditionally fell within the typical domain
of electronics, such as telecommunications,
information processing, etc.
1960 the invention of laser began

OTHER DEVELOPMENT
1970s the development of laser diode
optical fibers for transmitting information
and the erbium-doped fiber amplifier
These inventions formed the
telecommunications revolution of the late
20th century and provided the infrastructure
for the Internet.
1980s - fiber-optic data transmission was
adopted by telecommunications network
operators.

RELATIONSHIP TO THE OTHER FIELD

Classical period
Photonics is closely related to optics.
Classical optics long preceded the discovery that
light is quantized
Albert Einstein famously explained the photoelectric
effect in 1905., the reflecting mirror
Key tenets of classical optics, such as Huygens
Principle, developed in the 17th century, Maxwell's
Equations and the wave equations, developed in the
19th, do not depend on quantum properties of light.

RELATIONSHIP TO THE OTHER FIELD

Modern options
Photonics is related to quantum optics
, optomechanics , electrooptics, optoelectronics and quantum electronics.
However, each area has slightly different
connotations by scientific and government
communities and in the marketplace.
Quantum optics often connotes fundamental
research, whereas photonics is used to connote
applied research and development.

THE TERM PHOTONICS MORE SPECIFICALLY CONNOTES:

The particle properties of light


The potential of creating signal
processing device technologies
using photons
The practical application of optics,
and
An analogy to electronics.

The term optoelectronics connotes devices


or circuits that comprise both electrical and
optical functions, i.e., a thin-film
semiconductor device. The term electrooptics came into earlier use and specifically
encompasses nonlinear electrical-optical
interactions applied, e.g., as bulk crystal
modulators such as the Pockels cell, but
also includes advanced imaging sensors
typically used for surveillance by civilian or
government organizations.

EMERGING FIELDS

also relates to the emerging science of quantum


information , in those cases where it employs
photonic methods.
include opto-atomics, devices integrate both photonic
and atomic devices for applications such as precision
timekeeping, navigation, and metrology; polaritonics,
which differs from photonics in that the fundamental
information carrier is a polariton, which is a mixture of
photons and phonons, and operates in the range of
frequencies from 300 gigahertz to approximately
10 terahertz.

APPLICATIONS

photonics are ubiquitous .


include all areas from everyday life to the most
advanced science, e.g. light detection, telecommunications
, information processing , lighting, metrology, spectroscopy
, holography , medicine (surgery, vision correction,
endoscopy, health monitoring), military technology, laser
material processing, visual art, biophotonics, agriculture ,
and robotics .
electronics have expanded dramatically since the
first transistor was invented in 1948, the unique
applications of photonics continue to emerge.

APPLICATIONS

Economically important applications


for semiconductor photonic devices include
optical data recording, fiber optic
telecommunications, laser printing (based on
xerography), displays, and optical pumping of
high-power lasers.
The potential applications of photonics are
virtually unlimited and include chemical
synthesis, medical diagnostics, on-chip data
communication, laser defense, and fusion energy,
to name several interesting additional examples.

Consumer equipment: barcode scanner, printer,


CD/DVD/Blu-ray devices, remote control devices
Telecommunications: optical fiber communications,
optical down converter to microwave
Medicine: correction of poor eyesight, laser surgery,
surgical endoscopy, tattoo removal
Industrial manufacturing: the use of lasers for
welding, drilling, cutting, and various methods of
surface modification
Construction: laser leveling, laser rangefinding, smart
structures

Aviation: photonic gyroscopes lacking mobile parts


Military: IR sensors, command and control, navigation,
search and rescue, mine laying and detection
Entertainment: laser shows, beam effects, holographic
art
Information processing
Metrology: time and frequency
measurements, rangefinding
Photonic computing: clock distribution and
communication between computers, printed circuit
boards, or within optoelectronic integrated circuits; in
the future: quantum computing

LIGHT SOURCES
Light sources used in photonics are usually far more
sophisticated than light bulbs. Photonics commonly uses
semiconductor light sources like light-emitting
diodes (LEDs),superluminescent diodes, and lasers
include fluorescent lamps, cathode ray tubes (CRTs),
and plasma screens. Note that while CRTs, plasma screens,
andorganic light-emitting diode displays generate their own
light, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) like TFT screens require
a backlight of either cold cathode fluorescent lamps or, more
often today, LEDs.

LIGHT SOURCES
Characteristic for research on semiconductor light
sources is the frequent use of III-V
semiconductors instead of the classical semiconductors
like silicon and germanium. This is due to the special
properties of III-V semiconductors that allow for the
implementation of light emitting devices. Examples for
material systems used are gallium arsenide (GaAs)
and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) or
other compound semiconductors. They are also used in
conjunction with silicon to produce hybrid silicon lasers.

TRANSMISSION MEDIA

Light can be transmitted through


any transparent medium. Glass fiber or plastic
optical fiber can be used to guide the light along a
desired path. In optical communications optical
fibers allow for transmission distances of more
than 100 km without amplification depending on
the bit rate and modulation format used for
transmission. A very advanced research topic
within photonics is the investigation and
fabrication of special structures and "materials"
with engineered optical properties. These
include photonic crystals, photonic crystal
fibers and metamaterials.

AMPLIFIERS

Optical amplifiers are used to amplify an


optical signal. Optical amplifiers used in
optical communications are erbium-doped
fiber amplifiers, semiconductor optical
amplifiers,Raman amplifiers and optical
parametric amplifiers. A very advanced
research topic on optical amplifiers is the
research on quantum dot semiconductor
optical amplifiers.

DETECTION

Photodetectors detect light.


Photodetectors range from very
fast photodiodes for communications
applications over medium speed charge
coupled devices (CCDs) for digital
cameras to very slow solar cells that are
used for energy harvesting from sunlight.
There are also many other photodetectors
based on thermal, chemical,
quantum, photoelectric and other effects.

PHOTODETECTORS

MODULATION

Modulation of a light source is used to encode


information on a light source. Modulation can be
achieved by the light source directly. One of the simplest
examples is to use a flashlight to send Morse code.
Another method is to take the light from a light source
and modulate it in an external optical modulator.
An additional topic covered by modulation research is
the modulation format. On-off keying has been the
commonly used modulation format in optical
communications. In the last years more advanced
modulation formats like phase-shift keying or
even orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing have
been investigated to counteract effects

PHOTONIC SYSTEMS

used for optical


communication systems
focuses on the implementation of
photonic systems like high speed
photonic networks
also includes research on optical
regenerators, which improve optical
signal quality.

PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are optically active integrated


semiconductor photonic devices which consist of at least two
different functional blocks (gain region and a grating based
mirror in a laser...). These devices are responsible for
commercial successes of optical communications and the ability
to increase the available bandwidth without significant cost
increases to the end user, through improved performance and
cost reduction that they provide.
The most widely deployed PICs are based on Indium
Phosphide material system. Silicon photonics is an active area
of research.

REFERENCES :

http://www.i3s.unice.fr/ECoFaC/PDF/piguet/History-Electronics-part-1.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microelectronics

https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=photonics&newwindow=1&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=9y3XUrsKYvjoAS244L4Dw&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ#imgdii=_

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photonics

-THE ENDTHANK YOU !

GROUP 1 NSC05 STS