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Khushboo Priyambada

Garment manufacturing is an assembly- oriented activity with a great range of raw


materials, product types, production volumes, supply chains, retail markets and associated
technologies.

Companies range from small family business to multinationals.


The clothing industry is labour intensive industry.

Departments in garment manufacturing unit


Merchandising
department

Sampling
department

Fabric store
department

Trims and
accessories store
department

Spreading &
Cutting
department

Sewing
department

Washing
department

Quality
Assurance
department

Finishing &
Packaging
department

Maintenance
Department

Finance and
Accounts
Department

HR/Admin
Department

Buyer- Supplier
Meeting

Production
order placed

Sampling

BOM
generation for
po

Pre production
sample

Fabric washing

Raw material
inspection

Raw material
procurement

Production

Shipment
sample

Finishing

Packing

Shipment

Receipt of the
techpack

BOM draft for


sampling

Pattern making

Raw material
procurement

Raw material
inspection

BOM draft for


production

Getting the fit


sample
approved

Fit sample
making

Getting
approval on
proto sample

Proto sample
development

Approval
sample
development

Order approved
for production

Getting
approvals on
size set samples

Raw material
procurement

R aw material
inspection

Send shipment
samples to the
buyer

Follow up with
the production
department

Order file
transferred to
the production
department

Approval on pre
production
sample

GPT/FPT to
conform to
standards

Follow up with
the production
department till
delivery

Internal & external communication


Sampling

Preparing internal order sheets


Accessories & trims
Preparing purchase orders

Merchandiser

Getting approvals on lab dips and bit looms


Advising and assisting production and quality department
Mediating production and quality departments
Helping documentation
Taking responsibility for inspections
Giving shipping instructions and following shipment

Source: http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/36/3516/merchandising-in-an-apparel-industry1.

Getting clarifications about style details from merchandiser.


Checking patterns workability.
Preparation of different samples and getting the buyers approval.
Informing quality related problems, encountered during preparing samples, to QC.
Minimizing operations and consumption.

Design development

This is the first sample which is made for any style by most of the buyer.
Design development is either done by buyer or factory
The main purpose is to take the decision to proceed with the same line or not.

Proto sample

Proto sample is developed at very initial stage and normally order is confirmed to the factory based
on proto sample .
Proto sample is the rough interpretation of the enquiry done to acquaint the tailors with the style.
It is usually done on the substitute fabrics, and using accessories, what is available and then
checked on the dress form.
The buyer may make the necessary changes pertaining to the fit, the drape, the style details etc.

Fit sample

Fit sample is made and send to conform the fit of the garment on live models or on dummy and
for approval of construction details.
The fabric used for fit sample production is the actual fabric which is going to be used for bulk
production or sample yardage fabric is used.

Photo shoot sample

In order to promote the new style in the market normally buyer asks for photo shoot sample.
Buyer uses this photo for marketing purpose either on catalogue or various media like, print, TV
or websites to see the response of the consumer.

Sales man / Marketing


/Showroom sample

The main purpose of salesman sample is to collect the order from the retailers.
In Sales man sample actual accessory, actual fabric is used or sample yardage need to be used.
This sample also very important stage of sampling as the sales of buyer depends upon this sample
presentation, look, feel of fabric is important.

Source: http://www.textiletoday.com.bd/magazine/609

Size set sample

The main purpose of size set sample is to check the factory's capability to make the
sample in all sizes
1-2 samples (or quantity specified by buyer) of each size need to send to buyer.

GPT sample (Garment


Performance Test)

The main purpose of GPT is to perform the physical and chemical testing on garment to
ensure the performance of the garment.
GPT Sample is sent to 3rd party inspection and results are sent to both factory as well as
buyer.
The tests done on garments are: Shrinkage, Color Fastness, Seam performance etc.

Pre- production sample

PP sample is considered to be a contract between the buyer and the factory.


It has to be made in original fabric and trims
Washing, embroidery and printing should match to actual.
PP Sample is the standard for production and bulk production garments should be
identical to PP sample.
The factory can start the production of bulk garment only after the approval of
preproduction sample.

