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RNAV AIRBORNE SYSTEM

AIRWORTHINESS REGULATION
AND CERTIFICATION ISSUES
B. RABILLER / French DGAC
SFACT/ Aircraft Certification Office

10-11-12-13 September 2002-Morocco

ARAB INSTRUMENT PROCEDURE DESIGN SEMINAR

INTRODUCTION
PRNAV

RNP 5

LNAV/VNAV

GPS
BRNAV

RNP 0.3
INS
RNP-RNAV

DME-DME

RNP 10

VOR/DME

RNAV IS A COMPLEX WORLD !

INTRODUCTION
TO DESCRIBE THE AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION
PROCESS
TO DESCRIBE RNAV IMPLEMENTATION TROUGH
TWO EXAMPLES FROM AN AIRCRAFT POINT OF VIEW
BRNAV FOR ENROUTE CONTINENTAL
PRNAV FOR TERMINAL AREA
TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT RNP CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION
RNAV SYSTEM FOR GENERAL
AVIATION
External annunciator
(EXAMPLE)
NAV WPT
GNSS MSG APPR

GPS antenna

GPS Receiver
HSI
(Horizontal Situation
Indicator)

Aircraft
interfaces
(Power,
Altitude,..).

INTRODUCTION
RNAV SYSTEM FOR AIR TRANSPORT
AIRCRAFT (EXAMPLE)
ADI

Via Autopilot

External annunciator
NAV
FMS

WPT
MSG APPR

GPS

antenna

MCDU

GPS Sensor
FMS Computer
(Flight Management
System)

HSI

Others sensor :
IRS, VOR,DME,..

Aircraft
interfaces
(Altitude,..).

AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION
PROCESS

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ARAB INSTRUMENT PROCEDURE DESIGN SEMINAR

Airworthiness general Approval


Process

A SAFETY Issue
A process permitting to issue a Certificate of
Airworthiness for an aircraft.

Yes

Is my aircraft
airworthy?

Aircraft
manufacturer
Authority
(JAA,FAA,...)

Compliance with
Airworthiness
regulation

C
of
A

Airworthiness general Approval


Process
Type Certificate (TC)

For a new aircraft Model.

A dedicated certification team at Authority level.

Certification basis issued for this aircraft.

Multidiscipline program (engine, structure, cabin safety,


avionics, electricity,...)

At the End TC is issued with a C of A and an aircraft


flight manual is approved

This is not an operational approval!

Airworthiness general Approval


Process
Aircraft modification

Check if initial aircraft certification basis need to be revised.

Authority team is reduced and includes only relevant specialist


( avionics, powerplant,).

C of A is extended for this modification.

Aircraft Flight Manual may be amended or a supplement may


be issued depending on aircraft modification.

Applicant may be either the airframer or an approved design


organisation.

Airworthiness general Approval


Process
Certification basis and compliance

JAR and FAR airworthiness regulation


JAR/FAR 25 for aircraft > 5.7 t
JAR/FAR 23 for aircraft < 5.7 t
Special condition and Interpretative material
Due to aircraft technology (electrical flight control
system, very large transport aircraft,...)
Due to system fitted (Aircraft digital bus, Enhanced
Ground Proximity Warning System, predictive
windshear,.)
Due to lack of consolidated regulation or material
(JAA leaflet, AC,..) for this technology/system.

Airworthiness general Approval


Process
Certification basis and compliance
(Contd)

Compliance with requirement material

Means of compliance
Analysis (safety, design robustness,...)
Laboratory test (integration)
Ground test
Flight test
Equipment qualification (environmental, software,
minimum operational performance)
Compliance check-list at the end for final airworthiness
assessment.

Airworthiness general Approval


Process
Aircraft modification RNAV example
APPLICANT

AUTHORITY

Aircraft XXX
JAR 25 Change 13
RNAV multisensor system
installation (GPS/DME).
Applicant proposes a Certification
plan

Cert basis need to be revised due to RNAV


system installation?
NO

Applicant issue documentation,


test plan (i.e. ground, flight) and
system safety assessment

Applicant proceed to relevant test


and issue final compliance
statement

Verification of applicable regulation


paragraph and interpretative material (AMJ,
ACJ,AC). Validation of certification plan

Validation of different document and plan

Document and AFM approval.


Modification is approved by authority

APPROVAL

General approval process


Operational approval

An airline may operate an aircraft if:


An AOC has been issued by the authority ( Airline Operational
Certificate)
Compliance with OPS regulation has been demonstrated (i.e.
JAR OPS 1 for transport aircraft category in JAA states)
For certain operation (i.e. CAT III approach, RNP 10), a
dedicated operational approval should be issued by the authority
( for a specific aircraft type, consideration for dedicated crew
training and/or maintenance, ...).

