Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 168

CHAPTER 4

Fashion connotations and associations.


Fashion as a form of artistic and creative expression.
Discuss with relevant examples and works of designers like-

John Galliano
Issey Miyake
Rie Kawakubo
Missoni
Manish Arora

Fashion as a platform
for scientific
exploration.
Discuss with relevant
examples to the topic like:

Elley Kisimoto

Fashion motivating

Michael Aram

technology to reinvent-

Fashion as a response to functional


needs.

Mobiles
I-Pods

Discuss with relevant examples-

Intelligent fabrics
and garments

Nike-breathable sportswear

Wearable computers

Lycra-stretch, Nylon-stockings
Mobile phones, IPod, Discman
Donna Karan work-wear for women
Armani Suit
Kurti A kurta adaptation

What do you understand by fashion


which is a form of art?
Fashion which is :
Theme-based design
inspired from art works like paintings, sculpture,
installations, etc.
Architecture inspired fashion.
Fashion in a form which describes the designers
mind-set.
Created from an inspiration into reality or
practicality.
Famous designers:

Issey Miyake,
Yohji Yamamoto,
John Galliano,
Alexander McQueen.

Fashion as a form of artistic and creative expression.


Issey Miyake

Fashion as a form of artistic and creative expression.

John Galliano

Fashion as a form of artistic and creative expression.

Manish Arora

The British Designer


Lee Alexander Mc Queen
( 17 March 1969 11 February 2010 )

The British Designer


Lee Alexander Mc Queen
Lee Alexander Mc Queen was a British
fashion designer and couturier best known
for his in-depth knowledge of bespoke
British tailoring.
His tendency to put together female
strength and sensuality with fragility in his
collections, as well as the emotional power
and raw energy of his provocative fashion
shows.

Alexander Mc Queen
He was a Brothers Grimm of fashion,
enchanting and captivating the audience
with the most incredibly beautiful clothes,
only to make their stomachs lurch with the
underlying menace that shot through his
work. Because every show contained
outfits designed to thrill, shock and catch
the eye of picture editors many people
never realised that much of McQueens
work was, quite simply, heart-stoppingly
gorgeous: exquisite tailoring, beautifully
sculpted dresses and glorious print.

Some artistic & creative works of


Lee Alexander Mc Queen

Alexander Mc Queen

Butterfly-print dresses (how


fitting for Darwin Day),
Giger-style shoe designs,
skull key chains Yes,
Alexander McQueen was
something special.

Eiffel Tower

Alexander Mc Queen

The Royal Wedding


Today, Kate Middleton became Catherine, Duchess of
Cambridge.
Mr. McQueen, whose British team, led by Sarah Burton,
created Catherine Middletons bridal gown.
Fashionista's everywhere were delighted that the
Princess chose Alexander McQueen's Sarah Burton to
design her wedding gown for the special occasion, while
her Prince wore his formal military uniform. Kissing not
just once but twice on the balcony to celebrate their love,
the newlyweds are the perfect modern couple to lead the
old country into the future!

The Royal Wedding

Sarah Burton was the designers right hand and


has succeeded him as the creative director at
the label.
She talks nostalgically about how the designer
mastered the art to weave, engineer, and print
any digital image onto a garment so that all the
pattern pieces matched up with the design on
every seam.
She talks about McQueens concern about the
old techniques that were being lost, the
importance he gave to craftsmanship and the
fact that he was saddened by the trend of people
doing less and less with their hands

Manish Arora
Manish Arora is an Indian fashion
designer based in New Delhi and is
the creative director of the
womenswear collection of the
French fashion house Paco
Rabanne.
Born and brought up in Bombay,
Manish was studying to graduate in
Commerce, when he decided to
change his career path, and applied
for National Institute of Fashion
Technology in New Delhi and
graduated in 1994, after winning the
Best Student Award

Manish Arora
He started his label Manish Arora in 1997.
Creating colorful and whimsical outfits since 1997, he is
better known as the "John Galliano of India".
He is known for a rich palette of psychedelic colours and
kitsch motifs, in garments that combine traditional Indian
crafts like embroidery, appliqu and beading with
Western silhouettes
Today his label is available in 84 stores worldwide, and
for the last five years he has collaborated with
sportswear giant Reebok to produce the successful 'Fish
Fry' line

Some artistic & creative works of Manish Arora

Few of his favorite dresses & close ups of his bold makeup and hair

Some artistic & creative works of Manish Arora

See the similarities

Indoor Fireworks Collection of Manish AroraFall 2010

Stomping
tulip flappers
explode into
sparkly
rainbows of
pleats, puffed
sleeves and
plunging
necklines

Indoor Fireworks Collection of Manish Arora- Fall 2010

Indoor Fireworks Collection of Manish Arora- Fall 2010

Indoor Fireworks Collection of Manish Arora

Manish Arora on Circus

Manish Arora presents 3 Dimensional Collection in


his Spring/Summer 2009

Reebok launches exclusive Fish Fry for RBK 2008 designed by


Manish Arora
Collection showcased at the Paris Fashion Week, 2008

The new Reebok Fish Fry collection is aimed at those with an eye for
futuristic fashion and taste in high end fashionable products
The Black is inspired by new age easy-to-wear boots with vibrant colours
and sequined toe fronts making the collection more glamorous. Jungle
Low Collection gives you a feel of the lost era. These are neon shoes with
classic leather work on either side. The fiery combination of black and
orange can ignite any party with passion and style.
Priced between Rs 6000 and Rs 60,000

Fish Fry for RBK 2008 designed by Manish Arora

MAC Manish Arora Collection


MAC colaborated
with Indian fashion
designer Manish
Arora and came up
with something
exotic, loud and
bursting with
colors! :D

MAC

Examples of works of designers


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Issey Miyake
John Galliano
Rie Kawalkubo
Missioni
Manish Arora
Elley Kisimoto
Michael Aram

Suggested Books : - Icons of 20th Century Fashion,


Pocket Books on Designers in Library

Fashion as a form of artistic and


creative expression.
Students to choose any 5 designers and see the
works of these designers from artistic and creative
point of view.
Books for reference :
Icons of 20th Century Fashion
Websites of international spots brands
Sportstar
Chips Shoes & Accesories

Fashion as a platform for scientific exploration.


Mobiles, I-Pods, Intelligent fabrics and garments
Wearable Computers
Sports Bra with sensors

Institutional Privacy Curtains


Petals and New Leaf by Clickeze are
polyester cubicle privacy curtain
textiles made with Victor Innovatexs
Eco Intelligent fabric.
The Eco Intelligent fabric is certified
Cradle to Cradle Gold by McDonough
Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC),
meaning that materials which are
designated as hazardous including
fire retardants and antimonyare not
used.
The fabric is also designed to be recyclable.
These curtains were designed for the health-care industry, with patterns inspired
by nature intended to produce a calming effect.
The Clickeze system includes an aluminum track containing 70 percent postindustrial recycled content.

Fashion as a response to functional needs.


Work-wear for women

Lycra-stretch,
Nylon-stockings
Nike-breathable sportswear

Shoes with Work Clothes, courtesy of The Sartorialist


by Colleen Geary, fashion stylist and image consultant
To understand how to pair shoes with clothes, you first have to look at

Work Wear by TOMMY HILFIGER


www.marieclaire.com

silhouette. Shoes should complement the lines and proportions of an


outfit, particularly the bottom that youre wearing.