Wash sample

Wash sample is made and submitted to buyer for assessment of feel and handle of fabric
after washing.

TOP sample (Top of


Production)

The top of production is sent to the buyer as soon initial pieces are come out of sewing
line.
In TOP sample Buyer tries to evaluate the actual manufacturing of the style.
Buyer check whether bulk production is as per submitted sample or not.

Shipment sample

Few buyers may ask for the shipment samples which factory needs to pull form the actual
shipment and sent to buyer.
The main purpose of this sample is to assure buyer about the actual shipment dispatch.

Source: http://www.textiletoday.com.bd/magazine/609

Functions of the fabric store department


Receive the fabric as per BOM
Fabric inspection (four point system)
Conduct fabric test (e.g. Shrinkage, colour fastness etc.)

Issue to the production department as per the requirement

10% random inspection for sampling or lining or net


fabric.
Inspection for production order fabric as per buyers

requirement.
Perform GSM cutting.
Perform shrinkage test.

Check the fabric for the bowing or skewing.


Check fabric roll for the defects.
Allocate points to the defects.

Functions of the trims and accessories department


To receive incoming material.
To check material for attribute & variables.
To arrange the incoming material in allocated racks.

To issue trims as per BOM for sampling and production & other material
as per requirement.
To maintain a record of incoming & outgoing material.

Spreading and cutting flow process

Planning

Spreading

Cutting

Preparation for
sewing

Spreading and cutting flow process


Spreads

Planning

Markers

Production
Manual

Spreading
Machine
Manual

Cutting
Machine

Preparation
for sewing

Ticketing
Bundles

Planning

Spreads

Markers

Production

It translates customer orders into cutting orders


minimize total production costs
meet deadlines

seek most effective use of labor, equipment, fabric and space

Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability


Determining volume, size ratios, and sectioning procedures for marker making
Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed

Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization


Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel
Issuing orders for marker making, spreading and cutting

Cutting orders
leads to

Marker planning

Lay planning

The results of cut order planning are cutting orders that direct marker planning and cut
planning.
The purpose of marker planning is to determine the most efficient combination of sizes and

shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield and equipment utilization.
One cutting order may require several markers to achieve optimum efficiency.
A lay is a stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting.

Lay planning is the basis of managing cutting room labor and table space.
Spreading and cutting schedules are affected by:
table length,
type of equipment,
spread length,
spreading time and
cutting time.

Marker
is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for a specific style and the sizes
to be cut from a single spread.

Marker making
is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specified
style, fabric, and distribution of sizes (requires time, skill and concentration)

Marker making is a critical step in the manufacturing process.


By retaining strict control over this critical step, they keep the fabric consumption as low
as possible.
It also ensures that the issues that affect quality will be given proper attention. These
include placing patterns on grain, keeping patterns paired, and attending to details such
as drill holes and notches.
Depending on the relative efficiency of each marker produced, the company may save
or waste thousands of dollars a year.

Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, Pre-Assembly Processes The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and
Bundling, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005

Markers types:
Blocks or Sections

Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the

pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes.

Continuous

Block or section marker

Continuous markers contain all the pattern

pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting.

Continuous marker

Markers types:
Open marker
Marker made with full pattern pieces.

Closed marker
Marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit).

Closed marker

Marker making

Manually produced

Computerized marker
making (CAD)

Manual marker
Created on marker paper or directly on fabric ply
Tracing by pencil or tailors chalk.
Time consuming.
Subject to errors. (pattern overlap, grain line, poor line definition, omission of pcs.)
Accuracy depends on individuals skill.

Marker making
Computerised marker
Accurate
Shortest response time.
Direct or digitized.

Manipulate images to determine best utilization. No overlapping/no omissions


Parameters (style #,size, etc.) for markers are entered into the computer.
Can be printed/recalled/modified.
Criteria can be set by technician. Can be used to determine fabric requirement.