General approval process


AIRWORTHINESS
APPROVAL
C of A

OPERATIONAL
APPROVAL AOC

AIRCRAFT

MAINTENANCE

BRNAV

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Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
CONTENT

Generality

Accuracy

Availability and Integrity

Required functions for BRNAV

Recommended functions for BRNAV

Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)

Limitation on the use of navigation systems

Operational criteria for use of GPS Stand-alone equipment

BRNAV Certification issues

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Generality

Airworthiness criteria defined in a European document


(JAA Leaflet 2)
An RNAV system based on navigation sensor.

Sensor may be either VOR/DME, DME/DME, INS/IRS


or GPS.
May be a single sensor or multi sensor
BRNAV is sometimes called RNP 5 which may be
misleading in certain cases.

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Accuracy

Track keeping accuracy of 5NM for 95% of the flight


time including :

Signal source error (signal transmission error)


Airborne receiver source error
Display system error
Flight technical error
95%
5 NM
5 NM
95%

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Availability and Integrity

Total loss of navigation must be improbable (occurrence


less than 10-5/per flight hour)

Erroneous displayed information must be improbable


(occurrence less than 10-5/ per flight hour) during Enroute
operation

Single RNAV system acceptable

Other traditional navigation system installed


System monitored by flight crew

criteria
Availability and Integrity : FAR/JAR 1309
Classification
Effect

Failure
Classification

Quantitative
Probability

MINOR

Probable

10-3/ Flight Hour

MAJOR

Improbable
(Remote)
Improbable
(Extremely
Remote)
Extremely
Improbable

10-5/ Flight Hour

HAZARDOUS

CATASTROPHIC

10-7/ Flight Hour

10-9/ Flight Hour

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Required functions for BRNAV

Continuous indication of aircraft position relative to track on a


navigation display situated in pilot primary field of view
Display of distance and bearing to the active waypoint
Display of ground speed or time to the active waypoint
Storage of waypoints; minimum of 4
Navigation Data Base is not required
Appropriate failure indication of the RNAV system, including
sensors.

Basic BRNAV functions :Low complexity RNAV


system with small capacity.

criteria
Required functions for BRNAV
(example)
INDICATOR (i.e CDI)

RNAV Control Display Unit (i.e CDU)

TO
FLAG

TO

TOU

Dis

14 NM

Stored Wpt:

GS

195 Kts

AGN; SAU, TAN

AGN

TOU

SAU

1.25 NM
195 Kts

TAN

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Recommended functions for BRNAV

Autopilot and/or Flight director coupling

Display of present position in terms of latitude and


longitude

Direct TO function

From present position to a selected waypoint

Indication of navigation accuracy

Quality factor, estimated position error,...

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Recommended functions for BRNAV

Navigation Data Base


Automatic leg sequencing and associated turn
anticipation

Automatic channel selection of radio navaid

Notion of flight plan and transition path


Only for BRNAV systems based on VOR or DME

A BRNAV system with recommended function is a


more complex RNAV system which is more in
accordance with todays ATC environment

criteria
Required and recommended functions for
BRNAV (example)
RNAV Control Display Unit (i.e CDU)

ADI
TO
FLAG

TO

TOU

EPE

0.15 NM

Dis

14 NM

GS

195 Kts

PPOS

N 43 32 59

E 001 35 18

Flight Plan: TOU --> AGN --> SAU --> TAN

CDI
AGN
TOU

SAU

1.25 NM
195 Kts
TAN

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria
Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)

AFM includes

Certification basis (i.e Leaflet 2 , AC 20-138)

RNAV system limitation (ex BRNAV limited to 2 hrs in case


of pure INS navigation, limitation due to GPS constellation)

RNAV system operating procedure ( An extract of pilots guide


in order to highlight important operating procedures)

RNAV system abnormal procedure (ex Procedure in case of


BRNAV system failure, in case of special navigation messages,
....)

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria

Limitation on the use of navigation


systems

Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) limited to 2 Hours


without automatic radio update function.
GPS should be approved in accordance with TSO C129.

Computed position Integrity should be provided by RAIM


(Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) or equivalent
(Alternate Integrity Monitoring including comparison with INS
or radio).

