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ME4414

Fluids Engineering
FLUID MACHINERY

Reference:
Axial Flow Fans and
Ducts by R. Allan
Wallis, John Wiley &
Sons.

Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different Axial Flow


Fans
(a) Inlet Guide Vane (upstream guide vane)
Wu/2=(Wu1-Wu2) /2=
=(Vu1+Vu2) /2

Wu/2

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
Since Vu2 = 0 for axial outlet
pth gH th uVu uVu1 ;

CL

c
2pthVm cos

s u W2 sin

Vu1
u
2
cot
Vm

pth

s
CL 2 sin cot 1 cot 2 CD cot
c

or

Vm

Q
2
2

d12

Vu1

2
2
W Vm u

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
Typical design value:
84%,

r1
0.47,
r2

Q
d 22u2

0.23,
pTh

1 2
u2
2

0.16

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(b) Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(b) Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
pth gH th uVu uVu 2 ;
CL

c
2pthVm cos

s u W2 sin

cot

Vu 2
2
Vm

pth

s
CL 2 sin cot 1 cot 2 CD cot
c

or

Vm

Q
2
2

d12

W2 Vm2 u u 2
2

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
Typical design value:
86%,

r1
0.45,
r2

0.28,

0.38

Design starts with


c
1.0
s

at

hub

CL 1.2

Vu
0.6
W

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(c)

Inlet & Outlet Guide Vanes

Wu/2 Wu/2

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(c)

Inlet & Outlet Guide Vanes

pth gH th uVu u (Vu1 Vu 2 ) 2 uVu1 ;


c
2pthVm cos
CL
s u W2 sin
u
cot
Vm

Vm

s
CL 2 sin cot 1 cot 2 CD cot
c

or

Vu1 Vu 2 ; pth

Q
2
2

d12

W V u
2

2
m

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(d)

Contra-rotating Fan

pth gH th uWu u (Vu 2 Vu 3 ) 2 uVu 2


Vu 2 Vu 3 ;

pth

FLUID MACHINERY
Velocity Diagrams and Pressure for Different
Axial Flow Fans
(d)

Contra-rotating Fan

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:(Appendix II in Fans, 2nd ed. By William C. Osborne)
Flow rate Q = 2.5 m3/s, Total Pressure PT = 125 Pa
Assume a 9 blade axial fan
= 0.28; = 0.35 ; = 80 %
Since Pressure coefficient

if

1 2
u
2

0.35

n 16rev / s

u (

125 2
) 24.4m / s
0.35 1.2

u
24.4
d

0.485m
n 16

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
giving fan outlet velocity Vo = 2.5x4 / (0.485)2 = 13.5 m/s
and a dynamic pressure x1.2x(13.5)2 = 109 Pa
and static pressure = 16 Pa(=Po-1/2 V2=125-109)
which is too low.
Q
2.5 4

0.55
2

d 22u2 3.14 0.485 24.4


0.28
4
Increase the diameter to 0.6 m
giving fan outlet velocity Vo = 2.5x4 / (0.6)2 = 8.85 m/s
resulting a dynamic pressure of 47 pa = x1.2x(8.85)2
and a static pressure of 78 Pa(=125-47)
which is more a better design.

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
A hub/tip ratio 0f 0.5 is chosen giving d1 = 0.3 m ,
r1
0.5,
r2

80%,

p
1 2
u
2

0.28,

125
1
1.2 ( 16 0.6) 2
2

0.23

0.23

2.5 4

0.28
2
2
d 2 u2 3.14 0.6 ( 16 0.6)
4
Q

u nd

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
Vm

d22 d12

2.5

(0.6)

(0.3)2

11.8 m/s

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
At hub
pth uVu 2

u = (0.3)16 = 15.1 m/s ;


Vu 2

125
156.3Pa
0.8

156.3
8.63m / s
1.2 15.1

Vu 2 15.1 8.63
u

2
cot

Vm
11.8
V

W2 Vm2 u u 2
2

pth

47.6
2

8.63

W (11.8)2 15.1
15.98 m/s
2

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
c
2pthVm cos
2Vu 2 2 8.63
CL