Marker mode : Nap/ One/ Way


The Nap/ One/ Way marker (abbreviated N/O/W) is
made with every pattern placed with the down
direction of the pattern in the same direction.
This mode is necessary for fabrics that are
asymmetric.
All patterns are placed on-grain, and in the down
direction, which is usually toward the left edge
(starting point where the legend is written).
The Nap/One/ Way marker is the highest quality but

least efficient of the three nap directions for a


marker.

Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, Pre-Assembly Processes The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and
Bundling, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005

Marker mode : Nap/ Either/ Way


The Nap/ Either/ Way marker (abbreviated N/E/W) is
made where there is no restriction of which way the
pattern are oriented.
The patterns may be oriented either down or up,
placed wherever they fit best, only making sure that
the patterns are on-grain.

The Nap/ Either/ Way marker is usually the most


efficient mode yielding the highest fabric utilization.

Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, Pre-Assembly Processes The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and
Bundling, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005

Marker mode : Nap/ Up/& Down


The Nap/ Up/& Down marker (abbreviated
N/U/D) is more efficient than the Nap/ One/ Way
marker, but not as efficient as the Nap/ Either/
Way marker.
In order to get a better fit between the patterns,
alternating sizes of patterns are oriented in

opposite directions.
This method is yields moderately good fabric
utilization, and good quality.

Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, Pre-Assembly Processes The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and
Bundling, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005

Marker Efficiency
Area of patterns in the marker plan X 100%
Total area of the marker plan
It is determined for fabric utilization
Minimum waste

Factors affecting marker efficiency


Fabric characteristics (fabric width, length of design repeat etc.)
Shape of Pattern pieces (large pieces less flexibility)
Grain requirements

Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting


table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process
Spread or lay is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker

Requirement of spreading
Shade sorting of cloth pieces

Spreading equipment
Spreading surfaces ( table, pin

Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability

table, vacuum table)

Alignment of plies

Spreading machines

Correct ply tension

Elimination of fabric faults


Avoidance of distortion in the spread

Spreading equipment
Spreading surfaces ( table, pin table, vacuum table)
Spreading machines

Spreading

Manual

Machine

In manual spreading, fabric is drawn from


its package which, if it is a roll, may be
supported by a frame and carried along the
table where the end is secured by weights
or by clamps.
The operators work back from the end,
aligning the edges and ensuring that there

is no tension and that there are no


wrinkles.

Spreading machines carry the piece of fabric from end to


end of the spread, dispensing one ply at a time on the
spread.
Spreading machines may include:
A motor to drive
A platform on which the operator rides
A ply cutting device with automatic catcher to hold the ends of
ply in place
A ply counter
An alignment shifter actuated by photo electric edge guides
A turntable

A direct drive on the fabric support, synchronized with the


speed of travel, to reduce or eliminate tension in the fabric
being spread.

Nap one way & face


one way spreading
Nap either way &
face to face
spreading

Spreading Mode
Nap one-way face to
face spreading
Nap either way &
face one way
spreading

Spreading Mode: Nap one way & face one way spreading
Most common spreading method that can also be done manually.
Fabric roll is kept on a roller stand and fabric end is being pulled by two spreading operators

(thus unwinding fabric from freely rotating roll) walking along both sides of cutting table.
While using machine, the lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries
the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.
Every layer has to start from same end thus spreading machine has to come back to starting
position without spreading the fabric. This return movement of spreading machine is called
as dead heading

Nap one
way

Face one way

Source: Prabir Jana, Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products, 2005

Spreading Mode: Nap either way & face to face spreading


The quickest spreading method while using spreading machine.
Difficult to achieve manually.

The machine carry the fabric roll while the end is being held in place by catcher, at
layer end fabric is not cut just folded and held by another catcher while the fabric
is being laid by the machine during its return movement also.

Face to
face

Nap either
way

Source: Prabir Jana, Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products, 2005

Spreading Mode: Nap one-way face to face spreading


Most time consuming method of spreading.
The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table

thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.


At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and
return back to starting position without.
Now from the starting end the second layer is being laid face to face.

Face to
face

Nap one
way

Source: Prabir Jana, Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products, 2005

Spreading Mode: Nap either way & face one way spreading
The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table
thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process.