Fashion as a platform for scientific exploration.

Fashion as a response to functional needs.

Work wear - The Armani Suit

Kurti A kurta
adaptation - the
Indian concept of
work fashions.

Mid-term (internal assignment)


Submission Topic:
Spot 05 emerging trends and analyze the factors
influencing it.
10 marks
This assignment is to be done individually, using
good quality visuals, well-written description and A4
size spiral bound document.
Learning Diary with 7 topics

10 marks

Submission of both on 20/09/10

Learning Diary Topics till Mid-Term Exams


1.

Write about various fashion definitions you have learnt or read about. Give
pictures to describe your text. Max. 10pages with 10 visuals. Submission
9/08/10

2. What do you understand by Fashion Terminology? Give 10 fashion terminologies


describing them with 01 visual/picture and one sentence. Submission 16/08/10
3. What do you understand by the following terms: Submission on 30/08/10
1.

Soft goods give a visual for this topic

2.

Wardrobe Consultant give a famous name of a wardrobe consultant

3.

Assistant Buyer definition in 25-30 words

4.

Specification Sheets show visuals

5.

Fall/Winter show collections/garments of F/A 2008-09

4. Give your understanding of Fashion is a response to functional


needs of a society. 5 pages with visuals Submission on 06/09/10

5. Describe any two NGOs which are closely associated with fashion.
6. What are the factors influencing fashion? Give atleast 5 factors with visuals.
7. What do you understand by the Fashion theories? Describe the three fashion
theories with 3 visual examples for each theory.

Learning Diary Topic:


What do you understand by the following terms:
1. Soft goods give a visual for this topic
2. Wardrobe Consultant give a famous name of a wardrobe
consultant

3. Assistant Buyer definition in 25-30 words


4. Specification Sheets show visuals
5. Fall/Winter show collections/garments of F/A 2008-09
Submission on 30/08/10

Fashion as a response to functional


needs
Students to choose any 5 fashionable products
from functional point of view and discuss.
Books for reference :
Icons of 20th Century Fashion
Websites of international spots brands
Sportstar
Chips Shoes & Accesories

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Examples of Fashion & Functional


Products
Nike Breathable sportswear
Lycra - stretch
Nylon - stockings
Mobile Phones
I- Pods
Discman
Donna Karan Workwear for women
Armani Suit
Kurti A kurta Adaptation.

CHAPTER 5
Fashion connotations and associations
Evolutionary and revolutionary changes in fashion.
Discuss with relevant examples Evolutionary changes in fashion- sari, blouse, mens suit, sportsshoes, eyewear frames, watches, cars, computers etc.
Revolutionary changes- Impact of World War I & II, Invention of
contraceptive Pills (developed the confidence and casual attitude,
introduction of minis and micro minis), 9/11 (attitudinal change in
the West i.e. people moved from materialistic to spiritual), mobile
phones etc

Fashion as a stimulus for global business and vice


versa.
Discuss with examples relevant to the topic like:

Fashion motivating consumers to indulge in


Fashion apparel
Lifestyle fashion- holidays, interiors, food etc.
Demographics (age specific population driving fashion business), i.e.
younger Asian population, ageing Western population.
Psychographics (changing consumer behaviour) i.e. health
consciousness, young attitude, cosmetic surgery, longevity.

Fashion sub cultures.

Discuss with examples relevant to the topic likePunks, Hippies, minimalists, Grunge, Gothic,
Heavy metal etc.

Suggestive
readings:
Icons of Fashion
The 20th century
Fashion People Palmer
Fashion - Concept
to consumer- Gini S.
Frings
Costume & FashionJ. Laver
Contemporary
Fashion- Martin
Richard

Fashion as a response to social needs.


Discuss with examples relevant to the topic likeSEWA, Tsunamika, Cluster Initiative Programme
of NIFT, Anti-fur, Shahtoosh, People for ethical
treatment to animals (PETA).

Fashion connotations and associations

Evolutionary and revolutionary changes in fashion.


Evolutionary changes in fashion- sari,
blouse, mens suit, sports-shoes, eyewear
frames, watches, cars, computers etc.
one can notice that today fashion has
evolved a revolutionary change from
where it began. Garments and silhouettes
have changed to accommodate comfort,
glamour, flexibility, durability, etc.
Technology has placed us into a time
zone of hi-speed and minimalism.
Revolutionary changes have also crept
into our fashion lives. Impact of World
War I & II, Invention of contraceptive
Pills have developed the confidant and
casual attitude, innovative designs of
miniskirts, denims, the shirt-jacket
combination called the shaket, 9/11
attitudinal change in the West i.e. people
moved from materialistic to spiritual, etc.

EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN
FASHION
Relevant examples : Sari & blouse
Mens Suit
Sports-shoes
Eyewear frames
Watches
Cars
Computers

ORIGIN & HISTORY OF SARI


Word 'sari' evolved from the word 'sattika' mentioned in Jain & Buddhist literature.
History of Indian clothing trace the sari back to the Indus Valley Civilization (28001800 BCE
Earliest known depiction of the sari is the statue of an Indus valley priest wearing a
drape.
Some costume historians believe that the men's dhoti or
lungi (sarong), which is the oldest Indian draped garment,
is the forerunner of the sari.
Poetic references during the sangam period in ancient
Tamil Nadu, mention it as a single piece of clothing which
served as both lower garment and head covering

Its believed until the 14th century, dhoti was worn by men, and women used
to wear a breast band and a veil or wrap that could be used to cover the
upper body or head. No one wore blouses.

The two-piece Kerala mundum neryathum (mundu, a dhoti or sarong,


neryath, a shawl, in Malayalam) is a survival of ancient Indian clothing
styles, the one-piece sari is a modern innovation, created by combining the
two pieces of the mundum neryathum.

EVOLUTION OF DRAPES IN
SARIS

Dhoti Family
The most ancient recorded Indian drape is the dhoti.

Dravidian Family
These saris were found in Tamil Nadu.
They were draped with one piece of cloth &
women of each region adapted the drape to
keep their legs covered

Gond-related Family

Nivi Family
The Nivi family of saris is most widespread.
Forms of the Nivi sari are worn all over India, as well
as in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, and Indian
communities living abroad.

Many variations of the Gond sari


are found on women of all castes
living in what was historically the
Gond kingdom.

REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN
SARI
Over the years women became liberal in thoughts & started wearing
saris in different ways, & wore blouses for comfort & to protect
themselves from climatic changes
Recent trends of modern sari owe much to Indira Gandhi who
immortalized the present pattern of wearing saris.

SARI & BLOUSE A STYLE


STATEMENT

From a functionality purpose it has also


emerged as one of the traditional outfit for
Indians
Worn across all parts of India
Traditional fabrics & drapes different from
region to region.
It adds grace & compliments the Indian body
types.

Sambalpuri ( in Orrisa district ) sari

Heavily worked upon


Banarsee sari from Banaras

Traditional offwhite sari worn in Kerala on Onam

MENS SUIT - ORIGIN

20TH century AD saw more changes in the fashion


industry than it had seen in previous centuries.

