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CAMEL in GPRS prepaid service

ghlee@alumni.csie.nctu.edu.tw

Outline

Evolution of IN
GPRS overview
CAMEL in GPRS
Discussion

Plain Old Telephone Service

Service logic were hardwired in switching systems.


Network operators discuss services customers
required with switch vendors. (no standard)
Once services were implemented, they were not
easily modified.

service logic
hardwired

Stored Program Control

In the mid-1960s, stored program control


(SPC) switching systems were introduced.
As a result, it was easier to introduce new
services.
Service logic was not modular.

service logic
programmable

Common Channel
Signaling

In the mid-1970s, common channel signaling network


(CCSN) was introduced.
Signaling system number 7 (SS7) is the protocol that
runs over the CCSN.
SS7 network separates the call setup information and
talk path from the common trunk that runs between
switching systems.

SS7 network components

signal switching points (SSPs)SSPs are telephone


switches equipped with SS7-capable software and
terminating signaling links. They generally originate,
terminate, or switch calls.
signal transfer points (STPs)STPs are the packet
switches of the SS7 network. They receive and route
incoming signaling messages to destination.
signal control points (SCPs)SCPs are databases
providing information necessary for advanced callprocessing capabilities

SS7 network

The Introduction of IN

During the mid-1980s, Telcordia Technologies


responded to RBOCss request and developed
the concept of Intelligent Network 1 (IN/1).
Service logic splits from switching system,
now resides in service control points (SCP).
service logic
now here

Call Model

PICs represent switching system states that a call goes


through from origination to termination.
SSPs check TDPs to see if there are any active triggers.
If an active trigger is detected, normal switching system
call processing is suspended until the SSP and SCP
complete communications.

SSP suspended,and
ask SCP what to do
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in next step

GPRS logical architecture


SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC
E

SM-SC
C

CAMEL GSMSCF

Gd
MSC/VLR
A

Gs

Iu
Uu

R
TE

HLR

MT

Ge
Gr

Iu
UTRAN

SGSN

Gc
Gi

Gn
Gb
TE

MT
R

BSS
Um
SGSN

Gn

PDN

GGSN
Ga

Ga

Gp
CGF
GGSN

Gf

TE

Billing
System

EIR

Other PLMN
Signalling Interface
Signalling and Data Transfer Interface

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Transmission plane in 2.5G


Application
IP

IP
Relay

SNDCP

Radio
indep
Radio
dep

SNDCP

Multiplexing layer

LLC

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

LLC
Relay

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

L2

L2

GSM RF

GSM RF

L1bis

L1bis

L1

L1

Um

MS

Gb

BSS

Gn

SGSN

Gi

GGSN

Frame relay
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Signaling plane in 2.5G


GMM/SM

GMM/SM

LLC

LLC
Relay

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

GSM RF

GSM RF

L1bis

L1bis

Um

MS

Gb

BSS

2G-SGSN

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Multiplexing of network
protocols
IP/X.25
Signalling

Packet Data
Protocol

SMS

Signaling plane

Transmission plane

N-PDU

NSAPI
SNDCP
SNDC Header
NSAPI + Control

Data

LLC Header
Control

LLC Information
Data

SAPI
LLC
TLLI
RLC or BSSGP

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User plane in 3G
Application

E.g., IP,
PPP

E.g., IP,
PPP
Relay

Relay

PDCP

PDCP

GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

RLC

RLC

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

MAC

MAC

AAL5

AAL5

L2

L2

L1

L1

ATM

ATM

L1

L1

Uu

MS

Iu-PS

UTRAN

Gn

3G-SGSN

ATM

Gi

3G-GGSN
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Control plane in 3G
GMM /
SM / SMS

GMM /
SM / SMS

Relay
RRC

RRC

RANAP

RANAP

RLC

RLC

SCCP

SCCP

MAC

MAC

Signalling
Bearer

Signalling
Bearer

L1

L1

AAL5

AAL5

ATM

ATM

Uu

MS

Iu-Ps

RNS

3G SGSN
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CAMEL architecture
Home Network

HLR

gsmSCF
MAP
CAP

gprsSSF
SGSN

Interrogating Network

MS

Visiting Network

Home/Interrogating/Visiting Network

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MAP/CAP protocol stack

CAP has the same underlying protocol stack as MAP.


Ge interface is first defined in 3G, but didnt appear
in 2.5G.

MAP

MAP

CAP

CAP

TCAP

TCAP

TCAP

TCAP

SCCP

SCCP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP3

MTP3

MTP3

MTP3

MTP2

MTP2

MTP2

MTP2

L1

L1

L1

L1

HLR

gprsSSF

SGSN

Gr

Ge

gsmSCF
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Overall CAMEL Architecture


gsmSCF

CAP Interface
GPRS
Dialogue
Handler

Internal CAP Interface


gprsSSF
Internal Interface
MobileStation

SGSN

GTP

GGSN
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Detection Points (DPs)

GPRS events maybe made visible to gsmSCF.