At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and start
spreading the second layer from the opposite end face one way. There is no dead heading
by the machine in this spreading mode.

Face one way

Nap either
way

Source: Prabir Jana, Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products, 2005

Spreading costs

Labour cost

Fabric waste

Splicing loss

End loss

Width loss

Cutting
Cutting
Manual
Scissors

Machine
Portable cutting
knives

Straight
knife
Round
knife

Stationary
cutters
Band
knife
Die
cutting

Servo
cutting
Plasma
cutting
Water jet
cutting
Laser
cutting

Position
markers

Notchers
Drills and
thread
markers

Scissors

Portable cutting knives

Power system

Handle

Sharpening
Cutting blade
Blade guard
Up and down movement
One way thrust as the circular
blade makes contact with the
fabric
Round knife

Base plate

Straight knife

Portable cutting knives


Straight knife

Round knife

Vertical blade

Popular, light and fast.

Reciprocates up and down

Suitable only for cutting in straight lines

Corners and curves can be cut accurately

or very gradual curves, in depths of

Most versatile and commonly used

about 15cm

Blades length - 6 to 14 inches


Spread depth depends on blade length &

adjustable height of the blade guard

Larger blade cuts up to 2" of soft or


bulky material, or lower lays of harder
material such as shirts

All of the pieces cut from a lay are

Small blade cuts single layer

identical

A round blade contacts the spread at


an angle; thus, the top ply is cut before
the bottom ply

Stationary cutters: Band knife


Contains a narrow, sharpened, endless steel band
Fabric layers are guided by hand against the blade
Air cushion is provided below the fabric layers
Plies are stapled together to prevent slippage
Used for precision cutting to a depth of up to 300mm
Corners, tight curves and pointed incisions are cut

precisely
Band knives are more accurate for small blocks or for
shaving small amounts off pre-cut blocks

Stationary cutters: Servo cutting


Overhead servo motor
Adjustable speed
Suspension system that
supports the knife perpendicular
to the cutting table
Knife is mounted on a swivel arm

It combines vertical cutting and


band knife cutting into one
machine

Cutting
Stationary cutters: Die cutting
Dies are pre shaped metal outlines
Most accurate
Die cutting operation involves
Placement of fabric
Positioning the die on the fabric
Engaging the machine to press the die
into the fabric

Used mainly for leather, coated and laminated


materials
Areas where the same patterns are used over

a long period, e.g. collar, pocket flaps

Cutting
Stationary cutters: Plasma cutting
Cutting is achieved by means of a high velocity jet of high temperature ionized gas (argon)
Faster cutter of single plies
High engineering and cost issues
Problems same as for laser cutting
Cutting is achieved by means of a high velocity jet of high temperature ionized gas (argon)
Faster cutter of single plies

High engineering and cost issues

Cutting
Stationary cutters: Water jet cutting
Very high velocity, fine stream of water
High pressure jet acts as a solid tool, tears the fibers on impact
As the jet penetrates successive plies in a spread, the momentum decreases and cutting
ability is reduced frayed edges
Wet edges, water spots, inconsistent cutting quality
Leather, plastic, vinyl

High equipment costs

Cutting
Position markers: Notchers
Notches can be cut by straight knife too but
accuracy is required
Specialized notching equipment provides
greater accuracy because a guide lines up the

notcher with the cut edge


Hot notcher consists of a heating element
(blade) that slightly scorches the fibers adjacent
to the notch (thermoplastic fibers)
Two types of notches:

Straight notch and V-notch

Cutting
Position markers: Drills and thread markers
Drill mount consists of motor, base plate with a hole and spirit
level
Used for reference markers needed away from the edge of a
garment part, e.g. position of pockets, darts, etc.
A hole is drilled through the lay
Normally, drill is used cold, hole remains visible until the sewing
operator comes to use it
Loose weave hot drill is used which slightly scorches or fuse
the edges of the hole
Hypodermic (or dye spot) drill leaves small deposit of paint on each ply of fabric
ALL drill holes must eventually be concealed by the construction of the garment

