Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

What is a Green Building?

A Green Building, also known as a sustainable building, is a structure


that is designed, built, renovated, operated, or re-used in an
ecological and resource efficient manner.

Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance


between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of
well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and
ecosystems, on which we & future generations depend

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Objectives of a green building:

Protecting occupant health


Improving employee productivity
Using energy, water and other resources more efficiently
Reducing overall impact to the environment
Optimal environmental and economic performance
Satisfying and quality indoor spaces
Green Building

Benefits of Green Buildings

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Environmental Benefits

Reduce the impacts of natural resource consumption

Economic Benefits

Reduced operating costs


Marketing advantages
Increased building valuation
Optimizes life-cycle performance cost

Health and Safety Benefits

Enhance occupant comfort and health

Community Benefits

Minimize strain on local infrastructure and improve quality of


life

Green Building

Considerations of a green building:

Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air


quality
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile
use
Limit disruption of natural water hydrology by reducing
impervious cover, increasing on-site infiltration and managing
storm water run-off
Encourage and recognize increasing levels of self supply through
renewable technologies to reduce environmental impacts
associated with fossil fuel energy use
Provide a high level of individual occupant control of ventilation
and lighting systems to support good health, better productivity
and a comfortable atmosphere
Provide a connection between indoor spaces and outdoor
environment through the introduction of sunlight and views into
the occupied areas of the building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

How to make a building green:

Sustainable site planning with bioclimatic architectural planning


Incorporate solar passive techniques in a building design to
minimize load on conventional systems
Design energy efficient lighting and HVAC (heating, ventilation,
and air conditioning) system
Use low energy and renewable materials
Choose construction materials and interior finishes products with
zero or low emissions to improve indoor air quality
Use dimensional planning and other material efficiency strategies
Design for a gray water system that recovers rain water for site
irrigation and a dual plumbing system for use of recycled water for
toilet flushing
Use re-circulating systems for centralized hot water distribution

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Building design

Orientation
Building insulation (walls of AEC block and roof with over deck
insulation and roof lawn)

Window sizing

Window shading (fixed overhangs)

Glass selection (with low thermal conductivity, low shading co-efficient


and high light transmission)
Envelope efficiency measures contributed to 12% savings over base case

System design

Energy efficient lighting (CFLs , efficient tubelights and electronic


ballasts)
Daylight sensing (90% lighting energy savings)
Efficient chillers, Variable air volume systems.
Wind towers for pre cooling of fresh air.
Lighting efficiency measures contributed to 15% savings over base case
and HVAC efficiency measures contributed 20% savings over base case
Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
Lighting systems (CFLs, T-5 fluorescent lamps, LEDs, efficient ballasts,
D
etc)
U
C
HVAC systems (Properly sized plants, efficient chillers, VAV based air TI
O
handling systems, economizers, variable speed drives for pumps,
N

Use efficient systems and controls

chillers and fans etc.)


Water heating systems (solar assisted water heating systems, efficient
boilers etc)
Energy management and control system

Green Building

Whole building energy optimization

Daylighting
Passive Systems

High Performance
Glazing

High Efficiency
Water Heating

Building
Envelope
design

Insulation

Reduced
Energy
requirements
Occupancy Load,
Equipment Schedule

Reduced
Lighting requirements

High Efficiency
Lamps, Ballasts,
Luminaires

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Controls:
Enthalpy control,
Economizer,
Reheat by Steam

Reduced
HVAC
requirements

Sensors,
Controls

High Efficiency
AHUs, FCUs
High Efficiency
Pumps
High Efficiency
Cooling Towers

High Efficiency
Chillers

Green Building

Passive Systems
(CFD,Suntect etc)

Whole building energy optimization

Daylighting
(Adeline)
High Performance
Glazing (Window 5.0)

High Efficiency
Water Heating

Building
Envelope
design

Insulation

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Energy
requirements

VisDOE 3.1
Occupancy Load,
Equipment Schedule
Lighting
requirements

Controls:
Enthalpy control,
Economizer,
Reheat by Steam

HVAC
requirements

Lumen Designer

HAP 4.05
High Efficiency
Lamps, Ballasts,
Luminaires

Sensors,
Controls

High Efficiency
AHUs, FCUs
High Efficiency
Pumps
High Efficiency
Cooling Towers

High Efficiency
Chillers

Green Building

Architectural design/Site
planning

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Lighting design

Whole design
HVAC design

Water system design

Energy management and


control design

Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Architectural design & Site planning

Green Building

Bioclimatic architectural principles

Orientation
Thermal mass
Surface to volume ratio
Positioning of windows , shading
Selection of materials for wall , roof, windows, including insulation
Landscaping

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Buildings in hot climate

Orientation to cut off sun protected insulated windows external wall


insulation
Lower surface to volume, Lighter finishes, Water as landscape element

Buildings in cold climate

Large windows to capture sun


Thermal mass to store heat
Minimum Shading
Insulated walls and windows
Darker finishes
Well protected north
Green Building

Effect of orientation on cooling load

North south orientation would reduce cooling loads by 1.5%

Effect of efficient materials

Roof and wall insulation reduced cooling load by 23


Insulated windows reduced cooling load by 9% (window to wall ratio
7%)

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Use onsite sources and sinks

Day lighting
Earth cooling
Natural Ventilation (night cooling)

Earth cooling

Earth cooling has helped do away with conventional space cooling and
heating techniques for about 8 months a year

Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Lighting Design

Green Building

The passive solar practice of placing windows, or other transparent


media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural
sunlight provides effective internal illumination.