In addition to TSO C 129 GPS should include: Pseudorange

step detection and health word checking


An equipment compliant with TSO C 129a already
includes these two additional functions

Overview of BRNAV criteria


Operational criteria for use of GPS Standalone equipment

Flight crew should receive appropriate training and be


aware of:

Normal procedures
RAIM availability should be confirm in case of degraded GPS
constellation (i.e less than 23 satellites)
Nav data base validity (when installed) should be checked
Traditional navigation equipment tuned for cross-check or in case
of loss of GPS capability
Abnormal procedures in case of loss of GPS navigation capability
Loss of the integrity function (RAIM unavailable)
Exceedance of the alarm limit (RAIM position Error), revert to an
alternate means of navigation

Overview of BRNAV certification


criteria BRNAV Certification issues

Low integration at cockpit level (stand-alone installation)

RNAV system HMI (CDU complexity, colour, associated crew


workload,)

Autopilot coupling problem which may induce erroneous guidance


(compatibility pb between PA and RNAV system)

RNAV system functional problem for other operational use (SID,


STAR, approaches): Nav data base problem, flight plan construction, .

PRNAV

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Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
CONTENT

Generality

Accuracy

Availability and Integrity

Required functions for PRNAV

Recommended functions for PRNAV

Sensor limitation

Navigation data base integrity

Operational criteria

PRNAV issues

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Generality

Reference material is JAA Leaflet 10

Lot of discussion during development of this leaflet, more than 500


comments received

Takes into account problems encountered during BRNAV


certification process

It accommodates many RNAV system already fitted onboard


transport aeroplane category

PRNAV is sometimes called RNP 1 which may be


misleading in certain cases.

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Generality/ System description

Lateral navigation

Flight plan and navigation data base


PRNAV candidate sensors: DME/DME, VOR/DME,
GNSS and INS with automatic radio updating
Display of navigation parameters and desired path

Vertical navigation

No requirement in this leaflet

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Accuracy

Lateral track keeping accuracy of 1NM for 95% of the flight time
including :
Navigation system error (path definition error, position
estimation error and display error)
Flight technical error

Accuracy definition of RNP-1 RNAV


Path definition error
Desired path

95%

Defined path

1 NM
1 NM
95%

FTE
TSE

NSE
Actual position

Estimated
position

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Integrity

Probability of displaying Hazardously Misleading navigational or


positional information simultaneously to both pilot shall be
improbable (occurrence less than 10-5 per flight hour)

This is a clear alleviation of existing rule due to:

mitigation means based on current Air traffic Services


practises
PAN-OPS and PAN-RAC criteria account for and
accommodate this system integrity in current airspace

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Continuity of Function

Probability of loss of all navigation information should be


improbable ( occurrence less than 10-5 per flight hour).

At least one PRNAV system is required if traditional navigation


system(VOR,DME,..) are fitted

Air traffic Services may imposed dual PRNAV equipage (i.e.


procedure below Minimum obstacle clearance altitude, radar
coverage inadequate,)

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Required functions for PRNAV (1/2)

Display indicator with course selector automatically slaved to the


RNAV computed path

Navigation data base (including complete PRNAV procedure)

Display of the active navigation sensor type

Display of the active (TO) waypoint

Display of distance and bearing to the active (TO) waypoint

Display of ground speed or time to the active (TO) waypoint

Automatic tuning of VOR and DME navigation aids with capability to


inhibit individual navaids(When relevant)

Capability for the Direct To function

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Required functions for PRNAV (2/2)

Capability to execute transition database procedures (Fly-over and Fly-by


turns)
Capability to execute leg transitions and maintain tracks consistent with
the following path terminators:
Initial Fix (I.F); Track between two Fixes (T.F); Course to a Fix (C.F),
Course from a Fix to an altitude (F.A) and Direct to a Fix (D.F)

Appropriate failure indication of the PRNAV system, including sensors


Display of the active navigation sensor type with a means of determining
navigation system performance

Basic PRNAV function : Today's existing FMS lateral navigation


function installed on many transport airplane category.

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Recommended functions for PRNAV

Capability to fly parallel route (Offset function)

Coupling to Flight director and/or automatic pilot

Capability for vertical navigation based upon barometric inputs

Means for automatic runway position update at the start of the take-off
(RNAV system using DME/DME updating supported by IRS)

Capability to execute following leg transitions:


Holding pattern (Hx including HM, HA et HF)
Constant radius to a Fix (RF)

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria Required and recommended
functions for PRNAV (example)
Multipurpose Control Display Unit (i.e
MCDU)

ADI

270

306

HSI
180

00

ACT
RTE1
LEGS
270
3.2 Nm
TOU
300-320
306
23 Nm
AGN
FL 350
227
46 Nm
TBO
THEN

----ROUTE DISCONTINUITY--LFBO

90

LEGS ETA

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Sensor Limitation

GPS

Same limitation than BRNAV (i.e. step detector plus


health word monitoring, ...)
FDE (Fault Detection and Exclusion) function is
recommended for availability purposes

