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Low Latency Wireless Video Over 802.

11
Networks Using Path Diversity

John Apostolopolous
Allen Miu
MIT Laboratory for
Wai-tian Tan
Computer Science Mitchell Trott
Hewlett-Packard Laboratories
Motivation
 Prevalent 802.11
infrastructure provides
inexpensive connectivity
 Emergent mobile devices
integrated with cameras and
802.11 interfaces
 High quality (low-latency)
conversational
communication over 802.11
networks (e.g. VoIP, Video
conferencing)
Challenges
 802.11 operates in ISM band
 Interference from other electronic devices (e.g. BT,
microwaves)
 Lossy Environment
 Access point coverage can be spotty
 Quality changes over time
 Signal fading due to multi-path
 Shadowing due to obstacles and human traffic

 Contention among exposed and hidden nodes


 Low Latency requirement
 802.11 ARQ error recovery can add large delays
Our Approach
 Use error resilient video compression
 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
 Best-effort error recovery (standard 802.11 ARQ)
 Distributed AP infrastructure to stream video via
multiple access points (exploit path diversity)
 Use multiple paths simultaneously or switch between
them (site selection) as a function of channel
characteristics
Sender AP1 Mobile
Receiver

Microwave
AP2 (Interferer)

Wired Wireless
Preliminary investigation

In a 802.11 path diversity network with


mobile clients,

 How does path diversity affect packet loss


characteristics?

 What is the resulting performance gain for


conversational video communication?
Test-bed Setup
~40m (max)

AP1
Wired 802.11b
100Mbps 11Mbps
Ethernet WLAN
Mobile
Sender ~25m
Receiver

AP2

• Two 360kbps cbr streams • Ad hoc mode


• 1500 byte UDP packets • ARQ up to 16 retries
• time-stamped • Open cubicle area
• Receiver moves @1m/s
Diversity Scenarios
AP1 only
• Conventional single path case AP2 only

AP1
Wired 802.11b
100Mbps 11Mbps
Ethernet WLAN Mobile
Sender Receiver

AP2
Diversity Scenarios
AP1 only
• Conventional single path case AP2 only
• Balanced split stream (non-adaptive)

AP1
Wired 802.11b
100Mbps 11Mbps
Ethernet WLAN Mobile
Sender Receiver

AP2
Diversity Scenarios
AP1 only
• Conventional single path case AP2 only
• Balanced split stream (non-adaptive)
• Adaptive, fine-grain site selection (based on loss rate)

AP1
Wired 802.11b
100Mbps 11Mbps
Ethernet WLAN Mobile
Sender Receiver

AP2
Diversity Scenarios
AP1 only
• Conventional single path case AP2 only
• Balanced split stream (non-adaptive)
• Adaptive, fine-grain site selection (based on loss rate)
• Oracle (optimal adaptive, can be realized by repetition coding)

AP1
Wired 802.11b
100Mbps 11Mbps
Ethernet WLAN Mobile
Sender Receiver

AP2
Path Diversity Reduces Packet Loss
30
Avg Packet Loss Rate (%) AP1
AP2
25 Balanced
Site Selection
Oracle
20

15

10

0
20 40 60 80 100 Infinite
Delay cutoff (ms)
Path Diversity Reduces Burst Loss
Burst event = 2 or more consecutive losses
2000
AP1
AP2
Number of Burst Events

Balanced
1500 Site Selection
Oracle

1000

500

20 40 60 80 100 Infinite
Delay cutoff (ms)
H.263 Video Performance
Mother and Daughter Sequence
34
PSNR gain = 1.6 – 3.0 dB
1/3 delay reduction
32
PSNR (dB)

30

28
AP1
AP2
26 Balanced
Site Selection
24
20 40 60 80 100 Infinite
Delay Cutoff (ms)
Conclusion
 All path diversity schemes help reduce burst
losses
 Optimal path diversity drastically reduce loss
rate and improves video quality
 A simple site selection algorithm can
effectively increase video quality without
increasing bandwidth usage
Complete Trace

0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 …
Single Stream from AP1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Discarded
Single Stream from AP2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …
Split stream from AP1 & AP2

0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 …
Split stream from AP1 & AP2

0 0 2 2 4 4 6 6 …

1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7

Discarded
Split stream from AP1 & AP2

0 0 2 2 4 4 6 6 …

1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7

Discarded
Split stream from AP1 & AP2

Re-numbered

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …

1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7

Discarded
Split stream from AP1 & AP2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …
Fine-grained Site Selection

0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 …
Fine-grained Site Selection

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …

• Selected site transmits 95% packet


• Other site transmits 5% packet for probing
• Site selection based on error rate of last 300 packets
Oracle

Equivalent to repetition coding

0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 …
Oracle

Equivalent to repetition coding

0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 …

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Existing Solutions
 Robust video communication in lossy channel:
 Error resilient video compression

 ARQ

 Delay can be intolerable


 Head of line blocking

 FEC coding
 Can be inefficient
 Receiver diversity antenna
 Does not exploit path diversity
Analysis
 Loss Characteristics
 Varied delay threshold
 Average Packet Loss Rate
 Number of burst events
 Burst Packet Loss Rate
(# Packets lost in burst ) / (Total # packets)
 H.264/MPEG4 Video Performance for 4
different sequences
 PSNR
 Nthresh (# of times when PSNR drops below 30dB)
Methodology
 Walking with receiver in open cubicle area
 Analyzed packet loss from a 15 minute trace
 Experiment repeated once after 3 months, showing
similar performance results
 Analyzed the performance of 5 different
diversity scenarios from sampling the same trace
 Difficulty in finding meaningful comparisons
between different scenarios
Average Packet Loss Rate Number of Burst Events
30 2000
AP1
25 AP2
1500
Balanced
20
Site Selection
Percent

Count
15 1000
Oracle

10
500
5

0 0
20 40 60 80 100 Infinite 20 40 60 80 100 Infinite

PSNR (Foreman) PSNR (Moth&Dthr)


28 34

26 32
PSNR (dB)

PSNR (dB)
24 30

22 28
AP1
AP2
20 26 Balanced
Site Selection
18 24
20 40 60 80 100 Infinite 20 40 60 80 100 Infinite
Delay Threshold (msec) Delay Threshold (msec)
-20
Received Signal Strength

Power (dBm)
-40

-60 AP1
AP2
-80
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

30
Average Packet Loss Rate (5 sec window)
Percent

20

10

0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

10
Number of Burst Losses (5 sec window)
Count

0
Average PSNR (dB)

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000


Video Quality
35

30
Oracle
25 A
P 1
20
A
P 2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Sequence Number