1.08
2
s u W sin W
15.98
CL

Design starts with


c
1.0
s

CL 1.08

at

hub

c 2poth 2Wu

s u W
W

p0 th u Wu

CL 1.2

Vu
0.6
W

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan

CL 1.08

for

5.2

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
Assume frictionless airfoil for simplicity

Using a Gottingen 624 airfoil CL 1.08 for


Blade angle at hub is 47.6 5.2 52.8

5.2

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
Similarly at the tip

u = (0.6)16 = 30.2 m/s


pth uVu 2

pth

125
156.3Pa
0.8

156.3
Vu 2
4.32 m/s
1.2 30.2

Vu 2
u
30.2 2.163

2
cot

Vm
11.8

22.85

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
Assume at the tip c/s=0.358
(thinner because of the centrifugal force induced stresses)
Vu 2

W V u

2
m

4.32

W (11.8) 30.2
30.4 m/s
2

c 2Vu 2 2 4.32
c
CL

0.284;
0.358 CL 0.79
s W
30.4
s

CL 0.79

for

Class Activity
Design Example of an Axial Flow Fan
Ex:
For Outlet Guide Vane (downstream guide vane)
Blade angle at tip is 22.85 3 25.85
Also downstream guide vane angle = tan-1(Vu2/Vm)
=tan-1(4.32/11.8)=20
2

Vu 2

4.32
2
W V u
W (11.8)
12.0 m/s
2

2
c 2V
2 4.32
CL u 2
0.717
s W
12.0
2

2
m

and CL c/s = 0.717

FLUID MACHINERY

FLUID MACHINERY

FLUID MACHINERY

FLUID MACHINERY
Multi-stages axial flow fan

FLUID MACHINERY
Propeller Fans
Provide circulation of air with very small pressure
( <0.5 in. H2O ))
Large propeller fans are commonly used on cooling
towers.
Efficiency 60% to 70%.

p,oth
p
System
p = kQ2

FLUID MACHINERY
Cross-flow Fans

With blades like those of a forward curved centrifugal


fan.
Small compact unit for domestic equipment. Volume
flow is almost unlimited by increase the impeller
length.

FLUID MACHINERY
Cross-flow Fans

FLUID MACHINERY
Cross-flow Fans

p,oth

Power
System
p = kQ2

FLUID MACHINERY
Fan Operation
Fan & System

FLUID MACHINERY
Fan Operation
At Operation point,
Fan total pressure = system total pressure loss
Fan static pressure + fan velocity pressure = system pressure loss
Fan static pressure = system pressure loss - fan velocity pressure.

Since very often, fan velocity pressure is nearly equal to


system discharge velocity pressure. Hence Fan static
pressure system pressure loss without including exit loss.
Fan manufactures' catalogues often provide performance
curves in terms of static pressure against volume flow
at different speeds.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fan Operation
Effect of Change of Speed & Density
P
From the fan laws K P N 3D5 ;
Q K Q ND 3 constant

QN

Q
KQ
,
3
ND
independent

K p
of

p K p N 2 D 2 constant
p N 2
dependent
By ideal gas law p 1
RT T
2
Q
psys KQ 2 K
T
Also system characteristic

N 2D2

of

Computer programs may be design so that the fan


characteristics may be obtained at any flow rate,
fan speed etc.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fan Operation
2

psys

2
Q
KQ 2 K
T

FLUID MACHINERY
Fan Operation m

in

mout 1Q1
heat exchanger,
const

0Q0

For air enter a heater or cooler (heat exchanger, const)


(Bulk temperature inside the hear exchanger
p

RT
=(T1+T0)/2)
The pressure loss becomes

T1 T0
p p0
2T0

The volume flow becomes


min mout

(pin pout )

T
Q1 Q0 0 Q0 1
1
T0

p
1

RT T

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series
For two fans in series, the total pressure will be the
sum of individual pressure less any losses in the
interconnections for any flow Q.
Identical units should be used for efficient operation.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series
series

Q ( p1 p2 ) 2Qp1
~
P2 motors
P2 motors

If two fans in series, the total pressure will


be the sum of individual pressure ideally for
any flow Q.
However, P2 motors 2 P1 motor because the
losses in the interconnections.
Because the interconnection losses will not
be linearly varying with Q, the curve
shifts to the higher Q.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Parallel
parallel

2Qp
2Qp

sin gle
P2 motors 2 P1 motor

Tune the curve to have


maximum at 2 Q for the
operation condition
Backward blade fans

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Parallel
Identical units or more fans are connected in parallel,
the total volume flow will be the sum of the
individual volume flow while the pressure difference
across the fan will remain the same.
As with series operation, identical fans should
normally be used. It is common to have both fans
discharge to a large chamber so that the effective
pressure become the fan static pressure.