INS

PRNAV use in pure INS following a failure of the radio


nav update system should be limited in time.
Time duration in pure INS needs to be determined to
continue to fulfil PRNAV requirement

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
Navigation Data Base Integrity

Shall comply with ED 76/DO 200A or an equivalent approved


procedure.
An approved supplier who has complied with ED 76 (Standards
for processing Aeronautical Data)
OR
The operator must implement navigation data base integrity
checks

Appropriate s/w tool or approved manual procedures


At least for Waypoints below applicable minimum obstacle
clearance altitude

Overview of PRNAV criteria


Operational criteria

Normal procedures
Pre-flight planning

availability of navigation infrastructure?


Availability of onboard navigation system (including nav data base)
Availability of dual system when AIP specify it
RAIM availability in case of GPS stand-alone system

Departure

Nav data base, a/c position entered,


Active flight plan should be checked (legs, fly-by,)
user waypoints forbidden for PRNAV operation
Flight progress monitoring (navigational reasonableness, cross check,

Overview of PRNAV criteria

Operational criteria (Cont d)

Normal procedures

Arrival

Verification that correct terminal procedure is loaded and flight plan


construction correct
Creation of new waypoints by manual entry is forbidden
Flight progress should be monitored
Notion of route modification in terminal area (radar heading or Dir To
clearance)
Any published altitude and speed constraints must be observed

Contingency procedures

Failure of the RNAV system components, multiple system failures


Loss of required navigation capability
Loss of PRNAV capability

Overview of PRNAV certification


criteria
PRNAV Issues

PRNAV is a transition towards RNP-1-RNAV

PRNAV may be requested by some states in the near future

Problem of navigation data base integrity should be addressed

ATS provider/Designer should take into account alleviation of


integrity criteria at aircraft level

However many FMS installed on transport aircraft category fulfil


airworthiness criteria defined in JAA Leaflet 10

BRNAV/PRNAV
EXAMPLE

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Aircraft and BRNAV


Aircraft
Type

Pure INS
system

AIRBUS
A 319/20/21
A 330/340

Multisensor
system

Multisensor
system

Multisensor
system

INS/VOR/DME

INS/VOR/DME with
GPS

VOR/DME with
GPS

YES
(Basic)

YES
(Option)

YES
(Retrofit)

AIRBUS
A 300 FFCC
BOEING
B 747-400
B 757/767
BOEING
B 737-200
B747-100/200
DC 10

Pure GPS
system
(standalone)

YES
(Basic)

YES
(Option)
YES
(Retrofit)

YES
(Basic)

YES
(Retrofit)

YES
(Retrofit)

Aircraft and PRNAV


Presently there is no aircraft officialy PRNAV
approved
Aircraft Type

AIRBUS
A 319/20/21
A 330/340

PRNAV
multisensor system INS/

PRNAV multisensor
system DME/DME,

DME/DME, VOR/DME

VOR/DME

Normally YES
(Basic)
GPS (option)

BOEING
B 747-400
B 757/767
BOEING/Douglas
DC 10
BOEING/Douglas
MD 83

YES
(Option)
Normally YES
(Basic)
GPS (option)

BOEING
B 737-400/500

RNP 1 system

Normally YES
(Basic)
GPS (option)

YES
(Option)

YES
(Option)

Normally YES (Retrofit)


GPS required
Normally YES
(Retrofit)
GPS required

GENERALITY ON RNP

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WHAT IS RNP
Definition/Generality

RNP as defined in ICAO doc 9613 :

RNP as defined in ICAO doc 9650 :

A statement of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for


operation within a defined airspace.

A statement of the navigation performance accuracy, integrity, continuity


and availability necessary for operation within a defined airspace.

RNP from an airborne point of view is defined by the RNP-(x)-RNAV


concept described in document ED 75() or DO 236(). These system
fully support definition of ICAO doc 9650 (accuracy, integrity and
continuity).

RNP
RNP-RNAV Generality

RNP-(x)-RNAV airborne system:

RNP Accuracy is defined as the total system error (x) 95% of


the flying time. (x) is the RNP value.

Containment integrity: Probability that the total system error


exceeds the specified containment limit without annunciation.
Shall be less than 10-5 per flight hour (99.999%). Containment
limit is twice the RNP value (x).

Containment continuity : Probability of annunciated loss of


RNP RNAV capability shall be less than 10-4 per flight hour
(99.99%).

RNP
RNP-RNAV Generality
2 x RNP

99.999%

1 x RNP

95%
Accuracy

Integrity

Desired route
Accuracy

1 x RNP

95%

2 x RNP

99.999%

Integrity