At the turn of 20th century and through to the 1920s,


there was still a distinct disparity between men's
'daywear' and 'eveningwear', and men's suits usually
took the form of a tailcoat with a pristine ( perfect /
spotless ), starched white shirt worn underneath, and
perfectly accessorised by a top hat and black leather
shoes

until the 1950s men's suits evolved into something more


business-like and men everywhere began to wear narrow
trousers with single breasted coats - an authoritative
style that reflected the role men

MENS SUIT - evolution


Bigger was better

Double breasted suits


Full cut trousers
Tuxedos with tails
Dark colors

1933

1934
1935

1945

Cuts became narrower & fitted


Experimentation with fabrics & colors
More variations in casual dressing

1950

1953

1961

1970

usage of Check fabrics for suits


With the loose, baggy silhouette of the early '90s
More relaxed cuts
1970s

1973

1974

1989

1991

Suits of Today!

SUIT BRANDS

International brands like Armani,

Louis Vuitton & domestic brands


like

Van Huesen, Louis Phillepe,

Allen Solley have given a new

Dimension of wearing suits

EVOLUTION OF SPORTS SHOES


During 1890s rubber-soled shoes Plimsoles later called sneakers
were traditionally worn for sports & in PT lessons throughout most schools
in Europe
Were available only in black & white color
These were replaced by air cushioned, gel filled capsules with superior
technical performance.
Spiked running shoes was created by the British company Reebok in the
1890's. The founder of the company enjoyed running & founded this shoe
to increase his speed.

REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN SPORTS


SHOES

Brands like Nike, Reebok & Adidas are the


market leaders in this category
They created shoes for every sport & need

Football shoes
Running shoes

Soccer shoes

EVOLUTION IN EYEWEAR
FRAMES

The first lenses for correcting sight


problem were
constructed by the British astronomer
George Airy in 1825.

Change in perception of eyewear

Eye frames have become a fashion


statement & is an important part of
accessory range

Eyeglasses nowadays go beyond


utility. They have become an
appendage of our
personalities.

All the top designers like Chanel,


Prada, Valentino have eyewear in
their range

Different looks can be achieved by


changing the eyewear

MORE EYEWEAR BRANDS


We express our individualism, our identity
through the simple and intricate assemblage
of metal, plastic and glass.
With each season the colors, materials &
shapes of the frames change
Apart from being a reading glass its also used
as stylish sunglasses

GLASSES FOR EVERY ONE !

For kids

For Dogs

Shooting &
riding glasses

For video gaming

Glow frames

EVOLUTION OF WATCHES !

1500s : Peter Henlein from Germany created the


first pocket watch.

Before this people saw time from Hour Glass

Early 1600s : Form watches becoming popular.


Cases are shaped like animals and objects.
Religious themes are popular.

1750 : Watch makers began using enamel on


watch dials.

1780 : Abraham Louis Perrelet invents the self


winding movement.

1853 : Tissot makes the first dual time zone


watch.

1956 : Rolex introduces their first model that


displays the day and date.

1999 : Casio innovates with the first wristwatch


with a built-in Global Positioning System (GPS).

Hour Glass

Pocket watches

REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN
WATCHES

Depicts fashion statement apart from


utility purpose

Brands like Tissot, Fossil, Citizen,


Titan are leaders in this segment

All top Designers like Tommy Hilfiger,


Chanel have designer watches

Caters all age groups

Fossil

Omega
Citizen

Watches for all purposes !


Watch by nokia

Retro watch

Diamond studed watches

Funeral watches

Digital watches

Futuristic watch

EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN
CARS
The first self-propelled car was built by Nicolas Cugnot in 1769 which
could attain speeds of upto 6 kms/hour.
In 1771 he again designed another steam-driven engine which ran so
fast that it rammed into a wall, recording the worlds first accident.
It was only in 1885 that the first real car rolled down on to the streets.
By definition an automobile or car is a wheeled vehicle that carries
its own motor and transports passengers. The automobile as we
know was not invented in a single day by a single inventor.
The history of the automobile reflects an evolution that took
place worldwide
Being one of the most significant inventions of the 1920s
the automobile drastically changed the lives of Americans
for the better.

REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN CARS


Sports car
Cars which run on Diesel, Petrol & eco Friendly Petrol
Cars which run on LPG gas

Cars which run on electricity


They have become a style statement & symbol status

EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN
COMPUTER

The first of the "modern" computers was invented


during World War II, in 1941 by a German
engineer named Konrad Zuse. The computer was
called the Z3 and was used to help design
German airplanes and missiles.

A couple years later, in 1943, the Allied forces


developed a computer called Colossus to help
decode German messages

Computers came around that could store memory


and even run programs

One of the few earlier computers - wooden

After a while, the focus on computer research


came to be on making them smaller, giving us the
kinds of computers that we have today.

Evolved version

REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN
COMPUTER

Over the years image of computers became sleeker flat screen


Laptops evolved
Storage/memory space increased
Computer Software became more advanced
Became more affordable
Brands like Sony, Apple, Acer became brand leaders

Fashion as a response to social needs.

SEWA, Tsunamika, Cluster Initiative Programme of NIFT, Anti-fur, Shahtoosh,


People for ethical treatment to animals (PETA).
Social Media and Fashion Industry
People who were keen to know about fashion trends always picked up the latest glossy to know about the
ever-changing trends in the fashion industry.
Social media has changed this totally. When we talk about social media, the general reference is to
websites or online platforms that enable the fashion industry to connect with their customers using the
latest social networking technology.
Through social media, it becomes possible for a fashion designer or a fashion company to generate
publicity across online communities and websites.
Social media makes it possible for fashion designers and fashion boutiques to generate interest about a
brand. It finds ways in which a brand can be promoted more effectively to customers at a global level, that
too with minimal cost.
There may be biological mechanisms that influence individuals who are active in the world of social media.
In the context of fashion, here is an apt example:
Case: Suppose Cindy Crawford wears a branded watch and you are watching the self-satisfied
expression closely, youll feel as though you are wearing it yourself. Researchers pinpoint this
experience as pertaining to mirror neurons, which trigger a biological response that helps to drive
online brand building.
Thus, it is clear that marketing fashion will enter a new phase of communication. It will work mainly
through sub conscious online communication. Again, research indicates that nearly 85% of the things we
do every day originates from the sub conscious mind. This sub conscious mind plays a critical role in
imitating what is found via social media. No wonder, it is likened to a dark room for online marketers.
In the fashion world, the use of social media is not merely a marketing strategy but it focuses on
studying and anticipating fashion behaviors. It also focuses on understanding these hidden factors that
help to expand social networks.

Fashion as a response to social needs.


SEWA ( Self Employed Womens Association ), Tsunamika, Cluster Initiative Programme of NIFT,
Anti-fur, Shahtoosh, People for ethical treatment to animals (PETA).
PETA Campaigns

Tsunamika dolls

Craft Cluster Initiative by


NIFT Mumbai

SEWA is a trade union registered in 1972.


It is an organization of poor, self-employed women workers, who earn a living through
their own labour or small businesses.
They do not obtain regular salaried employment with welfare benefits like workers in
the organized sector. They are the unprotected labour force of our country.
Of the female labour force in India, more than 94% are in the unorganized sector.
However their work is not counted and hence remains invisible.
83

An Organisation & Movement

The SEWA movement is enhanced by its confluence


of three movements :
1) the labour movement,
2) the cooperative movement
3) the womens movement.