Preparation
for sewing

Ticketing

Bundles

Preparation for sewing


Ticketing
Tickets carry details : style no, size,

ply no, bundle no., date issued


Operations may be incorporated for
payment purposes, control of work
and facilitating quality control

Preparation for sewing


Bundling
Small batches of garments move from one work station to another in a
controlled way
Tens, dozens, 2 dozens, etc.
If ticketing is not done, a top ply labeling system is done

Bundle ticket consists of :


Order no. 6015
Bundle no. 1430
Quantity 12
Style no. 3145
Size 12
Section collar

Cut parts
received from
the cutting
room

Bulk
production
begins

In line
inspection

Ironing

Rough checking

Button-button
hole/ bartack

End line
checking

Final checking

Measurement
checking

Tagging

Packing

Ex - factory

QA audit by the
buying house

Production
continues

Sewing department

Production system

Seams and stitches

Make through system


Conventional bundle
system
Clump system

Progressive bundle system

Production system

Flexible flow system

Straight line system

Synchro flow system

Unit production system


Modular manufacturing
system

Production system: Make through system


It is the traditional method of manufacture in which an operator makes right through
one garment at a time.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Conventional bundle system


Sewing machines are arranged in lines.
The work flows from the central (store) area to the first
machine, from the first machine back to the store, and
then on to the next machine, and so forth.
A distributor stationed at the store is responsible for
receiving and dispatching the work.

The work in progress is in the form of bundles.


These bundles may be put on to a tray, a box, or a bag,
or the garment parts may be wrapped and tied.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Clump system


A worker collects a clump of materials from the
worktable and carries out the first operation.

After he has completed his part of the work, he


returns it to the table.
A worker for the second operation then continues the
work and so on.
The process is ' collection - work -return' continues
until the whole garment has been assembled.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Progressive bundle system


Sewing operations are laid out in sequence.
Each operator receives a bundle, does his work, reties

the bundle and passes it to the next operator.


There is a storage facility such as rack, bin or table for
storing

the

inter-process

work

between

each

operation.
The work is routed by means of tickets.
This system is the most widely used system in the
garment industry today. It is used in shirt factories,

jeans factories, jacket factories, etc.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Flexible flow system


A section of sewing operators, each with a supply of work
in a rack at the side, work at an engineered work place.
The machines are laid out in such a way that a flow of work

can be planned using the correct number of operators in


sequence.
For style A garments, the work distributed after operation 1
can be distributed to the two operators performing

operation 2. On completion, the work from both workers is


then sent to operator 3. After operation 3, the work is
continued by the two operators performing operation 4
and so on.

When a new style is to be loaded on to the system, the


number of operators needed for each operation must be
planned in detail to ensure a balanced output.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Straight line system


The manufacturing process is broken down into several
operations, which take the same time to complete.

Groups of operators are required to handle only


individual garments.
The garment parts pass from one operator to the next,
until the garment has been completely made up by one
group of operators.
The central distribution unit may be a fixed table or a a
conveyor belt (its speed will be set to suit the cycle

time).

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Synchro flow system


Garment parts of the same size and color are
processed separately.
Different

garment

parts

can

be

processed

simultaneously for assembling.


At the same time, collars, sleeves, cuffs, pockets, etc.,
from other lines also go down a central line.
The different garment parts are then processed
together to form completed garments.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Unit production system


A unit production system (UPS) is a computer-controlled production line.
It is a type of line layout that uses an overhead transport system to move individual

units from work-station to work station for assembly.


All the parts for a single garment are advanced through the production line together by
means of a hanging carrier that travels along an overhead conveyor.
Production operations are completed without removing the parts from the carrier.
Automated materials handling replaces the traditional system of bundling, tying and
untying, and manually moving garment parts.
Electronic data can be collected from workstations, which provides payroll and inventory
data, immediate tracking of styles, and costing and performance data for prompt
decision.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Production system: Modular manufacturing


system
Modular manufacturing groups operators into teams,

or modules.
The team works on one/a few garment at a time
instead of a bundle of garments.
The operators stand /sit at their stations and rotate to
different machines as they work, becoming familiar
with multiple steps in producing the garment.