DPs are points at which these events are
detected.
DPs can be armed to notify gsmSCF GPRS
event was encountered, and to allow gsmSCF
to influence subsequent handling of GPRS
session/PDP Context.
If DP isnt armed, processing entity continues
processing without gsmSCF involvement at
the DP.
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Detection Points (DPs)

3 different types of DP:

Trigger Detection Point-Request (TDP-R)


Event Detection Point-Request (EDP-R)
Event Detection Point-Notification (EDP-N)

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Detection Points (DPs)

TDP-R
Statically armed, initiate a CAMEL control relationship
When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended
EDP-R
Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship
When GPRS event is encountered, processing is suspended
and gprsSSF waits for inst from gsmSCF
EDP-N
Dynamically armed within CAMEL control relationship
When GPRS event is encountered, processing is not
suspended.
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GPRS Attach/Detach State


Model

3 DPs are defined:

Detached

DP Attach
DP Change of Position
Detach
GPRS session
DP Detach

Attach request
AD_Exception

Attach

User- or network initiated


detach

Attached
Intra SGSN Routeing
area update

Inter SGSNRouteing area


update

Change of Position GPRS Session

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GPRS PDP Context State


Model
Idle

4 DPs are defined:

PDP Context
Setup Req

DP PDP Context
PDP Context Est.
PDP_Context_
Context
C_Exception
Establishment PDP
Setup
Disconnection
PDP Context
DP PDP Context
Setup Ack.
PDP Context Est. Ack.
Establishment Ack
User or network
PDP_Context_
initiated disc.
DP PDP Context
Established
Disconnection
Routeing area update
Change of Position Context
DP Change of
Position Context
Routeing area update
Change of
Position context

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GPRS CAMEL Scenarios

2 scenarios for CAMEL control of GPRS

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

Allows CAMEL control of GPRS session and of multiple


PDP contexts within 1 GPRS dialogue
Allows CAMEL control of a single PDP contexts
Multiple PDP contexts are controlled via multiple GPRS
dialogues.

Scenario 1 and scenario 2 are mutually


exclusive.
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GPRS CAMEL Scenario 1

Involves Attach/Detach state model


Uses less resource (tcap dialogue)
More complicated when implementation
SGSN / SSP
A/D
SM
PDP#1
SM
PDP#2
SM

GPRS Dialogue

SCP

Information flow related to


the Session
Information flow related to
PDP Context #1
Information flow related to
PDP Context #2
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GPRS CAMEL Scenario 2

Doesnt involves Attach/Detach state model


Uses more resource (tcap dialogue)
Simpler when implementation
SGSN / SSP
PDP#1
SM

PDP#2
SM

GPRS Dialogue #1

SCP

Information flow related to


PDP context #1

Information flow related to


PDP context #2
GPRS Dialogue #2
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GPRS Attach

The message sequence chart is too large to fit in this


slide. Please see the supplementary document from
3GPP 23060 spec.
Notice the Insert subscriber data procedure, GPRSCSI (CAMEL Subscription Information) is sent from
HLR to SGSN.
2.5G HLR does not keep GPRS-CSI, nor does it send
GPRS-CSI to SGSN.
3G HLR could keep GPRS-CSI, also it sends GPRS-CSI
when doing Insert subscriber data procedure.
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GPRS-CSI

GPRS-CSI contains following information

gsmSCF Address
Service Key
Default GPRS Handling
TDP List
CAMEL Capability Handling
CSI state
Notification flag
gsmSCF address list for CSI
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PDP Context Activation in 2.5G

C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment


C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement
MS

BSS

2G-SGSN

2G-GGSN

1. Activate PDP Context Request


C1
2. Security Functions
3. Invoke Trace
4. Create PDP Context Request
4. Create PDP Context Response
7. BSS Packet Flow Context Procedures
C2
9. Activate PDP Context Accept
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PDP Context Activation in 3G

C1 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment.


C2 :DP for CAMEL_GPRS_PDP_Context_Establishment_Acknowledgement
MS

UTRAN

3G-SGSN

3G-GGSN

1. Activate PDP Context Request


C1
4. Create PDP Context Request
4. Create PDP Context Response
5. Radio Access Bearer Setup
6. Invoke Trace
8. Update PDP Context Request
8. Update PDP Context Response
C2
9. Activate PDP Context Accept

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CAMEL procedures for


charging activities
Procedure
ApplyChargingGPRS
ApplyChargingReportGPRS
InitialDPGPRS
ContinueGPRS
EventReportGPRS
RequestReportGPRSEvent

ssf -> scf scf ->ssf


-

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Discussion

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