But it is also a movement of self-employed workers :


their own, home-grown movement with women as the
leaders. Through their own movement women
become strong and visible. Their tremendous
economic and social contributions become recognized

With globalization, liberalization and other economic


changes, there are both new opportunities as well as
threats to some traditional areas of employment.

84

SEWA IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY


SEWA supports & organizes Home Based garment Workers both who
work on their own or in a garment industry on daily wages.

Workers who work independently (subcontract basis) are paid piece


wise for which they are paid as low as 5% of the total garment cost. If
the piece is not up to the manufacturers satisfaction or its lost their
wages are deducted.
Workers who are members of SEWA, the organization helps them to
get a higher piece rate or minimum daily wages in fairer working
condition with welfare benefits & support form the company.
SEWA has also helped own account garment makers to acquire new
skills , improved Equipment & market information to keep pace with
the local manufacturers. This included help them get loans for new
upgraded machines & Gadgets, electrical connections at home &
trainings at NIFT for advance knowledge.

85

SEWA Trade Facilitation Centre

STFC (SEWA Trade Facilitation Centre) is the marketing arm of SEWA in the
textiles and handicrafts sector. It provides design, production and marketing
facilities for apparel, accessories and soft furnishings, with embroideries
provided by more than 15,000 rural craftswomen.

STFC was established in 1998 with the mission of "empowering women through
traditional skills".

STFC is a non-profit organization, where the artisans (over 3,200) hold stake in
the ownership and consequently in the decision making processes.

The company has a modern garment manufacturing and packaging plant, a fully
equipped design studio, latest IT and reporting systems, all designed to support
product innovation, commitment to quality and business growth. STFC has
partnered with top design specialists and institutes like NIFT and NID to address
the need for continuous skill up gradation for its artisans.

STFC operates in India with two retail stores and also has large garment brands
as its B2B clients. Currently it exports to 6 countries, to both premium brand
retailers and specialized high fashion boutiques.

86

SEWA a response to the Social needs

With an increase in requirement from the for Handloom fabrics, Hand


Embroidery thread & sequence (machine & handwork)& requirement from
the local markets for garments has given these workers an opportunity &
means of livelihood

Organizations like SEWA helps these workers to Display their talent & skills
without any exploitation.

Sewa Trade Facilitation Centre (STFC) held hands with the war-affected
women of Afghanistan to rebuild their lives. An initiative undertaken by
STFC and Ministry of Commerce to train Afghan women has reached the
next level with Afghani women showcasing their creations at the India
International Trade fair (IITF) 2008, Pragati Maidan.

32 Afghani war victims who were given special training in garment making,
eco regeneration, food and fruits processing and packaging and accounting
by SEWA have participated in the trade fair this year with the soul objective
of taking the Afghani economy a step ahead. These women are the master
trainers and train other women at Baagay-e-Zanana with direct coordination and facilitation from SEWA. The women have now set up their
own microenterprises.

87

TSUNAMIKA - A LIVING SYMBOL


Tsunamika is a Tsunami related
project of Auroville . Auroville is a
city in south-India, dedicated to
human unity, and based on the
vision of Sri Aurobindo and The
Mother.
Auroville is actively involved in
many Tsunami Relief projects in
Tamil Nadu. Tsunamika is one of
them.
This project is conceived and
executed by Upasana Design
Studio of Auroville in the seaside
villages of Auroville's bioregion.

Nearly 480 fisherwomen from 6


villages are trained and from them
around 180 ladies are now creating
these little dolls called Tsunamika.
88

26th December 2004

26th December 2004

89

THEN..

90

A helping hand came from Auroville

91

92

From raw material

to the finished product.

93

TRAINING MODULE - DAY 1

Introduction to Handicraft workshop

94

What is Tsunamika made of ?

She has been hand-made from fabrics left over from other creative works
in Upasana. The project team, who trained the ladies, now supplies them
with raw materials to continue producing the dolls
All dolls produced are bought from them in bulk and are gifted
unconditionally worldwide by Upasana.
It is always gifted never sold!
Entire project became a demonstration of gift economy, with donations
coming in from around the world sufficient to run the project on its own
income within a period of just 18 months.
95

DAY 2

Few simple steps to make the doll96

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

97

and, Tsunamika is ready.

98

DAY 3
Thrilled at their own creativity.

99

DAY 4

100
Now the ladies try and make Tsunamika without a trainers guidance.

PRODUCT CATEGORIES -

GAMES

PEN CLIP

PENCIL CLIP

HAIR PIN
KEY CHAIN
Tsunamika has many variations to suit different uses.
She comes as a hair clip, or book mark, paper clip etc.

101

MORE PRODUCTS

JACKET ACCESSORY

WALL HANGING

RAKHI
PIN HOLDER

102

SCRIBBLING PAD

Tsunamika is a living symbol,


A symbol of love and hope,
A symbol of joy and unconditional giving

103

Anti - fur

The term "a fur" is often used to refer to a fur coat, wrap,
or shawl. Common animal sources for fur clothing and
fur trimmed accessories include fox, rabbit, mink,
beavers, ermine, otters, sable, seals, cats, dogs,
coyotes, chinchilla, and possum.

The import and sale of seal products was banned in the


U.S. in 1972 over conservation concerns about
Canadian seals. The import, export and sales of
domesticated cat and dog fur was also banned in the
U.S. under the Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000.

China produces 85% of the fur on the planet and


has no animal welfare laws to protect
animals. Fur animals in China suffer one of the
most cruel and savage practices

Fur coat in a fashion show

The hideous cruelty is hidden from consumers who may


not know that each fur article comes with
an unimaginable amount of agony. All this in the
name of fashion.
This fur coat, made in 1975,
was produced from dyed blueback hooded seals.

Red Fox Fur

104

Cruelty!

Fur-bearing animals are killed by gassing,


neck breaking,
anal electrocution, clubbing, trapping and
injection with poisons so as not to damage
their pelts.
These animals live horrendous existences
when they are "ranch-raised" on a "fur
farm", or are brutally killed in the hands of
trappers.
On ranches, they spend their entire lives in
tiny, filthy cages and suffer tremendously,
many become deranged until they meet with
brutal deaths.

Paolo trap

Cats, Dogs, Gae-wolf, minks, Asian wolf,


Asiatic raccoon, China wolf, Corsac fox,
Goupee, Pommern wolf, Asian jackal,
They beat them to death
Mongolian dog fur, and Asiatic racoon,
Mountain Goat skin, Sakon Makhon
lamb. Cat fur has been sold as Housecat,
Wild cat, Mountain cat, rabbit.

Half skinned
dogs

Fur animal being


stepped upon

Dog Being electricuted

Being skinned
105

Anti-Fur Coalition

The International Anti-Fur Coalition is a


worldwide group of organizations, working
to end the atrocities of the fur industry.
Since 2006 it has been organizing anti-fur
protests to hold demonstrations simultaneously
all over the world.

Brands like Abercrombie & Fitch, Ann Taylor,


Gap, Esprit Benetton, Mango, Liz Clabourn &
International Designers like Calvin Klein, DKNY,
Tommy Hilfiger, Kenneth Cole have stopped
using fur in their collections

Artificial Fur is now promoted as a replacement for


actual fur

106

SHAHTOOSH

Shahtoosh - a Persian word meaning "Pleasure of Kings" - was the


name given to a specific kind of shawl, which was woven with the down
hair of the Chiru or Tibetan Antelope, by the weavers of Kashmir.

