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In the Vedic period, records of mathematical activity are mostly

found in Vedic texts associated with ritual activities. Arithmetic


operations ( ganit ) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication,
fractions, squares, cubes, roots are enumerated in Narad Vishnu
purana .Examples of geometric knowledge( rekha-ganit) are found
in Sulva Sutras of Baudhyana(800B.C)and
Apasthamba(600B.C) they display the understanding of basic
geometric shape to another of equivalent area, they also contained
geometric solutions of linear equation in single unknown and also
quadratic equations. Apsthamba's sutra provides a value for the
square root of 2 accurate to fifth decimal place. and solutions to
general linear equations. Some believe that these results came
about hit and trail methods or generalizations of observed examples.
others believe proofs for these results may have either been
destroyed, or else were transmitted orally through the gurukul
system, and final results were tabulated in texts.

1. Ekanyunena Purvena
The Sutra Ekanyunena purvena means 'One
less than the previous or One less than the one
before.

1) The use of this sutra in case of


multiplication by 9,999.. is as
follows .

Method :
a) The left hand side digit (digits) is
( are) obtained by applying the
ekanyunena purvena i.e. by
deduction 1 from the left side digit
(digits) .

Algebraic proof :
As any two digit number is of the form ( 10x + y
), we proceed
( 10x + y ) x 99
= ( 10x + y ) x ( 100 1 )
= 10x . 102 10x + 102 .y y
= x . 103 + y . 102 ( 10x + y )
= x . 103 + ( y 1 ) . 102 + [ 102 ( 10x + y )]
Thus the answer is a four digit number whose
1000th place is x,100th place is
( y - 1 ) and the two digit number which makes
up the 10th and unit place is the
number obtained by subtracting the
multiplicand from 100.
Example 1: 8 x 9

e.g. 7 x 9; 7 1 = 6 ( L.H.S. digit )

b) The right hand side digit is the


complement or difference between
the multiplier and the left hand side
digit (digits) . i.e. 7 X 9 R.H.S is 9 6 = 3.
c) The two numbers give the

Step-1

step-2

Step-3

gives 8 1 = 7 ( L.H.S. Digit )


gives 9 7 = 2 ( R.H.S. Digit )
gives the answer 72

2.Ekdhikena Prvena
The Sutra Ekdhikena Prvena means
By one more than the previous one.
1) Squares of numbers ending in 5 :

Now we relate the sutra to the squaring


of numbers ending in 5. Consider
the example 25.
Here the number is 25. We have to find
out the square of the number. For
the number 25, the last digit is 5 and
the 'previous' digit is 2. Hence, one
more than the previous one', that is,
2+1=3. The Sutra, in this context,
gives the procedure to multiply the
previous digit 2 by one more than
itself, that is, by 3'.
It becomes the L.H.S (left hand side) of
the result, that is, 2 X 3 = 6. The
R.H.S
(right hand side) of the
result is 5, that is, 25.

Algebraic proof:

a) Consider (ax + b) a x+ 2abx +b.


This identity for x=10 and b=5 becomes
(10a + 5)= a . 10+ 2. 10a . 5 + 5
= a. 10+ a.10+ 5
= (a+ a ) . 10 +5
= a (a + 1) . 10 + 25.
Clearly 10a + 5 represents two-digit numbers. In
such a case the number (10a+5) is of the form
whose L.H.S is a(a+1) and R.H.S is 25, that is,
[a(a+1)] 25.

For three digits it is (a10+b10+ 5)

= P (P+1) 10+ 25, where P = 10a+b.


Example : 165= (1 . 10 + 6 . 10 + 5) .
It is of the form (ax+bx+c) for a = 1, b = 6, c = 5
and
x =10. It gives the answer P(P+1)/25, where P = 10a
+b
= 10 X =1 16
+ 6 (16+1)
= 16, the/ 25
previous. The answer is

Thus 25= [2 X 3 ]25 = 625.

=16x17/25=27225

3. Antyayor Dasakepi
The Sutra signifies numbers of which the
last digits added up give 10. i.e. the
Sutra works in multiplication of numbers
like: 116 and 114. Further the numbers left
wards to the last digits remain the same.

Example 5: 395 5+ 5=10, L.H.S.


portion remains the same i.e., 39.
Ekadhikena of 39 gives 40

Example 1 : 47 X 43
See the end digits sum 7 + 3 = 10 ; then by
the sutras Antyayor Dasakepi and
Ekadhikena we have the answer.

47 x 43 = ( 4 + 1 ) x
4/ 7 x 3
Step-1

Step-2

Step-3

= 20 / 21
= 2021.

395 = 395 x 395


= 39 x 40 / 5 x 5
= 1560 / 25

= 156025.

4.Addition and subtraction


Addition
Example 1:
Step 1: 6 + 4 = 10, 1 dot ; 0 + 8 = 8;
8 + 4 = 12;
1 dot and 2 answer under first column total
2 dots.

Step 2: 2+2 ( 2 dots) = 4; 4+9 = 13: 1


dot and 3+0= 3; 3+8 = 11;
1 dot and 1 answer under second column total 2 dots.

Step 3: 3+2 ( 2 dots ) = 5; 5+6 = 11:


1 dot and 1+7 = 8; 8+7 = 15;
1 dot and 5 under third column as answer total 2 dots.

Step 4: 4 + 2 ( 2 dots ) = 6; 6 + 5
=11:
1 dot and 1+3 = 4; 4+2 = 6. total 1 dot in
the fourth 6 column as answer.

Step 5: 1 dot in the fourth column


carried over to 5th column (No digits
in it) as 1 Thus answer is from Step5 to

Subtraction
Example 2:
Step 1: 2 < 4. No sudha . 4-2 = 2
first digit (form right to left)
Step 2: 9 > 7. Hence a dot on
left of 9 i.e. on 8
Step 3: purak of 9 i.e. 1, added
to upper 7 gives 1+ 7 = 8 second
digit

Step 4:Now means 8 + 1 = 9.


Step 6:As 9 > 2, once again the
same process: dot on left of i.e.,1
Step 7:purak of 9 i.e. 1, added
to upper 2 gives 1+ 2 = 3, the third
digit.

Step 8:Now 1 means 1+1 = 2


3247 Step 9:As 2 < 3, we have
..
3-2 =1, the fourth digit
-1892 Thus answer is 1382

Divisions by 5, 9, 11:By 5: Multiply


numerator with 2 and
place the decimal
before the last digit.

1/5=.2
2/5=.4
3/5=.6
4/5=.8
15/5=3

By 9: Place point
before last digit. For
every 9 count in
numerator add 0.1
to it and repeat the
number

By 11: Multiply numerator


with 10 and subtract
numerator from it. And
place decimal before two
digits from right.

1/9=.111
2/9=.222
3/9=.333
4/9=.444
15/9=1.66

1/11=.0909
2/11=.1818
3/11=.2727
4/11=.3636
15/11=1.353
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