Forward Curved Fans

Design point

A study on the characteristics of a forward curved for shows a small


increase in volume flow may cause a considerable increase in power
required and this may overload the motor since it is usually selected
for a particular duty (<30% higher than the design condition).

Backward bladed fans

With backward curved


fans, however, the
maximum power
required is generally a
little higher than the
power required
corresponding to
maximum efficiency.
Therefore the motor
used can be selected to
be equal to max. power.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series and in Parallel
Forward curved fans with points of contraflexure
may result in three different flow rate for same
pressure. Hence when connected in parallel, six
different flow rates may results which lead to
uneven fan load and instabilities of volume flow.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series and in Parallel
Qx+Qy

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series and in Parallel
A total pressure P, may corresponding to 6 different
combination of volume flow i.e. 2Qx, 2Qy, 2Qz, Qx +
Qy, Qx + Qz, Qy + Qz and for a system loss cutting 3
points A, B, C, is impossible to forcast the actual
working condition and the fans may settle down at
any single point or oscillate between all three.
The power consumption of the motors may oscillate
causing underloading and overloading of motors.
The overload protection devices may cut out the
motor immediately after start up.
Ammeters should be fit to the motors for parallel
fan operation to monitor such situations.

FLUID MACHINERY
Fans in Series and in Parallel
Dampers may be added so that careful adjustment
of each damper may result in a combined
characteristic (as observed on the ammeters) which
is satisfactory.

Class Activity
Ex:
A centrifugal fan has the following characteristics when
operating with air at 15C & 1.01 bar The fan is to be used in
an air extraction system at same condition which the
pressure loss is at 700 N/m2 for a flow rate of 25 m3/s.
Q m3/s

10

20

30

40

50

P N/m2

907

931

883

785

638

45

65

70

67

60

Estimate the actual operating flow rate, pressure drop and


input power, if the above system were to operate with air at
40C and 1.01 bar, explain how the fan and system curve
would be changed.

Class Activity
Sol:
psys

Q
2
KQ
psys 700
25
Q
15
20
25
30
Ps 252 448 700 1008

Plotting on graph P = 892 N/m Q = 29 m3/s

= 69%

For system at 40C


psys 40 40 KQ 2 ; psys15 15 KQ 2 K Q 2 ;

p
RT

p
T

40
288
psys 40 psys15
psys15
0.92psys15 =0.92 892=821 N/m 2
15
313
input power= psys 40 Q 821 29 23.8 kW

pressure are all at 1.01 bar

Class Activity

Class Activity
Sol:
From Fan Laws
P
KP
;
3 5
N D

Q
KQ
,
3
ND

Q K Q ND 3 constant Q N

K p

N 2D2

independent

p K p N 2 D 2 constant p N 2
P K P N 3 D 5 constant P N 3

of

dependent
dependent

of

Q m3/s

10

20

30

40

50

P N/m2

834

856

812

722

587

45

65

70

67

60

of

Class Activity
Sol:

Q
P s,15 C
P s,40 C

15
252
232

20
448
412

25
30
700 1008
644 927

Class Activity
Sol:
Q m3/s

10

20

30

40

50

p15 C N/m2
W15 C=p15 C Q
kW
Wmotor=W15 C/
kW
%

907
9.1

931
18.6

883
26.5

785
31.4

638
31.9

20.1

28.6

37.8

46.9

53.2

45

65

70

67

60

834

856

812

722

587

8.3

17.1

24.4

28.9

29.3

p40 C N/m2

W40 C=p40 C Q
kW