Chiru

It took very skilled artisans to weave the delicate hair (which measured
between 9 and 11 micrometres). These factors made Shahtoosh
shawls very precious. One shahtoosh shawl costs over $1000

Shahtoosh are so fine that an average size shawl can be passed


through a wedding ring.

The Chiru antelope live in one of the harshest environments on earth,


at an altitude of over 5,000 metres. Their special type of down fur,
which is both very light and warm, allows them to survive in the
freezing conditions of the plateau where they gather at one point of the
year.

The nomads would hunt the antelope for all that it provided them hide, meat, bones, horns and fur pelts - in short, everything that the
nomads needed to sustain them through their journey.
Multiple Chiru must be killed to gain the materials necessary for a
single Shahtoosh shawl.

shawls

107

SAY NO TO SHAHTOOSH & YES TO CHIRU!

When the British (of British India) traveled to Kashmir, they realised
the worth of Pashmina and Shahtoosh shawls and introduced them
to the world, which led to greater demand for these products.

In order to collect the fine hairs, these beautiful animals have to be


slaughtered. Where we sheer or comb other animals in order to
harvest their wool, the hairs of the Tibetan Antelope need to be
individually plucked from the skin.
Just imagine, three animals are killed for every shahtoosh shawl

Poachers kill around 20,000 Tibetan Antelope every year, many of


which are pregnant females moving with their flock to their preferred
birthing grounds.
With fewer than 75,000 animals left. Now they are listed as an
endangered species

This also led to the demise of the skill of the Kashmir weavers, who
were the only ones in the world who could handle the fibre.

The selling or owning of Shahtoosh was made illegal in all countries


that signed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species. Although Shahtoosh is banned under the agreement, illegal
hunting and selling of Shahtoosh is still a serious problem in Tibet.
108

How can we contribute!


Consumers can help save the chiru by

not buying any shahtoosh products. This is against the law of the UAE and against
the international treaty - CITES;
discouraging others from buying or wearing shahtoosh by spreading the truth;
reporting any suspected sightings or sales of shahtoosh to the UAE CITES
Management Authority (Federal Environment Agency for Abu Dhabi and Ministry of
Agriculture and Fisheries for the northern emirates;.
buying and encouraging alternative products such as pashmina (combed from goats)
and yak wool that do not require animals to be slaughtered;
relinquishing any shahtoosh products in their possession (even samples are
forbidden); and
discouraging shahtoosh traders and buyers from indulging the demand.
109

PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment of


Animals is the worlds largest animal rights
group. Founded in 1980 ,Headquarters in the
US it has affiliates in Germany, England, India
and other nations.

The organization is a nonprofit corporation with


187 employees, funded almost entirely by its
members.

It focuses on four core issues: factory farming,


fur farming, animal testing, and animals in
entertainment, and also campaigns against
fishing, the killing of animals regarded as pests,
the keeping of chained backyard dogs, cock
fighting, dog fighting, and bullfighting.

PETA provides dog houses and


straw bedding for chained, backyard dogs.

Encoucrage people to become


vegetarians & avoid using any
animal products
Shilpa Shetty in a Boycott the circus
advertisement

Few more campaigns


It aims to inform the public through
advertisements, undercover investigations,
animal rescue, and lobbying. Its slogan is
"animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment
on, or use for entertainment
PETA works through public education, cruelty
investigations, research, animal rescue,
legislation, special events, celebrity involvement
and protest campaigns.
While it's efforts are considered radical by
some, PETA continues to be mentioned by
various media outlets as one of the most
effective charities in America.
Christy Turlington during
PETA's "I'd rather go naked
than wear fur" campaign

111

THEIR PRODUCTS!
They strongly advertise through their range of apparel
& acessories range which carries a message or slogan.
It can be purchased in their outlets or through internet
at reasonable rates
Sweatshirts

Fitted tees with slogans


Hoodies &
long jersey tees

112

ACCESSORIES RANGE
Aluminum bottle

magnetic
neckpiece
Water mug
wristbands
Shopping bags
stickers

Key chain
113

Cluster Initiative
Programm of NIFT

Craft Cluster Initiative

The Craft Cluster Initiative of the Institute is a carefully developed formula for
integrating the crafts sector of the country with the mainstream.
NIFT, with active support from the Ministry of Rural Development, Office of
Development Commissioner (Handicrafts & Handlooms) and National Centre for
Jute Development is developing and implementing a craft cluster initiative
towards the overall progress of craft, the cottage industry and vocational
activities.

The intention of the project is to involve NIFTs professional capabilities in the


areas of design, technology, marketing and management along with external
expertise, and synergie all developmental activities by various government and
non-government agencies

114

Role of NIFT

Overall project direction, strategy, management and coordination of activities and


schedules.

Overall implementation along with specific tie-ups and networking with various
stakeholders.

Expertise of enhancement and conversion of knowledge through multidisciplinary


research, across design, management and technology.

Assessment and enhancement of capacities and capabilities through knowledge transfer


programmes.

Mapping opportunities and potential markets, branding and promotional strategies and
networking of potential commerce patronage.

Products, processes and tools innovation through design and development.

Technical know-how enhancement, trend studies, quality norms and sourcing.

Information sharing and creating grass-roots technical support systems for intelligence
development and market accessibility.

Integration of academic activities to provide real life learning opportunities and employ
students creative abilities towards various initiatives
115

I.M. a NIFT initiative

In order to create their own identity, NIFT has brought all the products made
by the clusters under one umbrella, by launching brand I.M. a NIFT initiative,
which is a symbol of 'being Indian', 'self reliant', 'the feeling of swayam', self
confidence', and 'oneness'.
It symbolises that crafts can be identified only by the 'karma' and not by any
caste and creed.
In the process of exhibiting and retailing the products developed in these
clusters, NIFT in collaboration with DC (HC) has opened a retail outlet at Rajiv
Gandhi Hasta Kala Bhawan, Baba Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi 110001.
The store houses everything from apparel to home and lifestyle products to
handcrafted accessories. A perfect blend of ethnic and modern, it makes an
interesting mix and a great place to shop.

116

CHAPTER 6
Fashion connotations and associations cont.
Fashion as a stimulus for global business and
vice versa.
Discuss with examples relevant to the topic like:
Fashion motivating consumers to indulge in
Fashion apparel
Lifestyle fashion- holidays, interiors, food etc.
Demographics (age specific population driving fashion
business), i.e.
younger Asian population, ageing
Western population.
Psychographics (changing consumer behaviour) i.e. health
consciousness, young attitude, cosmetic surgery,
longevity.

Fashion sub cultures.


Discuss with examples relevant to the topic like Punks, Hippies, minimalists, Grunge, Gothic, Heavy metal
etc.

Suggestive
readings:
Icons of Fashion
The 20th century
Fashion People Palmer
Fashion - Concept
to consumer- Gini S.
Frings
Costume & FashionJ. Laver
Contemporary
Fashion- Martin
Richard

Fashion connotations and associations

Fashion as a stimulus for global business and vice versa


Talking global, one does hear often how fashionable it is to be holidaying at the Bahamas or the Hawaii,
etc. Fashion motivates consumers to indulge in a certain kind of lifestyle which speaks of style other than
that of just dressing-up.
Lifestyle fashion- holidays, interiors, food etc. are now on the same platform as Fashion Apparel thus
showing that fashion now comes with a very wide horizon.
Demographics in fashion is the study on various age-groups, specific population driving fashion business,
i.e. younger Asian population, ageing Western population. Demographics, consumer spending, and fashion
trends drive demand. The profitability of individual stores depends on the ability to generate store traffic
and effective merchandising. Large companies can offer a wide selection of products, and have advantages in
purchasing, distribution, and marketing. Small companies can compete effectively by selling specialty
products, providing superior customer service, or serving a local market.
Psychographics is referred to the changing consumer behavior i.e. health consciousness, young attitude,
cosmetic surgery, longevity.