Source: ApparelKey.com

Seams and stitches

Thread-guides
Thumb-nut screw

Stitch
regulator

Take-up lever
Tension discs/checkspring
Needle bar
Needle

Reversing lever

Throat plate

Needle guard
Presser foot

Machine bed

Needle Bar

Needle

Throat plate

Needle Eye
Presser Foot

Feed Dog

Stitch forming devices


Stitch

Device used

Lock stitch

Bobbin hook

Chain stitch

Looper

Over lock

Looper and spreader

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

The bobbin of a lock stitch machine

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Machine beds

Raised bed

Flat bed

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Machine beds

Cylinder bed

Feed of arm

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Machine beds

Post bed

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Garments are shaped and formed in three ways:


materials molded to a form,
fabric pieces cut to shape and assembled by bonding, and

pieces cut to shape and sewn.

For the purpose of standardization of stitch and seam formations, the U.S government
developed a guide that defines stitches and seams in current use. The United States Federal
Stitch and Seam Specifications (Federal Standard 751a) were adopted in 1965.
The British Standard BS 3870: Schedule of Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings was also
developed about the same time.

The Federal Standard 751a have been replaced by ASTM D 6193, Standards Related to
Stitches and Seams.

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

ASTM D 6193 gives the following definitions:


A stitch is the configuration of the interlacing of sewing thread in a specific repeated unit.
A seam is a line where two or more fabrics are joined.

A stitching consists of a series of stitches embodied in a material for ornamental purposes or


finishing an edge or both.

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Seams
The basic function of a seam is to hold pieces of fabric together.
To perform its function correctly, the seam should have properties or characteristics closely
allied to those of the fabrics being sewn.

The careful selection of the most appropriate seam, a suitable stitch type together with the
correct thread and machine settings for the fabric and end-product is of paramount
importance.

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Physical properties of seam


Strength: a seam must be strong. Strength is usually measured in two directions: across the
seam (lateral or transverse strength) and along the seam (longitudinal strength).
Extensibility

Durability: A seam must be durable, long-lasting and not abrade or wear easily during
everyday use of the garment
Security: a seam needs to be secure and not unravel during everyday use of the garment
Appearance properties: the ideal seam should join pieces of fabric in an unobtrusive and
efficient manner with no discontinuity in physical properties or appearance.
Balance

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Classification of seams
Superimposed seam
Lap seam
Bound seam
Flat seam

Superimposed seam

Edge finishing
Bound seam

Lap seam

Edge finishing
Flat seam

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Stitches
Stitch properties
Stitch size has three dimensions: length, width, and depth.
Stitch length is specified as the number of stitches per inch (spi) and can be an indicator
of quality. High spi means short stitches; low spi means long stitches. Generally, the
greater the spi, the more the holding power and seam strength.
Stitch width refers to the horizontal span (bight) covered in the formation of one stitch or

single line of stitching. Stitches that have width dimensions require multiple needles or
lateral movement of thread carriers such as the needle bars, loopers or spreaders.
Stitch depth is the distance between the upper and lower surface of the stitch. It is a
factor for blind stitches.

Stitch classification
Stitch classification is based on structure of the stitch and method of interlacing.

Source: Glock & Kunz (Third edition)

Stitch classification
100 Class stitch: Single thread chain stitch
Using one needle thread and one blind looper
Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

101 Class

One thread

Basting, or light construction

103 Class

One thread

Blind stitch for hemming

104 Class

One thread

Blind stitch for hemming

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/100cl.htm

Stitch classification
200 Class stitch: Single thread hand sewn stitch
Using one needle thread

Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

202 Class

One Thread

Basting, tacking or repairs

205 Class

One Thread

Pick stitch - topstitching

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/200cl.htm

Stitch classification
300 Class stitch: Two or more thread lock stitch
Using Needle Thread(s) and One Bobbin Hook Thread
Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

301 Class

Two threads

Seaming multiple plies

304 Class

Two thread

Zig-zag stitch; a stretch lockstitch

306 Class

Two thread

Blind stitch

315 Class

Two threads

Three step zig-zag

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/300cl.htm

Stitch classification
400 Class stitch: Multi-thread chain stitch
Using one or more needle threads and one or more looper threads
Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