Use of effective solar control strategies (overhangs) and high


performance glazings limit associated solar gains.
Achieving this daylight credit will likely increase energy savings in the
Energy and Atmosphere credits. This is largely due to savings in the
electric lighting that results from well daylit spaces.
Daylighting strategies can have synergies with other energy efficiency
strategies such as displacement ventilation.
Minimize site lighting where possible
Full cutoff-luminaries
Low-reflectance surfaces
Low-angle spotlights

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Water System design

Green Building

Landscaping & Water use reduction


Reduce potable water consumption for landscape by 50% over
a theoretical baseline design for the specific region.
Successful Strategies:

Drought tolerant plants

Drip irrigation, moisture-sensing irrigation technologies

Recycled rainwater system

Municipally-provided non-potable water source use

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Water Use Reduction, 20% and 30% Reduction


Successful Strategies:

Dual flush water closets

Ultra low-flow water closets and urinals

Waterless Urinals

Sensor-operated, Low-flow lavatories

Rainwater collection reuse systems

Graywater reuse systems


Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Energy management system

Green Building

Photovoltaic

Photovoltaic (Solar electric) is a device


which produce free electrons
when exposed to light resulting in power
generation.
Photovoltaic does not release any of the
green house gases when in use.
Photovoltaic uses a non-conventional,
renewable source of energy which has no
adverse effects on the environment.
23 kW solar photovoltaic system
55% energy savings over base building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

Photovoltaic Applications
Shading Elements

Flat Roofs

Facades

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Roof Top
Atria & Skylight

Green Building

Sustainability at Site

Replace asphalt with concrete where possible


Plant trees in vegetation strips around parking lots or sidewalks.
Consolidate parking into a parking garage
Bioswales
Filtration basins (filters)
Detention Ponds / Retention Ponds
Vegetated filter strips
Pervious paving
Vegetated/Garden Roofs
Energy Star rated roofing systems
High reflectivity coatings

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Heat, Ventilation & Air conditioning

Green Building

The main purpose of commercial HVAC (Heat, Ventilation &


Air conditioning) systems is to provide the people working
inside the building with conditioned air .
"Conditioned" air means that air is clean and odor-free, and
the temperature, humidity, and movement of the air are
within certain comfort ranges

Systems may be clustered at a central location and


serve an entire campus of buildings

Locate system away from acoustically sensitive areas of


the building

Selecting efficient air conditioning based on your


climate.

Selecting the proper type of and efficient heating


system for your climate

Designing and sealing air distribution systems properly.

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

Replace CFC-based refrigerant.


Consider non-refrigerant based cooling such as evaporative
cooling in dryer climates.
Consider photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, wind, biomass,
and bio-gas energy technologies
Sophisticated Electrical Management Systems, Building
Automation Systems or Direct Digital Control systems inherently
include most of the required monitoring points.
Combine carbon dioxide monitors with demand based ventilation.
Include carbon dioxide sensor points in BAS/DDC for system
design automation.
Consider adjustable underfloor air diffusers, or thermostat
controlled VAV boxes.
Operable windows can be used in lieu of comfort controls for
occupants of areas that are 20 feet inside of and 10 feet to either
side of the operable part of the window

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air


Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has established standards
which outline air quality for indoor comfort conditions that
are acceptable to 80% or more of a commercial building's
occupants. Generally, these indoor comfort conditions,
sometimes called the "comfort zone," are between 68 degrees
F and 75 degrees F for winter and 73 degrees F to 79 degrees
F during the summer. Both these temperature ranges are for
room air at approximately 50% relative humidity and moving
at velocity of 30 feet per minute or slower

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

Renewable energy systems


Optimize energy performance

Use of integrated building and system design process


yields a savings of up to 50-60% over conventionally
designed buildings.
Efficiency measures typically payback in 1-3 year time

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

Composite Commercial Building in 2020


Solid state lighting
integrated into hybrid
solar daylighting systems
Smart windows
Photovoltaic roof shingles,
walls, and awnings
Solar heating and
superinsulation
Combined heat and
power-gas turbines and
fuel cells
Intelligent building
systems

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

Green Building

Commercial Buildings

I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
TI
O
N

End uses requiring the greatest energy are lighting, space


heating, space cooling, and office equipment.
Primary Energy Consumption, 2002

High-efficiency
office lighting

Absorption-based
chillers and heat pumps

Source: Table A5. Residential Sector Key Indicators and Consumption, Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy
Outlook 2004

Green Building