Chapter 6
FASHION MOTIVATING CUSTOMERS TO INDULGE
World apparel market is largely influenced by factors,
such as, globalization, ever changing consumer
preferences, levels of disposable incomes, dynamic
business practices, fashion trends, and technological
developments in fabrics.
Economic slow down Impacts retail
Many businesses depend on retail.

MODERN CONSUMER
Extremely Brand Conscious
Fashion emerging as Self Expression Strong
Demand for Unique Apparel Designs
Newness (change) is the order of the day

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA

Friday Dressing Concept Driving sales in Casual


Market
Expanding Sales of T- shirts at the cost of
Business wear

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA


MEN'S WEAR

Men's apparel market has grown

Demand for comfort wear and casual wear is rising across the world.
Formal apparel for men has found its way into the market, in the
form of improved suits, shirts and ties.
Men's and boy's apparel segment is influenced by changing
consumer attitudes and evolving lifestyles, as seen in the rising
demand for specific wear for business, casual and weekend

activities.
Development of innovative sportswear, incorporating novel designs
and fabrics, is also finding favour among male purchasers.

Chapter 6
FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA
Men's Fashion

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA


FASHION APPARELS WOMEN TRENDS

A major growth area for the segment is emerging from 'mature'


(women over 30 years) category.
Special sized garment segment is also expected to drive sales in the
overall market
Focusing on providing corporate casual apparel, owing to the
expanding proportion of women in executive level positions across
the world.
While jeans find universal appeal irrespective of gender and age,
demand for designer apparel is mostly confined to affluent consumer
segments, and is susceptible to constant changes in consumer
preferences and fashion trends.

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA


CHILDRENS APPAREL
Most critical market Parent dont want to over spend yet not
compromise
Strong brand awareness among children, particularly in case of
back-to-school shopping, is a major growth booster for the industry.
The advent of trendier, and competitively price designer wear is also
fostering sales in the kid's apparel segment.
Increased indulgence in outdoor activities is additionally fostering
the market for active wear, and sportswear.

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA

FASHION AS A STIMULUS FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS & VICE-VERSA


LIFESTYLE FASHION

Holidays
Interiors

Food

Holidays
Luxury Holidays have given
way to Budget Holidays
Low cost Airlines
Reduce no. of holidays in a
year
Travel Light
Activities
Home stays instead of Hotels
Time Share Concept

Holidays

Interior Homes
Key words Nature & Environment
World Starts going green
Use of natural materials in
housing construction
Eco-houses & furniture
Kitchen Gardens back in fashion
Low maintenance in Soft furnishing
Energy efficient gadgets being used in
homes

Home
Interiors
Trends
are
generally
a fall out
from
Apparel
Trends

Interiors

Earthen Color Palette reflected in living room

Food
Calorie Count on Menu Cards

Organic foods & vegetables


Home made food
Customization in Foods

Convenience foods
Exotic Foods & Cuisines
Learning to make food on TV
shows & Menus Sites
Happy Meals by McDonald

DEMOGRAPHICS
GLOBAL BUYING AS DICTATED BY AGE

Age Specific
Younger Asian population and older western population
Young Children Influenced by Parents
Teenagers Easy influenced -Cinema, pop, peer group
pressure
More Disposable income in the age-group of 20 -25 yrs
Indulgent customers
25-35 yrs Mature Choices
35 onwards Wise decision takers
55 onwards decline in spending patterns

YOUNGER ASIAN POPULATION VIS A VIS OLDER


WESTERN POPULATION
The Asian population explosion was actually a health explosion

it was fuelled almost entirely by declining mortality due to


dramatic improvements in life expectancy.
All Big Brands exploring Indian & Asian markets

Buying power is more with the young


Economy is stable due to manufacturing and consumption being in
the same country

PSYCHOGRAPHICS
CHANGING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Health Consciousness
Young Attitude
Cosmetic Surgery
Longevity

HEALTH CONSCIOUSNESS
Decline of Frozen foods
Fast Food & Junk Food out
Organic foods & Home Gardens
Reduced Calorie Meals Growing Fast
Regular Exercise
Yoga & Spirituality back in Fashion

Health Consciousness

YOUNG ATTITUDE

I, Me, Myself Self Centered


Fast Life - Work Hard, Party Harder
Live life king size Credit Card culture
High Money Consciousness
Casual Attitude
Weaker Relationships
Weaker Moral Values & Principles
Shopaholics

LONGEVITY

Advancement of Medical Science


Low Mortality Rate
Average Death Age 70 to 80 yrs.
Anti Ageing
Age proof your brain

COSMETIC SURGERY
Growing old is Inevitable Looking good
is negotiable
People today want to look good outside &
as well as feel good inside

Appearance is an important aspect of


modern day life

KINDS OF COSMETIC
SURGERIES
Body Reshaping Procedures
Facial Corrective procedures
Hair Restoration
Botox Anti- ageing

Anti Scar/ Acne Treatment

Fat Reduction

Permanent Make-up

Lifestyle Trends Yr. 2009 -2010


Urban Garden
Organic Foods
Minimalsitic
Debt Free Living
Cottage living
Home Cooked Food
Retro- Fashion
Personalization of
Personal Space

Chapter 7
Fashion sub cultures.
Punks, Hippies, minimalists, Grunge, Gothic, Heavy metal etc.

Fashion spreads very fast when


it comes to music pop, rock,
grunge, trance, etc.

Clothes don't make the man but


man makes the clothes....certain
people carry themselves in a
certain way and give off a
certain vibe, when they wear a
certain clothes and makes it look
good... One can also say that
fashion is confirmed by the
rebels, the non-conformists who
are not afraid to try and
experiment with clothes
individuals with high potential of
charisma, and raw appeal.

Many music groups around the


world have dictated fashion from
ages be it Bob Marley, Elvis,
Aerosmith, Michael Jackson,
Akon, Hannah Montana, etc.

Aerosmith Band

The Hippie-style
Michael Jackson

The Punks

The punk subculture emerged in the United States, the United


Kingdom, and Australia in the mid-1970s. Exactly which region
originated punk has long been a major controversy within the movement.
Two UK punks in a train carriage in 1986; note the hand-stencilled Crass
symbol painted on the coat of on the man.
Early punk had an abundance of antecedents and influences, and Jon
Savage has described the subculture as a "bricolage" of almost every
previous youth culture that existed in the West since the Second
World War - stuck together with safety pins. Various philosophical,
political, and artistic movements influenced the subculture.
In particular, punk drew inspiration from several strains of modern
art. Various writers, books, and literary movements were important to the
formation of the punk aesthetic. Punk rock has a variety of musical origins
both within the rock and roll genre and beyond.
Pop punk fashion consisted of black or tartan baggy pants (sometimes
fitted with studs and eyelets), band hoodies, wristbands, patrol caps,
pyramid stud belts, dress shirts with thin ties or scarves, blazers, and
spiky hair. In the mid 2000s pop punk fashion, influenced by indie, hiphop and the middle class emo subculture, evolved to include cartoon print
hoodies, Converse shoes, keffiyehs and drainpipe pants. Spiky hair was
gradually replaced by skater styles with long fringes or bangs. In the
2010s, pop punk fans took on a more hardcore look with shorter hair
(including a wide Mohawk combined with a fringe), plain hoodies, and
straight-leg jeans.