401 Class

Two threads

Seaming multiple
plies with moderate
stretch

404 Class

Two threads

Topstitching or
seaming with stretch

Three threads

"Bottom cover stitch;


a (greater) stretch
chain stitch

406 Class

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/400cl.htm

Stitch classification
500 Class Stitch: Multi-thread over edge chain stitch
Using needle thread(s) and looper thread(s)
Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

501 Class

One thread

One needle over edge stitch for


serging / blanket stitch"

502 Class

Two thread

One needle over edge stitch for


serging

503 Class

Two thread

Over edge stitch for serging with


crossover on edge of fabric

504 Class

Three thread

Over edge stitch for serging and


light seaming

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/500cl.htm

Stitch classification
500 Class Stitch: Multi-thread over edge chain stitch
Using needle thread(s) and looper thread(s)
Diagram

Stitch class Thread count

Typical uses

512 Class

Four Thread

Mock safety stitch for seaming with


wide bite and greater stretch for knits

514 Class

Four Thread

Over edge stitch for seaming with wide


bite and greater stretch for knits

515 Class

Four Thread

True safety stitch for seaming with


good stretch for wovens and knits

516 Class

Five Thread

True safety stitch for seaming with


good stretch for wovens and knits

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/500cl.htm

Stitch classification
600 Class Stitch: Multi-thread cover stitches
Diagram

Stitch class

Thread count

Typical uses

602 Class

Four thread

Cover stitch or
seaming knits

605 Class

Five thread

Cover stitch

607 Class

Six thread

Wide cover stitch

Source: http://www.garmento.org/751Astitchesandseams/600cl.htm

Responsibilities of quality department


To impart quality in the product.
To ensure that the product has achieved the quality parameters of buyers.
To restrict the defects entering into the final product.
Main function of quality department is to carry out inspection.
Inspection can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials, partially
finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to

some standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as measuring the garments to


check if they meet the required measurements.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Principle of inspection (inspection loop)

Inspection

Correction of
defects

Determination
of causes of
defects

Detection of
defects

Feedback of
these defects
to appropriate
personnel

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

How much to inspect ?


No inspection
100% inspection
Spot checking- inspecting random shipments
Arbitrary sampling-10% sampling
Statistical sampling or acceptance sampling-flexibility with regard to the amount of
inspection to be performed

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Inspection terms
Sample: A sample consists of one or more units of a product drawn from a lot or batch, the
units of the sample being selected at random without regards to their quality. The number
of units of a product in the sample is the sample size.

Lot or batch: Means Inspection lot or Inspection Batch, that is a collection of units of a
product from which a sample is to be drawn and inspected.
Lot or batch size: The lot or batch size is the number of units of a product in a lot or batch

Percent defective =

Number of defectives

100

Number of units inspected

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Identification of defects
Major Defect: A defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item
to be second.
Minor Defect: A defect that would not cause the product to be termed as a second either

because of severity or location.


Second: A Second is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the saleability or
serviceability of the item.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Spreading defects
Possible Pattern Defects:

Pattern parts missing

Skimpy marking

Mixed parts

Generous marking

Patterns not facing in the correct direction

Marker too wide

on napped fabrics

Not

Patterns not all facing in the same

knife

clearance

freedom

direction on a one-way fabric

Mismatched checks and stripes

Patterns not aligned with respect to the

Notches and drill marks omitted,

fabric grain

enough

indistinct, or misplaced

Line definition poor

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Cutting defects
Frayed edges
Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges
Ply-to-ply fusion
Single-edge fusion
Pattern precision- Under-cut, Over-cut
Notches

Drills

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Sewing defects
Needle Damage

Pleated seams

Feed Damage

Wrong stitch density

Skipped stitches

Uneven stitch density

Thread breaks

Staggered stitch

Broken stitches

Improperly formed stitches

Seam grin

Oil spots or stains

Seam pucker

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Seaming defects
Incorrect or uneven width of inlay
Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line
Insecure back stitching

