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SOIL IMPROVEMENT

Clay

Sand

Isotropic compression

Shearing

WHY VIBROCOMPACTION?
- Improve bearing capacity.
- Reduce settlement.
- Improve shearing resistance.

- Eliminate risk of liquefaction during earthquakes.

Minimum and maximum void ratio with spheric particle

SOIL IMPROVEMENT METHODS


COMMON FEATURES

Empirical design
Observation approach
Monitoring of operation
In-situ checking
Statistical evaluation

SOIL IMPROVEMENT METHODS


GRAVEL

MAIN METHODS
SAND

SILT

CLAY

VIBROFLOTATION
BLASTING
PARTICULATE GROUT
CHEMICAL GROUT

COMPACTION GROUTING
PRELOADING - VERTICAL DRAINS
DYNAMIC CONSOLIDATION

STONE PILLAR

ELECTRO-OSMOSIS

REINFORCEMENT = STONE COLUMNS SOILMIX JET-GROUTING


THERMAL TREATEMENT
REMOVE AND REPLACEMENT

PREWETTING

10

0,1

PARTICLE SIZE (mm)

0,01

0,001

0,0001

VIBROFLOTATION

VIBRO. METHODS

VIBROCOMPACTION
in situ densification of granular soils.

VIBROREPLACEMENT
Construction of stone columns, using
water as a flushing medium.

VIBRODISPLACEMENT
Construction of stone columns, using
compressed air as a flushing medium.

Principles

Soil is compacted in depth by submersible

vibroflot, with support of water or air flush,


deep to 40 - 50 m.
Suitable for sandy and gravely soils.
Settlement improvement. Bearing capacity
150 - 500 kPa.
Permeability decreased by compacting at the
rate of 100 to 1000. Resistance against
earthquake liquefaction.
Diameter of compacted columns is 2 to 4 m.
Monitoring of compacting energy.
Vibroflotation

Process
1 - DESCENDING STAGE - action effect
of vibrations, water jet and weight
of vibroflot - quick descent.
2 - FILLING BY APPROPRIATE MATERIAL
- usually local material

3 - ASCENDING STAGE - filled material


is during ascent gradually and
repeatedly compressed.

Vibroflotation

Vibroflotation influence on soil


- regroupment of particles

BEFOR
vibroflotation

AFTER
vibroflotation

Vibroflotation

Hong Kong, Pennys Bay

Pennys Bay Vibrocompaction

Dubai, Palm
Island

V48 vibroprobes
operating in tandem
on The Palm
Jumeirah
Over 9 million m3 of
vibrocompaction carried out
by Vibro Foundations Ltd

Craters generated
by V48 vibroprobes

Vibroflot
130 kW
with horizontal
impact

Vibroflotation

Site application examples

England - foundation of big reinforced concrete tanks


Vibroflotation

Site application
examples

Hong-Kong - soil improvement


at sea coast. Laser radar control

Vibroflotation

Hong-Kong - airport Chek Lap Kok

12,8 millions m3
compacted sands
Compacting of sea floor soils and fills

Vibroflotation

C. P. T. (MPa)

Depth (m)

Hong-Kong
airport Chek Lap Kok

AFTER
VF
BEFORE
VF

Results of soil improvement

Vibroflotation

STONE COLUMNS

Principles

Soil is compacted in depth and reinforced by

columns from gravel, usually 60 - 120 cm


diameter, deep in 8 - 12 m.
=> composite block, transferring the load to
deeper layers. Load transfer in cohesive soil
exploits its lateral resistance.
Soil consolidation is speeded up by drainage
possibility to decrease pore pressure.
Columns from gravel of internal friction angle
improve low friction resistance of soil.
Dry or wet method.
Stone columns

GRAVEL

Application range

SAND

SILT

CLAY

VIBROFLOTATION

STONE COLUMNS

10

0,1

0,01

0,001

0,0001

PARTICLE SIZE (mm)