A French punk in 1981,


wearing a customized blazer,
as was popular in the early
punk scene.

The Punks

Modern punks - leather, denim, spikes, chains, and combat boots,


elements such as kutten vests, bondage pants (often plaid) and torn
clothing modified clothing, such as ripped or stitched-together pants
or shirts. Hair is typically dyed in bright, unnatural colors such as red,
blue, green, pink or orange and arranged into a mohawk or liberty
spikes sometimes cut very short or shaved. Belts with metal studs,
and bullet belts, are popular. Leather or denim jackets and vests
often have patches or are painted with logos that express musical
tastes or political views. Pants are usually tapered tightly. Metal
spikes or studs are often added to jackets and vests.
Glam punk is the oldest punk style, associated with the early groups
of the 1970s like the New York Dolls. Glitter, androgynous make-up,
brightly-dyed hair, drainpipe jeans (in reaction to the flared trousers
worn by hippies), bright colours like electric blue and unusual
costumes like leopard print or satin shirts are frequently worn.
Deathrock punk fashion is similar to goth fashion. Black is the
predominant shade, incorporates a sexier image, fishnets, corsets
and elaborate make-up for men and women. The use of occult and
horror imagery is prevalent on T-shirts, buttons, patches and jewelry.
Other common adornments include band names painted on jackets
or bleached into clothes, as well as buttons or patches indicating
cities. The initials D and R (for Death Rock) is sometimes part of a
cross-bone logo, accompanied by other initials, such as C and A for
California, N and Y for New York, or G and R for Germany. Hair may
be in a death-hawk style (a wider teased-out variant of the mohawk

The Hippies

The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that


arose in the United States during the mid-1960s, swiftly
spreading to other countries around the world.
The etymology of the term 'hippie' is from hipster, and was initially
used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York City's
Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district.
The early hippie ideology included the countercultural values of the
Beat Generation. Some created their own social groups and
communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual
revolution, and used drugs such as marijuana and LSD to explore
alternative states of consciousness.
By 1968, hippie-influenced fashions were beginning to take off
in the mainstream, especially for youths and younger adults
of the populous "Baby Boomer" generation, many of whom
may have aspired to emulate the hardcore movements now living
in tribalistic communes, but had no overt connections to them. This
was noticed not only in terms of clothes and also longer hair for
men, but also in music, film, art, and literature, and not just in the
US, but around the world.
Eugene McCarthy's brief presidential campaign successfully
persuaded a significant minority of young adults to "get clean for
Gene" by shaving their beards or wearing longer skirts; however
the "Clean Genes" had little impact on the popular image in the
media spotlight, of the hairy hippy adorned in beads, feathers,
flowers and bells.

The Hippies

There are some elements of fashion that are synonymous with hippie
fashion. Chief among these being, bell bottoms, flowers, peace signs and
the vivid tie dye patterns. Let us take a look at the wardrobe essentials from
the hippie period and trace the hippie fashion history.
Flower Power
Flowers dominated most hippie possessions including cars and vans. A
flower in one's hair was a great way of accessorizing oneself. If not as a hair
accessory, then flowers made their presence felt as designs on clothes.
These were symbols of vividness, peace and freedom. The term flower
power was coined by Allen Ginsberg, the famous Beat poet, as a way of
transforming war protests into peace symbols. 1960's hippies fashion
dictated that symbolism was adapted as a part of clothing. Most hippies also
went around distributing flowers to the general public earning the nickname
flower children.
Bell Bottoms
Bell bottom blues, you made me cry.
I don't want to lose this feeling.
And if I could choose a place to die
It would be in your arms. - Derek and the Dominoes
Songs were written about this fashion trend which speaks volumes about the
rage they were. The song writer of Bell Bottom Blues, Eric Clapton wrote the
song for Pattie Boyd after she requested him to buy a pair of trousers from
the US. Bell-bottoms were synonymous with the hippie fashion movement
with men and women both sporting these trousers teaming them with other
wardrobe essentials of the period like tie-dye t-shirts, beads, flowers, fringe
jackets etc. These trousers when worn had to be hip hugging and teamed
with a leather belt for sure. Men often substituted bell-bottoms with jeans but

Skirts
For most women 60s fashion clothing meant a revival of skirts in a manner
never seen before. Skirts of any length were very popular. Hemlines
became shorter with mini skirts and even micro mini skirts becoming
exceedingly commonplace. At the other end of the spectrum were gypsy
style skirts that flirted with ankle length hemlines. Indian prints like batik and
paisley were much sought after for gypsy skirts. Many people actually
preferred dyeing and making their clothes themselves to give it a more
unique appearance.
Tie-Dye Clothes
Though the tie-dyeing art was introduced in the United States in the early
20th century, it became wildly popular only in the 1960's when the hippies
adopted it as an integral part of hippie fashion. 1960s fashion was largely
defined by the use of tie-dye patterns on clothing. One of the most used
symbols was the peace symbol in vibrant colors. The popularity of tie-dye
could also be credited to the travels that most hippies indulged in
going as far as India and therefore, being inspired by Asian motifs and
textiles for clothing. There was a favorable tilt towards designing and making
your own clothes in a bid to be individualistic and as a sign of defiance of the
corporate culture.
Other popular items of 1960's hippie fashion included chain belts, caftans,
peasant blouses, scarves, etc. Peace symbols were very popular in the
form of accessories. Most hippies, regardless of gender, were
predisposed to wearing their hair long and it generally looked unkempt.
African Americans made the Afro style of hair very popular. Many people
abandoned footwear preferring to walk bare-feet. If footwear was used, then
they generally were leather sandals or flip-flops. Even in the early 70's,
hippie fashion continued having a huge influence but this started slowly
dying down. Today, modern hippie fashion has seen a revival with many
people using different staples of hippie fashion in a more modern way. It is
not surprising. Someone once very famously said, "Hippies are like jeans.

The Hippies

Grunge

Grunge is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged during the mid1980s in the American state of Washington, particularly in the Seattle area.
Inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal and indie rock, grunge is generally
characterized by heavily distorted electric guitars, contrasting song dynamics,
and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down
compared to other forms of rock music, and many grunge musicians were
noted for their un-kept appearances and rejection of theatrics.
Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy
performances. Grunge bands rejected the complex and high budget
presentations of many musical genres, including the use of complex light
arrays, pyrotechnics, and other visual effects unrelated to playing the music.
Stage acting was generally avoided. Instead the bands presented themselves
as no different from minor local bands.
Clothing commonly worn by grunge musicians in Washington consisted
of thrift store items and the typical outdoor clothing (most notably flannel
shirts) of the region, as well as a general unkempt appearance. The style
did not evolve out of a conscious attempt to create an appealing fashion;
music journalist Charles R. Cross said, "Kurt Cobain was just too lazy to
shampoo," and Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman said, "This [clothing] is
cheap, it's durable, and it's kind of timeless. It also runs against the grain
of the whole flashy aesthetic that existed in the 80's."