Twisted seam
Mismatched checks or stripes
Mismatched seam
Extraneous part caught in a seam, an unrelated piece showing through the seam
Reversed garment part
Blind stitching showing on the face side
Wrong seam or stitch type used
Wrong shade of thread used

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Assembly defects
Finished components nor correct to size or shape or not symmetrical.
Finished garment not to size
Parts, components, closures or features omitted
Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned
Interlining incorrectly positioned
Lining too full, too tight, showing below the bottom of the garment, twisted,

Garment parts cockling, pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness


Garment parts shaded
Parts in one-way fabrics in wrong direction

Mismatched trimming

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Checks for final inspection


Open seams

Snaps, fasteners, buttons

Skipped stitches

Labels

Cracked stitches

Elastic

Stitches/inch

Measurements

Uneven seams

Mends or repairs

Crooked, puckered, curled, pleated seams

Stripe

Needle and feed cuts

Hems

Unclipped threads and Long ends

Trim

Raw edge

Broken needle
Distortion

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

AQL: Accepted quality level


The AQL is the maximum percent defective that, for the purpose of sampling inspection
can be considered satisfactory as a process average.
The AQL is a designated value of percent defective that the customer indicates will be

accepted most of the time by the acceptance sampling procedures to be used.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

AQL: Accepted quality level


Sample size code letters
Lot or Batch Size

Sample size code letter

to

to

15

16

to

25

26

to

50

51

to

90

91

to

150

151

to

280

281

to

500

501

to

1200

1201

to

3200

3201

to

10000

10001

to

35000

AQL: Accepted quality level


Sampling Plans
Sample Size Code
Letter

Sample
Size

Acceptable Quality Level


2.5

6.5

Ac

Re

Ac

Re

Ac

10

Re

Ac

Re

13

20

32

50

10

11

80

10

11

14

15

125

10

11

14

15

21

22

200

10

11

14

15

21

22

21

22

315

14

15

21

22

21

22

21

22

Finishing is the last stage of garment production where garment gets its final look.
In this department each garment undergoes different finishing processes.
It undergoes for quality check for several number of time which sets the garment free
from defects.
Buyer specifications and instructions are strictly maintained.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Operations performed at finishing stage


Thread cutting: Uncut threads affect the presentation of finished and packed garments.
Therefore, it is necessary to cut and trim the loose and uncut threads.
Stain removal: Removal of the following type of stains:
Oil, yellow, black and paint spots, stains due to color bleeding, ink, rust, tracing
marks, yellow stains, and hard stains
Seam ironing: Ironing of garments using steam ironing tables with vacuum boards.
Final finishing: The entire garment is finished using various finishing equipments.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Operations performed at finishing stage


Tagging and packing: The pass pieces are brought to the tagging and packing section. It
is the responsibility of the packing supervisors to provide the tagging operators with
the appropriate price and brand tags. He also instructs the tagging operator as to
where and how the tag has to be placed. The most important thing to be kept in mind
while placing the tag is to match the size mentioned on the main label and the size on
tag. The step after the tagging is to pack the garments as per the specification of the

buyer.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Operations performed at finishing stage


Presentation checking and cartoon packing
It is very important to check the packed garments for presentation. Checkers check the
packed garments for the following things:
Poly bags are as per specification.
Tags and price stickers are as per specification.
Packing is secured or not if specified.
Poly bags should not be soiled and torn.
Hangers are there or not if specified.
Garment has been folded as per specification etc.

Source: P. B. Mehta and S. K. Bhardwaj, Managing quality in apparel products

Operations performed at finishing stage


Presentation checking and cartoon packing
Once, checking is done they send the garments for the carton packing. The following things

are kept in mind during carton packing:


Number of garments to be packed in one carton.
Ratio asked for example S:M:L=2:1:1
Packing the garments in the cartons as per specified.
Closing the cartons with cello tape.
Sealing the cartons with plastic cord.
Writing on carton information like: Store or buyer name, buyer's address, ratio, net

weight of the carton etc.

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