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General Principles

Mohanad AlBayati
Mohanad AbdulSattar Ali Al-Bayati, BVM&S, MS. Physiology, PhD.
Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Baghdad
Al-Ameria, Baghdad
Phone: 0964 7700766550
E. Mail: aumnmumu@covm.uobaghdad.edu.iq
aumnmumu@yahoo.com

Pharmacology
Study of preparation, properties, uses and action of drugs,
mechanisms, and adverse effects of drugs.
many subdivisions of study
a. Medicinal chemistry
i. Study of new drug synthesis
ii. Studies the relationship between chemical structure and biological effects
b. Pharmacodynamics
c. Pharmacokinetics
d. Molecular pharmacology
e. Chemotherapy
f. Toxicology

Pharmacologist
a. MD (doctor of medicine)
b. PhD ( doctor of medicine)
c. Specializes in pharmacology

Pharmacist

A. Prepares and dispenses drugs


i. Pharmacy or drugstore
ii. Prescribed by a physician
B. Takes about 7 years of study to receive
a Doctor of Pharmacy degree
C. Consults with health care
professionals concerning drugs
D. Answers patients questions about
prescription needs

Deal with the source of


drugs and physical and
chemical properties of
drugs of plant and
animal origin

Drugs

Standards of drugs
Food and Drug Administrations (FDA)
i. Has legal responsibility for deciding if a drug may be distributed
or sold
ii. Strict standards for effectiveness and purity
iii. Requires extensive experimental testing in animals and humans
before it approves a new drug
Others , EPA, IEPA, WHO, FAO
References of drugs
a. Hospital Formulary
b. Pharmacopeia : USP, PB, JP, FC
- nomenclature of the drugs
- formulas types
- properties; chemical and physical
- methods of detection and analysis
- storage
- mode of action
- dose and dosage and rout of administration
- adverse effects

Veterinary Pharmacovigilance

is the collection and assessment of information,

including post marketing surveillance of the adverse


effects of veterinary medicines. An adverse effect or
reaction to a veterinary product is one that is harmful
and unintended and which occurs at doses normally
used in animals for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or
treatment

of

disease

physiological function.

or

the

modify

action

of

Pharmacodynamics

is the study of the biochemical and


physiological effects of drugs and their
mechanism of action
The action of a drug on the body,
including receptor interactions, doseresponse phenomena, and mechanisms
of therapeutic and toxic action.

What is a dose?
Dose is the amount of a substance administered at one

time.
Dosage is the amount per unit weight of the exposed
individual.

Key Concepts
Dosage
Response is a mathematical relationship (positive slope).
Increased dose gives increase in observable response.
Response clinical or biochemical/molecular biology? Debate
on whether molecular response is a manifestation of toxicosis.
Causal relationship.
Observable responses.
Statistical management of variability of individual

responses.
Species, genetics, age, sex confound results

Quantifying the dose


Dose: gram (g) is the standard unit but mg is typical of

most exposures in toxicology.


Dosage: mg (dose)/kg (body weight, bw)/day (duration)
mg/kg/d

Exposures are quantified in relation to the medium.


mg/L in water.
mg/kg in food.
mg/m3 in air.
Variation in units is common (ppm, ppb)
Sometimes moles are the appropriate units

Fitting dose-response curves


Non-linear regression

http://www.dtreg.com/logistic.htm

Observed effects: beginning of curve


NOEL: No observable

effects level
NOAEL: No observable
adverse effects level
SNARL: Suggested no
adverse response level
LOEL: Lowest
observable effect level
TLV: Threshold limit
value

NOAEL and LOAEL


Two terms often

encountered are No
Observed Adverse Effect
Level (NOAEL) and Low
Observed Adverse Effect
Level (LOAEL).
They are the actual data
points from human
clinical or experimental
animal studies.
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The NOAEL, LOAEL, NOEL, and LOEL have great

importance in the conduct of risk assessments.

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ED: effective dose


Pharmaceuticals
EC: effective concentration
Pharmaceuticals in vivo
Often in blood
Environmental toxicology
LC: lethal concentration
Environmental toxicology
TDLo: Lowest published toxic dose (animal clinical studies,
industrial exposure, accidental or deliberate poisoning)
TCLo: Lowest published toxic concentration

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Question

Q: What is pharmacy?
Q: what is pharmacist?
Q: What is pharmacognosy?
Q: What is Therapeutics?
Q: What is Drug or Pharmaceutics?
Q: mention the drug sources?
Q: What are the standard of drug and references?
Q: What is Pharmacopeia?
Q: What is Veterinary Pharmacovigilance
Q: what is Pharmacodynamics?
Q: What is drug receptor?
Q: Define dosage.
Q: Define dose.
Q: what is observed effect of drug?
Q: what are the following terms?
NOEL
NOAEL
SNARL
LOEL
TLV
ED
EC
LC
TDLo
TCLo

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