The Goths were a heterogeneous East Germanic


tribe, who played an important role in the history of
the Roman Empire after they appeared on its lower
Danube frontier in the third century.
This subculture originated in Europe in the 80s and
quickly gained widespread popularity among teens as
well as young adults. That subculture was later
stamped as the gothic era, styles that were adopted
from the Elizabethans and the Victorians. Along with
the gothic subculture came the impressionable styles
of gothic fashion.
The gothic fashion inherited its style from the
past era of Elizabethans and Victorians and is
quite predominately incorporated into their daily
apparel, hairstyles, facial makeup and the jewelry
accessories that they wear. Each generation of
young people since, the mid 50's, has risen to be
uniquely identified by forming their own
subculture.
Through this subculture, an identifiable uniform of
dress, jewelry, makeup, music, social manner, and
attitudes can quickly be depicted as part of that
subculture. One of the most favored jewelry
accessories, among young gothic adults, is the black
diamond mounted inset with silver or white gold. Black

Gothic

Heavy metal

Heavy metal fashion is the style of dress, body


modification, make-up, hairstyle, and so on, taken on
by fans of heavy metal, or, as they are often called,
metalheads.
The clothing associated with heavy metal has its roots in
the biker, rocker, and leather subcultures. Heavy metal
fashion includes elements such as leather jackets; hi-top
basketball shoes (more common with old school
thrash metallers); blue or black skinny fit jeans,
camouflage pants or shorts, and denim jackets or
kutte vests, often adorned with badges, pins and
patches. As with the bikers, there is a fascination with
Germanic imagery, such as the Iron Cross.
The style and clothing of metal has absorbed elements
from influences as diverse as the musical influences from
which the genre has borrowed. It is from this linking of
different sub-styles of clothing and music influences that
one can sometimes determine a person's specific taste in
music simply from overall appearance. However, such
signs are not hard and fast rulings in the majority of cases.
This uncertainty is what makes the first key aspect of the
metalheads' identity below so important.

Iron Maiden Band

Heavy metal

Spike "bands" or gauntlets are a common


element among fans.
Some of the influences of modern military
clothing and the Vietnam War can be seen
by the fans and bands of thrash metal, with
the members of thrash metal bands of the
1980s like Metallica, Destruction, and
Megadeth wearing bullet belts around their
waists on stage (it is likely that the thrash
metal bands got the idea of wearing bullet
belts from NWOBHM bands such as
Motrhead, who have incorporated the
bullet belt as part of their aesthetic since
their inception, since many thrash metal
bands in the 1980s were influenced by
Motrhead).
This style is often connected to punkmetal and anti-fashion, as akin to the
hardcore punk scene, as the for
mentioned style reflects similar attitudes.

Learning Diary Topic 5


Describe any one NGOs which is
closely associated with fashion.

Describe with visuals any one fashion


sub-culture.
Submission on 09/09/10

CHAPTER 7
Factors influencing fashion
Social, cultural, economical, political,
technological, sports, music etc.

Contents: Discuss with suitable examples


Suggestive readings Fashion - Concept to consumer - Gini S Frings

Factors influencing fashion

SOCIAL
The post-war baby-boom caused by increase births,
youth oriented markets, career, fashion styles changed
with priorities.
The babybusters also called as generation X, 1965 to
1979, fashion conscious and willing to spend,
contemporary, career oriented.
Echo boom generation Y, racially diverse group, techosavvy.
Ethnic diversity people from different cultural
backgrounds.
The working woman change in demands of styles,
catalogue buying pattern, minimalistic
Family oriented, work-from-home concepts,
Concern for environment
People are looking for their perception of quality at a
reasonable price
Value for time, home-delivery.

Factors influencing fashion


ECONOMIC
Consumer spending personal income, disposable income and
discretionary income plays a very important part in this aspect.
Purchasing power of the consumers

Inflation where people earn more but due to rise in cost of living, the
purchasing power decreases. (1980s Power suit reflected obsession
with money and achievement)
Recession decrease in spending, companies cut back orders, colors
used are more of a dull tone, people will buy things that last longer,
consumers quest for value.

Factors influencing fashion


POLITICAL
Famous political people e.g. Michelle Obama, Jacqueline
Kennedy, Jawarharlal Nehru and many more who made
style famous.
Certain political parties like the orange colored kurtas of
BJP have influenced colors and styles
The German style dressing in khakhi and broad
shouldered-tops was popular during the time of Adolf Hitler.

Factors influencing fashion


Communications like T.V, radio, telephones, etc. convey the

latest trends and create awarnes about new trends and styles.
Information Technology like the internet which is one of the
most influential concepts that direct fashion and trends.
Movies Indian as well as international movies and actors
showcase many styles which are then copied by manufacturers
and made popular.
Sports e.g. IPL matches, World Cup Football, etc.
Music famous rock artists who make certain styles famous.

CHAPTER 7
Fashion theories
Fashion cycle
Theories of fashion adoption
Fashion leaders and followers.

Suggestive readings:
Fashion- Concept to Consumer- Gini S Frings
Inside Fashion Design- Sharon Lee Tate

Fashion theories
Theories of fashion adoption:
Three variations of the fashion adoption process: traditional

adoption, reverse adoption and mass dissemination.


Traditional Fashion Adoption:

Also known as the trickle down theory

Based on the process of copying and adapting trendsetting fashion from Paris, Milan and New
York designer, as couture designs are very expensive and affordable by just few.

New fashions are shown in different ways which is easy to copy and create styles for mass
market.

For mass production and consumers manufacturers produce less-expensive versions of the
original couture (high-fashion)

These designs are copied again and again at lower prices till they become affordable and
acceptable to all consumers

Thereafter the cheapest versions are seen at discount houses.

The consumer then gets tired of the look and it fades away.

The length of this process is influenced by its location

Fashion theories
Theories of fashion adoption
Reverse Adoption Process
-Also known as trickle-up or bottom-up theory.
-People on the streets are observed and new styles are
noted.
-The grunge look , dance-wear, active-wear which began as
functional need soon became designer wear.

-Vintage fashions
-Styles worn by consumers or co-ordinates invented by
consumers are taken as inspirations for high-fashions.

Fashion theories
Theories of fashion adoption
Mass Dissemination
-Also known as trickle-across theory
-Modern communications bring fashions into our homes
directly.
-Mass dissemination (distribution / spreading) happens

when manufacturers copy hot new styles immediately in


order to meet the high demand.
-Speed of the production is of great importance.
-Examples like the Chinese dress designed by John
Galliano for Dior worn by Nicole Kidman for Academy
Awards was immediately copied by A.B.S. and sold at
$260.00

Mid-term (internal assignment)


Submission Topic:
Spot 05 emerging trends (with 5 visuals) and
analyze the factors influencing it. Max. 5 pages

10 marks
This assignment is to be done individually, using
good quality visuals, well-written description and A4
size spiral bound document.
Submission on 20/09/10
Learning Diary with 7 topics

Learning Diary Topics 6


&7
What are the factors influencing fashion?
Give atleast 5 factors with visuals.
What do you understand by the Fashion
theories? Describe the three fashion
theories with 3 visual examples for each
theory.
Submission 27/09/10

Похожие интересы