Stone columns

Soil - column interaction


a) pile

b) stone column

ro

s
b
v

b
1 sin

. ro 4C
1 sin
Stone columns

Wet Top Feed


Stone Columns
(Vibroreplacement)

Wet Top Feed Stone Column Installation

Penetrate with full water pressure


on nose jets

Form stone column by introducing


aggregate in stages from the surface.
Reduced water from nose jets

Wet method (Vibro-replacement) - principle


Top filling

1 - DESCENDING STAGE - by action effect of vibrations, water jet and


weight of vibroflot the required depth is quickly reached, the soil
is displaced by flushing.
2 - GRAVEL FILLING - vibroflot is partially pulled up and the hole is
filled by an appropriate gravel.
3 - CONSOLIDATION STAGE - gravel is by the vibration pushed to the
sides and compacted to required rate. Next, the gravel is added
and the process is repeated.
Stone columns

Dry Bottom Feed


Stone Columns

Dry Bottom Feed Stone Column

Penetration
The Vibroprobe
penetrates by vibration
and aid of compressed
air to the required
depth.

Installation
The stone column is
installed by adding gravel
through the separate gravel
duct alongside the
Vibroprobe.

Completion
The surface is levelled
and eventually roller
compacted.

Dry method (vibro-displacement) - principle


Bottom filling

consolidated
soil

1 - Creating of hole for gravel


filling by the vibrator and
air flushing.
2 - Gravel filling from the feeding
hopper.
3 - Sideward pushing and
compacting of gravel.

Stone columns

Pennys Bay
dry bottom
feed rig in
operation

Detail
of vibrator
outlet

Stone columns

60 m

Site application examples

Vibro- replacement pro TGV route Paris - Lyon


Free hanging rig - 34.000 m / 19.200 m3 of gravel- depth 6 - 13m

Stone columns

Soil improving: TGV Paris - Lyon


Qc

Depth (m)

Soils: clayey sandy


and silty
deposits

AFTER
treatment

BEFORE
treatment

Stone columns

Site application
examples
Vibro-displacement
Construction of an industrial
zone in Annency (France)

Requirements :
- minimum settlement, total
and uneven
- earthquake resistance
- bearing capacity 500 kPa
Design :
Finite element (PLAXIS) analysis
Piers 0,7 m, grid 3,2 m,
16 500 m
Execution :
SOLVIBRO set
Stone columns

Soil improvement: Annency (France)


Geology:
0 - 1,5 m:
fill
1,5 - 8,5 m: clayey soils, silt
8,5 - 9 m:
clayey gravels
from 9 m:
fine sands
BEFORE
treatment

AFTER
treatment

Results :
- Improving rate 2 - 3
- Total settlement 4 cm
- Uneven settlement 1 cm

Clayey soils, silt

Stone columns

Offshore Stone Columns

Offshore Stone
Columns

Marine Gravel Pump

Offshore Stone Columns

Double Lock Gravel Pump Marine Edition

Patras Harbour, Greece

A view from under


water

Control during
Installation

Documentation of compactions and


stone columns

Number of compaction or

stone column.
Time started, Time finished.
Amount of backfill used (in
stone columns).
Maximum depth reached.
Remarks : For example,
details of breakdowns, with
reason and time.
Copy of the power-depth log.

Palm
Island
Example
Quality
Record

Vertical drains

Principles

Drainage and consolidation speed-up of

compressible clayey soils.


Application for depth 15 to 50 m.
Efficiency depends on spacing.
Initially only sand piles are improved by:
Plastic band drains
Plastic flexible pipes

Usually

realised
embankment.

with

pre-consolidation

Vertical drains

Band drains

Vertical drains

Site application
examples

Band drains
Rig production:
2 500 m/day

Vertical drains

Site application examples

Band drains
Vertical drains

Site application
examples

Band drains
Vertical drains

Site application examples

Band drains
Vertical drains